DNA repair (DNA Repair )

Publisher: Elsevier

Description

  • Impact factor
    4.20
  • 5-year impact
    0.00
  • Cited half-life
    3.70
  • Immediacy index
    0.82
  • Eigenfactor
    0.04
  • Article influence
    2.31
  • ISSN
    1568-7856

Publisher details

Elsevier

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    • Articles in some journals can be made Open Access on payment of additional charge
    • NIH Authors articles will be submitted to PMC after 12 months
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    • Pre-print can not be deposited for The Lancet
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Unrepaired DNA lesions often stall replicative DNA polymerases and are bypassed by translesion synthesis (TLS) to prevent replication fork collapse. Mechanisms of TLS are lesion- and species-specific, with a prominent role of specialized DNA polymerases with relaxed active sites. After nucleotide(s) are incorporated across from the altered base(s), the aberrant primer termini are typically extended by DNA polymerase ζ (pol ζ). As a result, pol ζ is responsible for most DNA damage-induced mutations. The mechanisms of sequential DNA polymerase switches in vivo remain unclear. The major replicative DNA polymerase δ (pol δ) shares two accessory subunits, called Pol31/Pol32 in yeast, with pol ζ. Inclusion of Pol31/Pol32 in the pol δ/pol ζ holoenzymes requires a [4Fe-4S] cluster in C-termini of the catalytic subunits. Disruption of this cluster in Pol ζ or deletion of POL32 attenuates induced mutagenesis. Here we describe a novel mutation affecting the catalytic subunit of pol ζ, rev3ΔC, which provides insight into the regulation of pol switches. Strains with Rev3ΔC, lacking the entire C-terminal domain and therefore the platform for Pol31/Pol32 binding, are partially proficient in Pol32-dependent UV-induced mutagenesis. This suggests an additional role of Pol32 in TLS, beyond being a pol ζ subunit, related to pol δ. In search for members of this regulatory pathway, we examined the effects of Maintenance of Genome Stability 1 (Mgs1) protein on mutagenesis in the absence of Rev3-Pol31/Pol32 interaction. Mgs1 may compete with Pol32 for binding to PCNA. Mgs1 overproduction suppresses induced mutagenesis, but had no effect on UV-mutagenesis in the rev3ΔC strain, suggesting that Mgs1 exerts its inhibitory effect by acting specifically on Pol32 bound to pol ζ. The evidence for differential regulation of Pol32 in pol δ and pol ζ emphasizes the complexity of polymerase switches.
    DNA repair 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: A powerful new approach has become much more widespread and offers insights into aspects of DNA repair unattainable with billions of molecules. Single molecule techniques can be used to image, manipulate or characterize the action of a single repair protein on a single strand of DNA. This allows search mechanisms to be probed, and the effects of force to be understood. These physical aspects can dominate a biochemical reaction, where at the ensemble level their nuances are obscured. In this paper we discuss some of the many technical advances that permit study at the single molecule level. We focus on DNA repair to which these techniques are actively being applied. DNA repair is also a process that encompasses so much of what single molecule studies benefit - searching for targets, complex formation, sequential biochemical reactions and substrate hand-off to name just a few. We discuss how single molecule biophysics is poised to transform our understanding of biological systems, in particular DNA repair.
    DNA repair 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Acetylation of α-tubulin on lysine 40 is one of the major posttranslational modifications of microtubules. The acetylation reaction is catalyzed by alpha-tubulin N-acetyltransferase and the modification can be reversed by either the NAD-independent class II histone deacetylase HDAC6 or the NAD-dependent deacetylase SIRT2. In this study, we assessed to what extent cellular NAD levels are involved in the regulation of the α-tubulin acetylation state. Cells were subjected to different treatments known to influence cellular NAD content. In response to NAD depletion caused by inhibition of NAD synthesis from nicotinamide, α-tubulin was hyperacetylated. Under these conditions, the normal tubulin acetylation state could be restored by providing the cells with alternative NAD precursors. Likewise, decreasing the rate of endogenous NAD consumption using an inhibitor of poly-ADP-ribosylation also stabilized the acetylation of α-tubulin. Conversely, the level of acetylated α-tubulin decreased when NAD synthesis was enhanced by overexpression of an NAD biosynthetic enzyme. Combined, these results show that the tubulin acetylation status is reciprocally regulated by cellular NAD levels. Furthermore, we provide evidence confirming that the NAD-dependent regulation of tubulin acetylation is mediated by SIRT2.
    DNA repair 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The MutS2 homologues have been found widespread in most prokaryotes, which are involved in DNA repair and reactive oxygen species detoxification. The C-terminal small mutS-related (Smr) domain is critical for its endonucleolytic activity. However, the detailed catalytic mechanism is still unclear. In this study, we first investigated the in vivo role of drMutS2 in Deinococcus radiodurans, the most radiation-resistant organism exhibits the remarkable DNA repair capacity. mutS2 and recA mutS2 double knockout mutants were constructed because the phenotype was strongly masked by the predominant homologous recombination DNA repair pathway in this bacterium. Compared with the recA mutant, cells devoid of both genes showed increased sensitivity to ionizing radiation and oxidative agents, suggesting that drMutS2 is involved in RecA-independent mechanisms that enhance cellular resistance to oxidative stress-induced DNA damage. Moreover, the basal level of reductase activity and thiamine biosynthesis was induced in the absence of mutS2. To characterize its catalytic residues, the Smr domain was crystallized and soaked in buffer containing manganese ions. In contrast to native crystals, the space group of manganese-derivative crystals transformed from monoclinic to orthorhombic unexpectedly. This type of crystals showed improved diffraction resolution to 1.2Å, which has the highest resolution of currently known Smr structures. Structural comparison revealed that three acidic amino-acid residues, which are all located in the α1 helix, changed the rotamer states after metal soaking. Mutational analysis of conserved residue glutamic acid 710 to alanine yielded a drMutS2 variant with impaired nuclease activity, and could only partially rescue the radiosensitive phenotype of the mutS2 null strain, indicating that glutamic acid 710 is the catalytic residue.
    DNA repair 05/2014;
  • DNA repair 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Human skin is exposed to daily environmental insults, particularly solar radiation, that triggers a range of molecular responses. These perturbations to the normal homeostatic state can lead to cellular dysfunction and, ultimately, impacts tissue integrity and accelerates skin aging (photoaging). One of the responses is increased oxidative stress which has been shown to disrupt cellular bioenergetics. This can be detected by depletion of the nucleotide energy metabolites NAD+ and ATP as both an acute transient decrease and, over time, a more permanent chronic reduction due in part to cumulative damage of mitochondria. NAD+ and its primary precursor nicotinamide have been known for some time to impact skin homeostasis based on linkages to dietary requirements, treatment of various inflammatory conditions, photoaging, and prevention of cancer. Cellular NAD+ pools are known to be lower in aged skin and treatment with nicotinamide is hypothesized to restore these levels, thereby mitigating cellular bioenergetics dysfunction. In dermal fibroblasts, nicotinamide is able to protect against oxidative stress to glycolysis, oxidative phosphorylation as well as increase mitochondrial efficiency via sirtuin-dependent selective mitophagy. Recent research has found that NAD+ cellular pools are more dynamic than previously thought, oscillating in tandem with free nicotinamide, and serves as a regulatory point and feedback loop in cellular metabolism regulation, maintenance of mitochondrial efficiency, and circadian rhythmicity. Since UV-induced oxidative stress in skin can disrupt these processes, continued molecular understanding of the role of NAD+ and nicotinamide in skin biology is important to identify interventions that would help maintain its normal homeostatic functions and efficient cellular bioenergetics.
    DNA repair 04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Anti-cancer topoisomerase I (Top1) inhibitors (camptothecin and its derivatives irinotecan and topotecan, and indenoisoquinolines) induce lethal DNA lesions by stabilizing Top1-DNA cleavage complex (Top1cc). These lesions are repaired by parallel repair pathways including the tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 1 (TDP1)-related pathway and homologous recombination. As TDP1-deficient cells in vertebrates are hypersensitive to Top1 inhibitors, small molecules inhibiting TDP1 should augment the cytotoxicity of Top1 inhibitors. We developed a cell-based high-throughput screening assay for the discovery of inhibitors for human TDP1 using a TDP1-deficient chicken DT40 cell line (TDP1-/-) complemented with human TDP1 (hTDP1). Any compounds showing a synergistic effect with the Top1 inhibitor camptothecin (CPT) in hTDP1 cells should either be a TDP1-related pathway inhibitor or an inhibitor of alternate repair pathways for Top1cc. We screened the 400,000-compound Small Molecule Library Repository (SMLR, NIH Molecular Libraries) against hTDP1 cells in the absence or presence of CPT. After confirmation in a secondary screen using both hTDP1 and TDP1-/- cells in the absence or presence of CPT, five compounds were confirmed as potential TDP1 pathway inhibitors. All five compounds showed synergistic effect with CPT in hTDP1 cells, but not in TDP1-/- cells, indicating that the compounds inhibited a TDP1-related repair pathway. Yet, in vitro gel-based assay revealed that the five compounds did not inhibit TDP1 catalytic activity directly. We tested the compounds for their ability to inhibit poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (PARP) because PARP inhibitors are known to potentiate the cytotoxicity of CPT by inhibiting the recruitment of TDP1 to Top1cc. Accordingly, we found that the five compounds inhibit catalytic activity of PARP by ELISA and Western blotting. We identified the most potent compound (Cpd1) that offers characteristic close to veliparib, a leading clinical PARP inhibitor. Cpd1 may represent a new scaffold for the development of PARP inhibitors.
    DNA repair 04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: While primordial life is thought to have been RNA-based (Cech, Cold Spring Harbor Perspect. Biol. 4 (2012) a006742), all living organisms store genetic information in DNA, which is chemically more stable. Distinctions between the RNA and DNA worlds and our views of "DNA" synthesis continue to evolve as new details emerge on the incorporation, repair and biological effects of ribonucleotides in DNA genomes of organisms from bacteria through humans.
    DNA repair 04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The emergence of high density technologies monitoring the genome, transcriptome and proteome in relation to genotoxic stress have tremendously enhanced our knowledge on global responses and dynamics in the DNA damage response, including its relation with cancer and aging. Moreover, '-omics' technologies identified many novel factors, their post-translational modifications, pathways and global responses in the cellular response to DNA damage. Based on omics, it is currently estimated that thousands of gene(product)s participate in the DNA damage response, recognizing complex networks that determine cell fate after damage to the most precious cellular molecule, DNA. The development of next generation sequencing technology and associated specialized protocols can quantitatively monitor RNA and DNA at unprecedented single nucleotide resolution. In this review we will discuss the contribution of omics technologies and in particular next generation sequencing to our understanding of the DNA damage response and the future prospective of next generation sequencing, its single cell application and omics dataset integration in unraveling intricate DNA damage signaling networks.
    DNA repair 04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The first eukaryotic NER factor that recognizes NER substrates is the heterodimeric XPC-RAD23B protein. The currently accepted hypothesis is that this protein recognizes the distortions/destabilization caused by DNA lesions rather than the lesions themselves. The resulting XPC-RAD23B-DNA complexes serve as scaffolds for the recruitment of subsequent NER factors that lead to the excision of the oligonucleotide sequences containing the lesions. Based on several well-known examples of DNA lesions like the UV radiation-induced CPD and 6-4 photodimers, as well as cisplatin-derived intrastrand cross-linked lesions, it is generally believed that the differences in excision activities in human cell extracts is correlated with the binding affinities of XPC-RAD23B to these DNA lesions. However, using electrophoretic mobility shift assays, we have found that XPC-RAD23B binding affinities of certain bulky lesions derived from metabolically activated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds such as benzo[a]pyrene and dibenzo[a,l]pyrene, are not directly, or necessarily correlated with NER excision activities observed in cell-free extracts. These findings point to features of XPC-RAD23B-bulky DNA adduct complexes that may involve the formation of NER-productive or unproductive forms of binding that depend on the structural and stereochemical properties of the DNA adducts studied. The pronounced differences in NER cleavage efficiencies observed in cell-free extracts may be due to differences in the successful recruitment of subsequent NER factors by the XPC-RAD23B-DNA adduct complexes, and/or in the verification step. These phenomena appear to depend on the structural and conformational properties of the class of bulky DNA adducts studied.
    DNA repair 04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Human mitochondria harbor an essential, high copy number, 16,569 base pair, circular DNA genome that encodes 13 gene products required for electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation. Mutation of this genome can compromise cellular respiration, ultimately resulting in a variety of progressive metabolic diseases collectively known as 'mitochondrial diseases'. Mutagenesis of mtDNA and the persistence of mtDNA mutations in cells and tissues is a complex topic, involving the interplay of DNA replication, DNA damage and repair, purifying selection, organelle dynamics, mitophagy, and aging. We briefly review these general elements that affect maintenance of mtDNA, and we focus on nuclear genes encoding the mtDNA replication machinery that can perturb the genetic integrity of the mitochondrial genome.
    DNA repair 04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Why does a constant barrage of DNA damage lead to disease in some individuals, while others remain healthy? This article surveys current work addressing the implications of inter-individual variation in DNA repair capacity for human health, and discusses the status of DNA repair assays as potential clinical tools for personalized prevention or treatment of disease. In particular, we highlight research showing that there are significant inter-individual variations in DNA repair capacity (DRC), and that measuring these differences provides important biological insight regarding disease susceptibility and cancer treatment efficacy. We emphasize work showing that it is important to measure repair capacity in multiple pathways, and that functional assays are required to fill a gap left by genome wide association studies, global gene expression and proteomics. Finally, we discuss research that will be needed to overcome barriers that currently limit the use of DNA repair assays in the clinic.
    DNA repair 04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: This perspective reviews the many dimensions of base excision repair from a 10,000 foot vantage point and provides one person's view on where the field is headed. Enzyme function is considered under the lens of X-ray diffraction and single molecule studies. Base excision repair in chromatin and telomeres, regulation of expression and the role of posttranslational modifications are also discussed in the context of enzyme activities, cellular localization and interacting partners. The specialized roles that base excision repair play in transcriptional activation by active demethylation and targeted oxidation as well as how base excision repair functions in the immune processes of somatic hypermutation and class switch recombination and its possible involvement in retroviral infection are also discussed. Finally the complexities of oxidative damage and its repair and its link to neurodegenerative disorders, as well as the role of base excision repair as a tumor suppressor are examined in the context of damage, repair and aging. By outlining the many base excision repair-related mysteries that have yet to be unraveled, hopefully this perspective will stimulate further interest in the field.
    DNA repair 04/2014;

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