Journal of Polymers and the Environment (J POLYM ENVIRON)

Journal description

The Journal of Polymers and the Environment fills the need for an international forum in this diverse and rapidly expanding field. The journal serves a crucial role for the publication of information from a wide range of disciplines and is a central outlet for the publication of high-quality peer-reviewed original papers review articles and short communications. The journal is intentionally interdisciplinary in regard to contributions and covers the following subjects - polymers environmentally degradable polymers and degradation pathways: biological photochemical oxidative and hydrolytic; new environmental materials: derived by chemical and biosynthetic routes; environmental blends and composites; developments in processing and reactive processing of environmental polymers; characterization of environmental materials: mechanical physical thermal rheological morphological and others; recyclable polymers and plastics recycling environmental testing: in-laboratory simulations outdoor exposures and standardization of methodologies; environmental fate: end products and intermediates of biodegradation; microbiology and enzymology of polymer biodegradation; solid-waste management and public legislation specific to environmental polymers; and other related topics.

Current impact factor: 1.63

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2015
2013 / 2014 Impact Factor 1.628
2012 Impact Factor 1.495
2011 Impact Factor 1.349
2010 Impact Factor 1.507
2009 Impact Factor 1.571
2008 Impact Factor 1.129
2007 Impact Factor 1.099
2006 Impact Factor 1.243
2005 Impact Factor 1.278
2004 Impact Factor 1.591
2003 Impact Factor 0.452
2002 Impact Factor 0.196
2001 Impact Factor 0.158

Impact factor over time

Impact factor
Year

Additional details

5-year impact 2.09
Cited half-life 6.50
Immediacy index 0.09
Eigenfactor 0.00
Article influence 0.44
Website Journal of Polymers and the Environment website
Other titles Journal of polymers and the environment (Online)
ISSN 1566-2543
OCLC 45848804
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To improve the interfacial interaction between poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and bamboo particles (BP), sodium hydroxide solution was employed to pretreat BP, and then maleic anhydride (MAH) was used to compatibilize PLA/BP biocomposites. The biocomposites were prepared through melt blending and hot-pressing. Effects of MAH concentration on the properties of BP and PLA/BP biocomposites were investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, mechanical measurements, differential scanning calorimetric, melt flow rate (MFR) analysis and scanning electron microscope. Results showed that interfacial interaction between PLA and BP in the biocomposites was improved with MAH compatibilizer. Tensile strength and elongation at break of PLA/BP biocomposites, reached maximal values of 47.6 MPa and 6.22 %, respectively, when treated with 1.0 % MAH. Maximal flexural strength of 72.61 MPa and flexural modulus of 4.65 GPa were obtained with 0.5 % MAH treatment, and thermal properties were also improved at this concentration. MFR of the blends was enhanced with MAH compatibilization.
    Journal of Polymers and the Environment 01/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10924-015-0715-x
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    ABSTRACT: Recent research attention is shifting towards the use of bioactive antimicrobial and/or antioxidant packaging materials and their fabrication with non-toxic techniques. The process of melt electrospinning produce fibers from polymer melt without any solution hence environmentally friendly because use of toxic solvents can be avoided. The objectives of this study were fabrication of biodegradable polymeric microfibrous structure using melt electrospinning and characterization of the effect of plant based natural extract on fabricated structure. We found that incorporation of this structure with natural extract provide sufficient support for bioactive compounds without changing thermal stability, physical properties and amorphous phase and also increase the antimicrobial efficacy. Moreover, homogeneously dispersion and good interaction of polymer and natural plant based extract demonstrating the potential of such polymer blend as a bioactive antimicrobial material for packaging industry including especially food and healthcare.
    Journal of Polymers and the Environment 01/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10924-015-0713-z
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, we evaluated the feasibility of producing bioplastics from blue maize (BM) and white sorghum (WS) flours by thermoplasticization using sorbitol and glycerol as plasticizers and by using extrusion and compression molding. The analyzed variables were screw speed rotation (50–70 rpm), extrusion temperature (100–140 °C), number of extrusion passes (1 or 2), and chemical modification of the flours with maleic anhydride. Mechanical characterization revealed a major effect of the extrusion temperature among the processing variables studied, and the microstructure and slab color varied significantly with temperature. Chemical modification also had a major effect on the properties of the produced materials. Slabs made with chemically modified flours showed increases in their mechanical properties compared to their native counterparts. Consistently, scanning electronic microscopy revealed a more uniform microstructure in slabs made with chemically modified flours, and dynamic mechanical analysis indicated a better matrix-plasticizer interaction in these slabs when compared to slabs made with native flours. The BM and WS flours were determined to be suitable raw materials for producing thermoplastic materials.
    Journal of Polymers and the Environment 01/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10924-014-0708-1
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    ABSTRACT: The impact on polymer properties [molecular weight, monomer conversion, graft content, graft efficiency and anhydroglucose units between grafts (AGU/graft)] that result from changing the solvent for the graft co-polymerization of acrylamide onto starch from water to dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) was evaluated. Other reaction conditions were varied to determine their impact on properties, including solution solids (2.8-10.5 %), acrylamide (0.18-0.89 M), initiator (0.91-3.78 mM), and temperature (40-90 °C). Changing the solvent from water to DMSO had a large impact on the properties of the starch graft co-polymer at all reaction conditions. The most important difference was observed in the architecture of the resulting starch graft co-polymer. The number average molecular weight (Mn) of the polyacrylamide grafts as well as the number of AGU/graft was much lower when the reaction was performed in DMSO; the polymer was more comb-like. When conducted in water the Mn of the polyacrylamide grafts could be as high as 450,000 with over 6,500 AGU/graft. When DMSO was the solvent the Mn could be as low as 7,500 with 200 AGU/graft. The ability to control and generate starch graft co-polymers with dramatically different architecture may allow starch to be tuned to deliver improved properties for current or new applications.
    Journal of Polymers and the Environment 01/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10924-015-0714-y
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    ABSTRACT: The soil degradation of fully biobased agricultural mulches prepared from polylactic acid (PLA) and blends of PLA and poly3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate (polyhydroxyalkanoate, or PHA) using nonwoven textile technology was compared to that of a commercial biodegradable mulch film, BioTelo (Dubois Agrinovation, Waterford, Canada). The addition of PHA to PLA to the feedstock blend produced nonwovens that possessed lower tensile strength and molecular weight and increased the average fiber diameter of mulches. A meltblown (MB) nonwoven mulch prepared from a PLA-PHA 72/28 w/w blend underwent the greatest degradation, achieving a 78 % loss of tensile strength and a 25.9 % decrease of weight-averaged molecular weight during 10 and 30 week of soil burial, respectively. The mass fraction of PHA decreased during soil burial, suggesting the preferential microbial assimilation of PHA over PLA. BioTelo underwent a 29 % loss of tensile strength but no appreciable change of molecular weight for its chloroform-soluble components. In contrast, spunbond (SB) PLA mulches did not undergo any appreciable degradation during the 30 week soil burial studies. The results suggest that the MB-PLA + PHA nonwoven may serve as a potentially valuable biodegradable agricultural mulch, and that SB-PLA may be useful as a compostable material for long-term agricultural applications, such as row covers and landscape fabrics. A soil degradation study of MB-PLA + PHA that directly compared untreated compost-enriched soil to sterilized soil-compost mixture demonstrated that the loss of tensile strength occurred only in the unsterilized soil, suggesting this event is directly associated with soil microorganisms.
    Journal of Polymers and the Environment 01/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10924-015-0716-9
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    ABSTRACT: Chemical treatments are widely employed to improve the fiber-matrix adhesion in composites based on eco-friendly fibers such as flax. To better understand the influence of these treatments on processing behavior, this study characterized the surface chemistry and morphology of woven flax fabrics treated by acetone, alkaline, silane and diluted epoxy. Flax/epoxy composites were then manufactured by resin infusion and the flow front and preform thickness evolution was monitored. The alkaline treatment was shown to result in a 50 % increase in equivalent permeability due to an increase in porosity which led to a decrease in flexural properties. The processing results were found to be in good agreement with predictions of a 1-dimensional model. This study suggests that infusion times are not considerably affected by the observed changes in surface energy. However, other implications of the treatments such as an increase in fibrillation can alter the infusion times significantly.
    Journal of Polymers and the Environment 01/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10924-015-0709-8
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    ABSTRACT: Bio-based degradable plastic is superior to petroleum-based plastic in terms of environmental protection and preservation of resources. A novel cross-linking system using tributyl citrate (TBC) as a cross-linking agent was used to create a bio-based degradable plastic via acetylation modified starch acetate (SA) and cellulose acetate (CA). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of the new plastic films revealed that a cross-Claisen ester condensation reaction had indeed occurred among TBC, CA and SA in the cross-linking system. Thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction, Scanning electron microscopy and mechanical properties tests confirmed that the fabricated films had mechanical properties and thermal stability that were comparable to conventional plastic films. A degradation-in-soil test showed that the fabricated films have controllable biodegradation properties by adjusting the amount of SA added. The tensile stress of two films—one with mass ratio of SA to CA1:3 and the other with mass ratio of 2:3—reached 3.5 and 3.0 MPa, respectively, the corresponding tensile strains were 22.3 and 17.9 %. The highest thermal stability temperature for both films was 205 °C. After being buried in soil for 35 days, the first film was 36 % degraded, and the second film was 41 % degraded. This paper is expected to promote the study and fabricate of bio-based degradable plastic film.
    Journal of Polymers and the Environment 01/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10924-015-0711-1
  • Journal of Polymers and the Environment 12/2014; 22(4):545-552. DOI:10.1007/s10924-014-0674-7
  • Journal of Polymers and the Environment 12/2014; 22(4):494-500. DOI:10.1007/s10924-014-0657-8
  • Journal of Polymers and the Environment 12/2014; 22(4):525-536. DOI:10.1007/s10924-014-0673-8
  • Journal of Polymers and the Environment 12/2014; 22(4):479-487. DOI:10.1007/s10924-014-0669-4
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    ABSTRACT: Commercial defatted rice bran (DRB) was characterized to produce biocomposite. DRB extracted protein plasticized with glycerol presented viscoelastic properties. The whole DRB with different amount and type of plasticizers was extruded into pellets. All extrudates presented pseudoplastic behavior as determined by capillary rheometer. Power-law index (n) and flow behavior consistency (K) of all DRB extrudates were respectively in a range of 0.30–0.32 and 1.2–3.8 × 104 which is closed to agro-polymer due to a modification of DRB structure after extrusion process. In addition, extrusion process promoted protein aggregation. However, no significant effect of plasticizer type and content on DRB protein aggregation for a given temperature processing was observed. The effect of plasticizer content on tensile properties presented the same trend as viscosity results. Extrudate that had a high viscosity presented high mechanical properties.
    Journal of Polymers and the Environment 12/2014; 22(4):559-568. DOI:10.1007/s10924-014-0683-6
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    ABSTRACT: Novel renewable polyols based on limonene were synthesized using thiol-ene ‘‘click’’ chemistry. These limonene based polyols were structurally characterized using wet methods (hydroxyl number, acid value and viscosity), gel permeation chromatography and spectroscopic methods. The results indicated that high yield of polyols from limonene based materials can be obtained using thiolene reaction. These limonene based polyols were used successfully for preparation of rigid polyurethane foams. These foams had regular shape cells and uniform cell size distribution. Thermal studies on these foams indicated that foams were thermally stable up to 250 �C. The glass transition temperature of the foams was higher than 200 �C. These rigid polyurethane foams had high compressive strength and the highest compressive strength of 195 kPa was observed. These foams have good physical–mechanical characteristics and could be suitable for all the applications of rigid polyurethane foams such as thermal insulation of freezers, storage tanks for the chemical and food industries, and packing materials for food industries.
    Journal of Polymers and the Environment 09/2014; 22(3):304-309. DOI:10.1007/s10924-014-0641-3
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    ABSTRACT: A very safe and environmentally friendly solid-state material for bioremediation was prepared using a combination of Aspergillus oryzae and poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL), a porous biodegradable polymer. The novel material was capable of decomposing 200 ppm formaldehyde solutions to 0 ppm within 7 days. Degradation ability was prolonged by addition of yeast extract-peptone-dextrose medium into the composite; 200 ppm formaldehyde was decomposed to 0 ppm over eight additional decomposition cycles and 100 days. A unique mechanism is proposed where, during PCL degradation, the solid-state composite provides nutrients to A. oryzae.
    Journal of Polymers and the Environment 09/2014; 22(3):329-335. DOI:10.1007/s10924-014-0644-0
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, engineering thermoplastic composites were prepared from microcrystalline cellulose (MCC)-filled nylon 6. MCC were added to nylon 6 using melt mixing to produce compounded pellets. The MCC-filled nylon 6 composites with varying concentrations of MCC (from 2.5 to 30 wt%) were prepared by injection molding. The tensile and flexural properties of the nylon 6 composites were increased significantly with the addition of MCC. The maximum strength and modulus of elasticity for the nylon 6 composites were achieved at a MCC weight fraction of 20 %. The Izod impact strength of composites decreased with the incorporation of MCC without any surface treatments and coupling agent. This observation is quite expected for filled polymer systems and has been commonly observed. There was a strong correlation between density and tensile (r = 0.94) and flexural modulus of elasticity (r = 0.9). MCC filled composites manufactured by injection method had highly uniform density distribution through their thickness. The higher mechanical results with lower density demonstrate that MCC can be used as a sufficient reinforcing material for low cost, eco-friendly composites in the automotive industry especially for under-the-hood applications (engine covers, intake manifolds and radiator end tanks) as well as in other applications such as the building and construction industries, packaging, consumer products etc.
    Journal of Polymers and the Environment 09/2014; 22(3). DOI:10.1007/s10924-014-0676-5
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    ABSTRACT: This paper reports the preparation of cellulose/xanthan gum composite films and hydrogels through gelation with an ionic liquid. Mixtures of cellulose and xanthan gum in desired weight ratios with an ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BMIMCl), were thinly placed on a Petri dish and heated at 100 °C for 9 h to obtain the solutions. Then, the solutions were left standing at room temperature for 1 day for the progress of gelation. The resulting ion gels were subjected to Soxhlet extraction with ethanol to remove BMIMCl, followed by drying under ambient conditions to obtain the composite films. The crystalline structures of the polysaccharides and the mechanical properties were evaluated by powder X-ray diffraction measurement and tensile testing of the films, respectively. The ion gels in various cellulose/xanthan gum weight ratios, which were prepared in a test tube by the same procedure, were immersed in water for the exchange of disperse media to obtain the cellulose/xanthan gum composite hydrogels. Water contents of all the materials were higher than 90 %. The mechanical properties of the hydrogels were evaluated by compressive testing.
    Journal of Polymers and the Environment 09/2014; 22(3). DOI:10.1007/s10924-014-0642-2