Plant signaling & behavior (Plant Signal Behav )

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  • ISSN
    1559-2324

Publications in this journal

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    ABSTRACT: Cell elongation requires directional deposition of cellulose microfibrils regulated by transverse cortical microtubules. Microtubules respond differentially to suppression of cell elongation along the developmental zones of Arabidopsis thaliana root apex. Cortical microtubule orientation is particularly affected in the fast elongation zone but not in the meristematic or transition zones of thanatos and pom2-4 cellulose-deficient mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, we report that a uniform phenotype is established among the primary cell wall mutants, as cortical microtubules of root epidermal cells of rsw1 and prc1 mutants exhibit the same pattern described in thanatos and pom2-4. Whether cortical microtubules assume transverse orientation or not is determined by the demand for cellulose synthesis, according to each root zone's expansion rate. It is suggested that cessation of cell expansion may provide a biophysical signal resulting in microtubule reorientation.
    Plant signaling & behavior 04/2014; 9(4).
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    ABSTRACT: Proteins harboring the kin17 domain (KIN17) constitute a family of well-conserved eukaryotic nuclear proteins involved in nucleic acid metabolism. In mammals, KIN17 orthologs contribute to DNA replication, RNA splicing, and DNA integrity maintenance. Recently, we reported a functional characterization of an Arabidopsis thaliana KIN17 homolog (AtKIN17) that uncovered a role for this protein in tuning physiological responses during copper (Cu) deficiency and oxidative stress. However, functions similar to those described in mammals may also be expected in plants given the conservation of functional domains in KIN17 orthologs. Here, we provide additional data consistent with the participation of AtKIN17 in controlling general plant growth and development, as well as in response to UV radiation. Furthermore, the Arabidopsis genome codes for a second homolog to KIN17, we referred to as KIN17-LIKE-PROTEIN (KLP). KLP loss-of-function lines exhibited a reduced inhibition of root growth in response to copper excess and relatively elongated hypocotyls in etiolated seedlings. Altogether, our experimental data point to a general function of the kin17 domain proteins in plant growth and development.
    Plant signaling & behavior 04/2014; 9(3).
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    ABSTRACT: Several genomic analyses, high-throughput or targeted interaction studies including the purification of protein complexes indicated a physical and functional link between BolAs and monothiol glutaredoxins (Grxs) that is conserved both in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In a recent work, we confirmed that several Arabidopsis protein couples, used as plant representatives, also physically interact. More interestingly, we determined that two BolA proteins, BolA2 and SufE1, contain a conserved cysteine that is sensitive to oxidizing treatments, unraveling a possible redox-control of BolA2 and SufE1 by monothiol glutaredoxins. By coexpressing physiological partners in E. coli, Grx-BolA heterodimers binding a labile, oxygen sensitive iron-sulfur cluster were isolated. Altogether, these results illustrate the existence of different modes of interaction between monothiol glutaredoxins and BolA proteins in plants and probably in other organisms. Incidentally, the function of each partner could be differentially modulated depending on the type of interaction.
    Plant signaling & behavior 04/2014; 9(3).
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    ABSTRACT: Gaucher disease is a prevalent lysosomal storage disease characterized by a deficiency in the activity of lysosomal acid β-glucosidase (glucocerebrosidase, GCase, EC 3.2.1.45). One of the most prevalent disease-causing mutations in humans is a L444P missense mutation in the GCase protein, which results in its disrupted folding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and impaired post-ER trafficking. To determine whether the post-ER trafficking of this severely malfolded protein can be restored, we expressed the mutant L444P GCase as a recombinant protein in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv Bright Yellow 2 [BY2]) cells, in which the GCase variant was equipped with a plant signal peptide to allow for secretion upon rescued trafficking out of the ER. The recombinant L444P mutant GCase was retained in the plant endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Kifunensine and Eeyarestatin I, both inhibitors of ER-associated degradation (ERAD), and the proteostasis regulators, celastrol and MG-132, increased the steady-state levels of the mutant protein inside the plant cells and further promoted the post-ER trafficking of L444P GCase, as indicated by endoglycosidase-H sensitivity- and secretion- analyses. Transcript profiling of genes encoding ER-molecular chaperones, ER stress responsive proteins, and cytoplasmic heat shock response proteins, revealed insignificant or only very modest changes in response to the ERAD inhibitors and proteostasis regulators. An exception was the marked response to celastrol which reduced the steady-state levels of cytoplasmic HSP90 transcripts and protein. As Hsp90 participates in the targeting of misfolded proteins to the proteasome pathway, its down-modulation in response to celastrol may partly account for the mechanism of improved homeostasis of L444P GCase mediated by this triterpene.
    Plant signaling & behavior 04/2014; 9(3).
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    ABSTRACT: Synchronic measurements of spontaneous ultra-weak light emission from germinating wheat seedlings both in Brazil and after transportation to Japan, and with a simultaneous series of germinations with local seedlings in the Czech Republic, are presented. A series of tests was also performed with samples returned from Japan to Brazil and results compared with those from undisturbed Brazilian seedlings. Native seedlings presented semi-circadian rhythms of emission which correlated with the gravimetric tidal acceleration at their locality, as did seeds which had been transported from Brazil to Japan, and then returned to Brazil. Here, however, there were very small disturbances within the periodicity of emissions, perhaps as a result of similar tidal profiles at locations whose longitudes are 180° apart, as in this case, different from previous results obtained in Brazil-Germany tests with other longitude shift. This feature of the Brazil and Japan locations may have minimized the requirement for the acclimatization of the transported seed to their new location.
    Plant signaling & behavior 04/2014; 9(3).
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    ABSTRACT: The ratio of Red to Far Red light (R:FR) is sensed by phytochromes, including phytochrome B, and serves as a signal of potential competition. Low R:FR represses Arabidopsis thaliana branching by promoting the accumulation of abscisic acid in the young buds and by enhancing auxin signaling in the main shoot. While overall plant level branching is reduced by low R:FR, the growth of the uppermost branches tends to be promoted while the lower buds are suppressed. Buds at intermediate positions can show either growth promotion or growth suppression by low R:FR if they become exposed to low R:FR late or early, respectively. This pattern suggests that developmental stage specific programming occurs to modify the response of specific buds to branching regulators including auxin and ABA.
    Plant signaling & behavior 04/2014; 9(3).
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    ABSTRACT: Although positive-strand RNA [(+)RNA] viruses have a limited coding capacity, they can replicate efficiently in host cells because of their ability to use host-derived proteins, membranes, lipids, and metabolites, and to rewire cellular trafficking pathways. Previously, we showed that a plant RNA virus, the Red clover necrotic mosaic virus (RCNMV), hijacked Arf1 and Sar1, which are small GTPases that regulate the biogenesis of COPI and COPII vesicles, respectively, for viral RNA replication. These small GTPases are relocated from appropriate subcellular compartments to the viral RNA replication sites by p27 replication protein, which raises the possibility that RCNMV interferes with the cellular secretory pathway. Here, we examined this possibility by using green fluorescent protein-fused rice SCAMP1 and Arabidopsis LRR84A as secretory pathway marker proteins and showed that p27 inhibited the trafficking of these proteins. RCNMV-mediated inhibition of the host secretion pathway and its possible impact on plant-virus interaction are discussed.
    Plant signaling & behavior 04/2014; 9(3).
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    ABSTRACT: Ectomycorrhizal symbiosis results in profound morphological and physiological modifications in both plant and fungus. This in turn is the product of differential gene expression in both co-symbionts, giving rise to specialized cell types capable of performing novel functions. During the precolonization stage, chemical signals from root exudates are sensed by the ectomycorrizal fungus, and vice versa, which are in principle responsible for the observed change in the developmental symbionts program. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved in the signaling and recognition between ectomycorrhizal fungi and their host plants. In the present work, we characterized a novel lactone, termed pinelactone, and identified a gene encoding for a histidine kinase in Pisolithus tictorius, which function is proposed to be the perception of the aforementioned metabolites. In this study, the use of closantel, a specific inhibitor of histidine kinase phosphorylation, affected the capacity for fungal colonization in the symbiosis between Pisolithus tinctorius and Pinus greggii, indicating that a 2-component system (TCS) may operate in the early events of plant-fungus interaction. Indeed, the metabolites induced the accumulation of Pisolithus tinctorius mRNA for a putative histidine kinase (termed Pthik1). Of note, Pthik1 was able to partially complement a S. cerevisiae histidine kinase mutant, demonstrating its role in the response to the presence of the aforementioned metabolites. Our results indicate a role of a 2-component pathway in the early stages of ectomycorrhizal symbiosis before colonization. Furthermore, a novel lactone from Pinus greggii root exudates may activate a signal transduction pathway that contributes to the establishment of the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis.
    Plant signaling & behavior 04/2014; 9(3).
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    ABSTRACT: Patatin-containing phospholipase A (pPLA) hydrolyzes membrane glycerolipids, producing free fatty acids and lysoglycerolipids. Ten pPLAs in the Arabidopsis thaliana genome are grouped into 3 subfamilies, and pPLAIIIs differ from pPLAI and IIs in their catalytic motifs and overexpression (OE) of pPLAIIIs reduces cell elongation and cellulose content. To probe the question of how pPLAIII overexpression results in the changes, comparative proteomic analyses were conducted between pPLAIIIδ-OE and WT seedlings. The data indicate a change in the microtubule-associated protein, MAP18. MAP18 is involved in destabilizing cortical microtubules and modulating directional cell growth. The result suggests that pPLAIII and their derived products may regulate cytoskeletal dynamics leading to retardation in anisotropic growth.
    Plant signaling & behavior 04/2014; 9(3).
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    ABSTRACT: Graminaceous plants release mugineic acid family phytosiderophores to acquire iron from the soil. Recently, we reported that particular vesicles are involved in deoxymugineic acid (DMA) and nicotianamine (NA) biosynthesis and in DMA secretion from rice roots. A fusion protein of rice NA synthase 2 (OsNAS2) and synthetic green fluorescent protein (sGFP) was observed in a dot-like pattern, moving dynamically within the cell. OsNAS2 mutated in the tyrosine motif or di-leucine motif, which was reported to be involved in cellular transport, caused a disruption in vesicular movement and vesicular localization, respectively. Unlike OsNAS2, Arabidopsis NA synthases AtNAS1-4 were distributed uniformly in the cytoplasm with no localization in dot-like structures when transiently expressed in tobacco BY-2 cells. Interestingly, Fe deficiency-inducible genes were upregulated in the OsNAS2-sGFP plants, and the amounts of NA and DMA produced and DMA secreted by the OsNAS2-sGFP plants were significantly higher than in those by the non-transformants and domain-mutated lines. We propose a model for OsNAS2-localized vesicles in rice, and discuss why the introduction of OsNAS2-sGFP caused a disturbance in Fe homeostasis.
    Plant signaling & behavior 04/2014; 9(3).
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    ABSTRACT: Autophagy, especially selective autophagy, is poorly characterized in plants compared with mammals and yeasts, where numerous factors required for the proper regulation of autophagy have been identified. The evidence for the importance of the cytoskeleton (both actin filaments and microtubules) in various aspects of autophagy comes mostly from work on yeasts and mammals, while in plant cells these links are poorly explored. In this report we demonstrate that tobacco protein Joka2, a member of a family of selective autophagy cargo receptors closely related to mammalian NBR1 and p62 colocalizes with both major cytoskeletal components, microtubules and microfilaments and, additionally, resides in close proximity of the ER.
    Plant signaling & behavior 04/2014; 9(3).
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    ABSTRACT: Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis (AMS) and root nodule symbiosis (RNS) share several common symbiotic components, and many of the common symbiosis mutants block the entry of symbionts into the roots. We recently reported that CERBERUS (an E3 ubiquitin ligase) and NSP1 (a GRAS family transcription factor), required for RNS, also modulate AMS development in Lotus japonicus. The novel common symbiosis mutants, cerberus and nsp1, have low colonization of arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) fungi, caused by a defect in internal hyphal elongation and by a decreased fungal entry into the roots, respectively. Here, we showed that CERBERUS was induced at the sites of symbiotic fungal or bacterial infection. NSP1 has been implicated in a strigolactone biosynthesis gene DWARF27 expression. Nevertheless, in nsp1, DWARF27 was induced by inoculation with AM fungi, implying the existence of a NSP1-independent regulatory mechanism of strigolactone biosynthesis during AMS establishment. These results support functional analysis of CERBERUS and NSP1, and also contribute to elucidation of common mechanisms in AMS and RNS.
    Plant signaling & behavior 04/2014; 9(3).
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    ABSTRACT: Plant roots play an important role in uptake of water and nutrients, support of above-ground part and environmental sensing, but the molecular mechanisms underlying the root development are poorly understood in rice. We found that a gene (OsASL1) encoding argininosuccinate lyase is involved in normal root development of rice. OsASL1 cleaves argininosuccinate to arginine and fumarate reversibly, the last step in the arginine biosynthetic pathway. Here, we further characterized OsASL1 in terms of expression pattern, subcellular localization, and arginine effect on the root growth. A detailed expression analysis revealed that 2 transcripts of OsASL1, OsASL1.1 and OsASL1.2, showed different expression patterns; OsASL1.1 was expressed in most organs throughout the whole growth period, whereas OsASL1.2 was mainly expressed in the roots. In contrast to plastid-localized OsASL1.1, OsASL1.2 was localized to the cytosol and nucleus. The short-root phenotype of the mutant was not rescued by exogenous addition of the sodium nitroprusside, a nitric oxide donor, but rescued by an appropriate concentration of Arg. Our results indicate that the subcellular localization was determined by the N terminus of OsASL1 and that appropriate concentration of Arg is required for normal root elongation in rice.
    Plant signaling & behavior 04/2014; 9(3).
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    ABSTRACT: Mango malformation is the most dangerous disease to mango worldwide. There are hints that Fusarium mangiferae might be one of the probable casual agents of disease. Recently, we reported on Fusarium isolates obtained from the mango tarai region of Uttarakhand acquiring morphological features of F. mangiferae. Here, further confirmation of Fusarium isolates were made by PCR amplification using primers specific to the translation elongation factors 1α and β-tubulin gene of F. mangiferae. Further, SDS-PAGE and RAPD profiles showed genetic variability among isolates of F. mangiferae. This study provides further direct evidence of involvement of different strains of F. mangiferae in malformation diseases of mango in the tarai region of the Uttarakhand state.
    Plant signaling & behavior 04/2014; 9(3).
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    ABSTRACT: Galanthamine is a naturally occurring acetylcholinesterase (AchE) inhibitor that has been well established as a drug for treatment of mild to moderate Alzheimer disease, but the role of the compound in plant metabolism is not known. The current study was designed to investigate whether galanthamine could redirect morphogenesis of Artemisia tridentata Nutt. cultures by altering concentration of endogenous neurosignaling molecules acetylcholine (Ach), auxin (IAA), melatonin (Mel), and serotonin (5HT). Exposure of axenic A. tridentata cultures to 10 µM galanthamine decreased the concentration of endogenous Ach, IAA, MEL, and AchE, and altered plant growth in a manner reminiscent of 2-4D toxicity. Galanthamine itself demonstrated IAA activity in an oat coleotile elongation bioassay, 20 µM galanthamine showed no significant difference compared with 5 μM IAA or 5 μM 1-Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). Metabolomic analysis detected between 20,921 to 27,891 compounds in A. tridentata plantlets and showed greater commonality between control and 5 µM treatments. Furthermore, metabolomic analysis putatively identified coumarins scopoletin/isoscopoletin, and scopolin in A. tridentata leaf extracts and these metabolites linearly increased in response to galanthamine treatments. Overall, these data indicate that galanthamine is an allelopathic phytochemical and support the hypothesis that neurologically active compounds in plants help ensure plant survival and adaptation to environmental challenges.
    Plant signaling & behavior 03/2014; 9(3).
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    ABSTRACT: To better understand the response of plants to atmospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO 2), we investigated biomass accumulation in 3 accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana: C24, Columbia (Col-0), and Landsberg erecta (Ler). Plants were grown in NO 2-free air for 1 week after sowing, followed by 3 (Col-0 and Ler) to 4 (C24) weeks in air with or without NO 2 (10 or 50 ppb). NO 2 treatment increased the biomass of all 3 accessions to varying extents. Treatment with 10 ppb NO 2 increased shoot biomass in C24, Col-0, and Ler by 3.2-, 1.4-, and 2.3-fold, respectively, compared with control. Treatment with 50 ppb gave similar increases, except in C24 (2.7-fold). The physiological, evolutionary, and genetic significance of these results are discussed below.
    Plant signaling & behavior 03/2014; 9(3).
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    ABSTRACT: The emission of radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation (EMR) by various wireless communication base stations has increased in recent years. While there is wide concern about the effects of EMR on humans and animals, the influence of EMR on plants is not well understood. In this study, we investigated the effect of EMR on the growth dynamics of Myriophyllum aquaticum (Parrot feather) by measuring the nanometric elongation rate fluctuation (NERF) using a statistical interferometry technique. Plants were exposed to 2 GHz EMR at a maximum of 1.42 Wm(-2) for 1 h. After continuous exposure to EMR, M. aquaticum plants exhibited a statistically significant 51 ± 16% reduction in NERF standard deviation. Temperature observations revealed that EMR exposure did not cause dielectric heating of the plants. Therefore, the reduced NERF was due to a non-thermal effect caused by EMR exposure. The alteration in NERF continued for at least 2.5 h after EMR exposure and no significant recovery was found in post-EMR NERF during the experimental period.
    Plant signaling & behavior 03/2014; 9(3).
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    ABSTRACT: J-proteins are co-chaperone components of the HSP70 system. J-proteins stimulate Hsp70ATPase activity, which is responsible for stabilizing the interaction of Hsp70 with client proteins. J-proteins are localized in various intracellular compartments including the cytoplasm, mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Five types of ER resident J-proteins (ERdjs) have been found in plants (P58, ERdj2, ERdj2A, ERdj3B and ERdj7). Rice OsERdj3A is located in the vacuoleand protein storage vacuoles (PSV, PB-II) under conditions of ER stress. J-proteins that are localized to the vacuole or lysosome are not found in mammals and yeast, suggesting that the presence of OsERdj3A in the vacuole is plant-specific and one of the features unique to plant ERdjs. In this review, we summarize the current state of knowledge andrecent research advancements regarding plant ERdjs, and compare mammalian and yeast ERdjs with plant ERdjs.
    Plant signaling & behavior 03/2014; 9(2).

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