Plant signaling & behavior (Plant Signal Behav )

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  • ISSN
    1559-2324

Publications in this journal

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    ABSTRACT: Plant root systems are critical for survival, acting as the primary interface for nutrient and water acquisition, as well as anchoring the plant to the ground. As plants grow, their root systems become more elaborate, which is largely mediated by the formation of root branches, or lateral roots. Lateral roots initiate deep within the root in the pericycle cell layer, and their development is controlled by a wide range of internal signaling factors and environmental cues, as well as mechanical feedback from the surrounding cells. The endodermal cell layer, which overlies the pericycle, has emerged as an important tissue regulating LR initiation and formation. We recently identified the AtMYB93 transcription factor as a negative regulator of lateral root development in Arabidopsis. Interestingly, AtMYB93 expression is highly restricted to the few endodermal cells overlying developing lateral root primordia, suggesting that this transcriptional regulator might play a key role in mediating the effect of the endodermis on lateral root development. Here we discuss our recent findings in the wider context of root system development - with a particular focus on the role of the endodermis - and propose several potential models to explain AtMYB93 function during lateral root organogenesis.
    Plant signaling & behavior 09/2014; 9.
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    ABSTRACT: Auxin's capacity to regulate aspects of plant development has been well characterized in model plant systems. In contrast, orchids have received considerably less attention, but the realization that many orchid species are endangered has led to culture-based propagation studies which have unveiled some functions for auxin in this system. This mini-review summarizes the many auxin-mediated developmental responses in orchids that are consistent with model systems; however, it also brings to the forefront auxin responses that are unique to orchid development, namely protocorm formation and ovary/ovule maturation. With regard to shoot establishment, we also assess auxin's involvement in orchid germination, PLB formation, and somatic embryogenesis. Further, it makes evident that auxin flow during germination of the undifferentiated, but mature, orchid embryo mirrors late embryogenesis of typical angiosperms. Also discussed is the use of orchid protocorms in future phytohormone studies to better understand the mechanisms behind meristem formation and organogenesis.
    Plant signaling & behavior 08/2014; 9.
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    ABSTRACT: In order to further increase shoot regeneration frequency of Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper., the effects of AgNO 3 on this process was investigated in this study. The shoot tip and cotyledonary node explants were cultured on MS salts B5 Vitamins medium containing BA+TDZ+Ads+AgNO 3 for multiple shoot induction. AgNO 3 influenced the shoot bud formation and their subsequent proliferation. The best medium composition for multiple shoot induction was BA, TDZ combination with Ads and AgNO 3 in MSB5 medium. Maximum 47 shoots in cotyledonary node and 27 shoots in shoot tip were obtained per explants after 4 - 6 wk. of culture. Elongation and rooting were performed in GA 3 (0.6mg/l) and IBA (0.4mg/L) containing media respectively. The in vitro raised plantlets were acclimatized in green house and successfully transplanted to the field with a survival rate of 78%.
    Plant signaling & behavior 08/2014; 9.
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    ABSTRACT: Tandem affinity purification (TAP) tagging provides a powerful tool for isolating interacting proteins in vivo. TAP-tag purification offers particular advantages for the identification of stimulus-induced protein interactions. Type II bZIP transcription factors (TGA2, TGA5 and TGA6) play key roles in pathways that control salicylic acid, ethylene, xenobiotic and reactive oxylipin signaling. Although proteins interacting with these transcription factors have been identified through genetic and yeast two-hybrid screening, others are still elusive. We have therefore generated a C-terminal TAP-tag of TGA2 to isolate additional proteins that interact with this transcription factor. Three lines most highly expressing TAP-tagged TGA2 were functional in that they partially complemented reactive oxylipin-responsive gene expression in a tga2 tga5 tga6 triple mutant. TAP-tagged TGA2 in the most strongly overexpressing line was proteolytically less stable than in the other two lines. Only this overexpressing line could be used in a two-step purification process, resulting in isolation of co-purifying bands of larger molecular weight than TGA2. TAP-tagged TGA2 was used to pull down NPR1, a protein known to interact with this transcription factor. Mass spectrometry was used to identify peptides that co-purified with TAP-tagged TGA2. Having generated this TGA2 TAP-tag line will therefore be an asset to researchers interested in stimulus-induced signal transduction processes.
    Plant signaling & behavior 08/2014; 9.
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    ABSTRACT: Many plant growth and developmental processes are modulated by the hormone auxin. Auxin-modulated proteolysis of Aux/IAAs, a family of transcriptional repressors, represents a major mode of auxin action. Auxin facilitates the interaction of Aux/IAAs with TIR1/AFB F-box proteins, promoting their ubiquitination by the SCF(TIR1/AFB) ubiquitin E3 ligase leading to subsequent degradation by the 26S proteasome. To identify new genes regulating Aux/IAA proteolysis in Arabidopsis thaliana, we took a genetic approach, identifying individuals with altered degradation of an IAA1-luciferase fusion protein (IAA1-LUC). A mutant with 2-fold slower IAA1-LUC degradation rate compared with wild-type was isolated. Positional cloning identified the mutant as an allele of TOPOISOMERASE6B, named top6b-7. TOP6B encodes a subunit of a plant and archea-specific enzyme regulating endoreduplication, DNA damage repair and transcription in plants. T-DNA insertion alleles (top6b-8 and top6b-9) were also analyzed. top6b-7 seedlings are less sensitive to exogenous auxin than wild-type siblings in primary root growth assays, and experiments with DR5:GUS. Additionally, top6b-7 seedlings have a 40% reduction in the amount of endogenous IAA. These data suggest that increased IAA1-LUC half-life in top6b-7 probably results from a combination of both lower endogenous IAA levels and reduced sensitivity to auxin.
    Plant signaling & behavior 08/2014; 9.
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    ABSTRACT: Plant vacuoles are essential and dynamic organelles, and mechanisms of vacuole biogenesis and fusion are not well characterized. We recently demonstrated that Wortmannin, an inhibitor of Phosphatidylinositol-3-Kinase (PI3K), induces the fusion of plant vacuoles both in roots of itt3/vti11 mutant alleles and in guard cells of wild type Arabidopsis and Fava bean. Here we used Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching (FRAP) to demonstrate that the vacuoles in itt3/vti11 are independent organelles. Furthermore, we used fluorescent protein reporters that bind specifically to Phosphatidylinositol-3-Phosphate (PtdIns(3)P) or PtdIns(4)P to show that Wortmannin treatments that induce the fusion of vti11 vacuoles result in the loss of PtdIns(3)P from cellular membranes. These results provided supporting evidence for a critical role of PtdIns(3)P in vacuole fusion in roots and guard cells.
    Plant signaling & behavior 08/2014; 9.
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    ABSTRACT: The immobility of plants is consistent with their principal function: collecting light to provide photosynthetic substrate for the biological system. Their immobility does impose limitations on some basic requirements, such as the need for pollination, for seed dispersal, and for protection against herbivores. Meeting these three needs will logically necessitate some ability for plant communication - at least a capability for beneficial adaptive behavior. Three types of plant behavior provide evidence of memory and communication abilities: a capability for memory, a capability for measuring time, and extensive evidence of chemical signaling systems. These may provide benefits for genetic outcrossing, seed dispersal and protection - beneficial adaptive behaviors. The chemical signaling system constitutes a wireless communication network that draws mobile animals into assisting plant functions that require mobility. Plants share their chemical signaling systems most frequently with insects and birds. These beneficial adaptable behaviors may be interpreted as some type of consciousness.
    Plant signaling & behavior 08/2014; 9.
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    ABSTRACT: The SALK_135513 line of Arabidopsis thaliana is annotated by GenBank to have the T-DNA insertion in the fourth exon of NBR1 (At4g24690). Careful molecular analyses of the homozygous plants of SALK_135513 line indicated the place of T-DNA insertion in the fourth intron. Unexpectedly, two kinds of NBR1 transcripts, the wild-type and the mutated, resulting from alternative splicing events, were detected in those plants. Our findings explain the problems encountered by us with phenotypic evaluation of this line and emphasize the necessity for independent verification of the exact insertion site followed by careful expression studies when working with Arabidopsis T-DNA insertional mutants.
    Plant signaling & behavior 08/2014; 9.
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    ABSTRACT: Systemic acquired acclimation (SAA) is an important light acclimatory mechanism that depends on the global adjustments of non-photochemical quenching and chloroplast retrograde signaling. As the exact regulation of these processes is not known, we measured time-resolved fluorescence of chlorophyll a in Arabidopsis thaliana leaves exposed to excess light, in leaves undergoing SAA, and in leaves after excess light episode. We compare the behavior induced in wild-type plants with null mutant of non-photochemical quenching (npq4-1). The wild type rosettes exhibit a small reduction of fluorescence decay times in leaves directly exposed to excess light and in leaves undergoing SAA in ambient low light. However in npq4-1 exposition to excess light results in much faster fluorescence decay, which is insensitive to excitation power. At the same time npq4-1 leaves undergoing SAA displayed intermediate fluorescence decay. The npq4-1 plants also lost the ability to optimize florescence decay, and thus chlorophyll a dynamics up to 2 h after excess light episode. The fluorescence decay dynamics in both WT and npq4-1 can be described by a set of 3 maximum decay times. Based on the results, we concluded that functional PsbS is required for optimization of absorbed photon fate and optimal light acclimatory responses such as SAA or after excess light stress.
    Plant signaling & behavior 08/2014; 9.
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    ABSTRACT: Like animals, plants are attacked by enemies (herbivores) that forage using visual cues; however, the defensive coloration type known as cryptic coloration was rarely reported in plants. For most autotrophic plants, because photosynthesis relies on the presence of chlorophyll, a green leaf appearance is standard. However, if having leaves that are not green is more beneficial than costly, such coloration may evolve under certain conditions. Taking advantage of the leaf color dimorphism of Corydalis benecincta, we showed that the cryptically colored leaves confer a clear benefit without obvious cost in natural populations. Based on this study, we try to provide a framework on which to base a cost-benefit analysis to investigate the evolution of cryptic leaf coloration in plants.
    Plant signaling & behavior 07/2014; 9.
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    ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial AtFtsH4 protease is one of four inner membrane-bound FtsH proteases in Arabidopsis. We found that the loss of AtFtsH4 regulates Arabidopsis development and architecture by mediating the peroxidase-dependent interplay between hydrogen peroxide (H 2O 2) and auxin homeostasis. These morphological changes were correlated with elevated levels of both hydrogen peroxide and peroxidases, which suggested that ftsh4-4 plant was related to the oxidative stress, and that the architecture was caused by the auxin homeostasis perturbation. This view was supported by the expression levels of several auxin signaling genes and auxin binding and transport genes were decreased significantly in ftsh4-4 plants. Taken together, our data published in the May issue of Molecular Plant suggests a link between the lack of AtFtsH4 protease, oxidative stress,s and auxin homeostasis to regulate plant growth and development. However, the detail molecular mechanisms of AtFtSH4 regulating oxidation stress and auxin homeostasis is unclear. Here, we present evidence that the high level accumulated of H 2O 2 in ftsh4-4 may correlates with the decreased mitochondrial respiration genes. We also showed that the decreased auxin level and auxin transport may caused by the inhibition of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes.
    Plant signaling & behavior 07/2014; 9.
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    ABSTRACT: DELLA proteins are key negative regulators in the phytohormone gibberellin's (GA) signaling. In addition to this role, the DELLA proteins upregulate the gene expression levels of the positive regulators in GA signaling, such as GA 20 oxidase, GA receptor, and a transcriptional regulator, SCARECROW-LIKE3 (SCL3), which enables the regulation of GA feedback. Since DELLAs lack a known DNA binding domain, other transcription factor(s) that recruit DELLAs to DNA are essential for this regulation. Recently, we showed that the INDETERMINATE DOMAIN family proteins serve as transcriptional scaffolds to exert the transactivation activity of DELLAs. This finding and further analyses regarding the function of SCL3 indicate that the balance of the DELLAs and SCL3 protein levels (both are GRAS proteins) regulates downstream gene expression through IDDs binding to DNA. Here, we review the regulatory system in plants similar to ours and also discuss the interactive network between GRAS and IDD proteins.
    Plant signaling & behavior 07/2014; 9.
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    ABSTRACT: POLYAMINE OXIDASE 1 (OsPAO1), from rice (Oryza sativa), and POLYAMINE OXIDASE 5 (AtPAO5), from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), are enzymes sharing high identity at the amino acid level and with similar characteristics, such as polyamine specificity and pH preference; furthermore, both proteins localize to the cytosol. A loss-of-function Arabidopsis mutant, Atpao5-2, was hypersensitive to low doses of exogenous thermospermine but this phenotype could be rescued by introduction of the wild-type AtPAO5 gene. Introduction of OsPAO1, under the control of a constitutive promoter, into Atpao5-2 mutants also restored normal thermospermine sensitivity, allowing growth in the presence of low levels of thermospermine, along with a concomitant decrease in thermospermine content in plants. By contrast, introduction of OsPAO3, which encodes a peroxisome-localized polyamine oxidase, into Atpao5-2 plants could not rescue any of the mutant phenotypes in the presence of thermospermine. These results suggest that OsPAO1 is the functional ortholog of AtPAO5.
    Plant signaling & behavior 07/2014; 9.
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    ABSTRACT: Developmental biologists have been fascinated with the long-standing mystery of how multicellular organisms, such as plants and animals, sense and control their organ size. In plants, leaves are a suitable experimental system for elucidation of the mystery, because they, like animal organs, inherently exhibit a determinate growth pattern, meaning that they possess genetic information for the control of their final size. The cell proliferation and expansion processes are prerequisites for growth, so that the genetic controls should converge on the 2 cellular processes and decide their rate or duration during leaf growth. Plant scientists have found dozens of genes involved in the control of the cellular processes, including the Arabidopsis thaliana GRF-INTERACTING FACTOR (GIF) family. The GIF family consists of 3 members, GIF1 to GIF3, and encodes a class of transcription co-activators. Although the GIF family genes have been shown to play an essential role in the control of cell proliferation of the leaf organ, understanding of the spatio-temporal behaviors of GIF expression, in both aspects of their promoters and proteins, has been limited to GIF1 (also known as ANGUSTIFOLIA3, AN3). Here, we define kinematic growth properties of wild-type and gif leaf organs and provide spatio-temporal expression patterns of all GIF genes, thus providing comprehensive insights into biological roles and expression behaviors of the whole GIF family members during leaf growth.
    Plant signaling & behavior 07/2014; 9.
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    ABSTRACT: Plants have evolved sophisticated defense mechanisms to resist pathogen invasion. Upon the pathogen recognition, the host plants activate a variety of signal transduction pathways, and one of representative defense responses is systemic acquired resistance (SAR) that provides strong immunity against secondary infections in systemic tissues. Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that modulation of membrane composition contributes to establishing SAR and disease resistance in Arabidopsis, but underlying molecular mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Here, we show that a membrane-bound transcription factor (MTF) is associated with plant responses to pathogen attack. The MTF is responsive to microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP)-triggered membrane rigidification at the levels of transcription and proteolytic processing. The processed nuclear transcription factor possibly regulates pathogen resistance by directly regulating PATHOGENESIS-RELATED (PR) genes. Taken together, our results suggest that pathogenic microorganisms trigger changes in physico-chemical properties of cellular membrane in plants, and the MTF conveys the membrane information to the nucleus to ensure prompt establishment of plant immunity.
    Plant signaling & behavior 07/2014; 9.
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    ABSTRACT: Roots are reported to be plastic in response to nutrient supply, but relatively little is known about their development in response to magnesium (Mg) availability. Here, we showed the influence of both low and high Mg availability on the development of roots including root hairs and highlighted insights into the regulatory role of Mg availability on root hair development and its mechanism in Arabidopsis with combining our published research. Mg concentration in roots decreased quickly after the removal of Mg from the nutrient solution and increased progressively with increasing exogenous Mg supply in the media. However, transcriptome analysis suggested that Mg starvation did not alter the expression of most genes potentially involved in the transport. Primary root elongation and lateral root formation in Arabidopsis were not influenced by low Mg but inhibited by high Mg after one-week period. Moreover, low Mg availability significantly increased but high Mg reduced the initiation, density and length of root hairs, which through the characterized Ca (2+) and ROS signal transduction pathways. More physiological mechanisms underlying Mg-regulated root development remain to be elucidated in future researches.
    Plant signaling & behavior 07/2014; 9.
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    ABSTRACT: Glycerolipid composition in plant membranes oscillates in response to diurnal change. However, its functional significance remained unclear. A recent discovery that Arabidopsis florigen FT binds diurnally oscillating phosphatidylcholine molecules to promote flowering suggests that diurnal oscillation of glycerolipid composition is an important input in flowering time control. Taking advantage of public microarray data, we globally analyzed the expression pattern of glycerolipid biosynthetic genes in Arabidopsis under long-day, short-day, and continuous light conditions. The results revealed that 12 genes associated with glycerolipid metabolism showed significant oscillatory profiles. Interestingly, expression of most of these genes followed circadian profiles, suggesting that glycerolipid biosynthesis is partially under clock regulation. The oscillating expression profile of one representative gene, PECT1, was analyzed in detail. Expression of PECT1 showed a circadian pattern highly correlated with that of the clock-regulated gene GIGANTEA. Thus, our study suggests that a considerable number of glycerolipid biosynthetic genes are under circadian control.
    Plant signaling & behavior 07/2014; 9.
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    ABSTRACT: Growing plants in space for using them in bioregenerative life support systems during long-term human spaceflights needs improvement of our knowledge in how plants can adapt to space growth conditions. In a previous study performed on board the International Space Station (GENARA A experiment STS-132) we evaluate the global changes that microgravity can exert on the membrane proteome of Arabidopsis seedlings. Here we report additional data from this space experiment, taking advantage of the availability in the EMCS of a centrifuge to evaluate the effects of cues other than microgravity on the relative distribution of membrane proteins. Among the 1484 membrane proteins quantified, 227 proteins displayed no abundance differences between µ g and 1 g in space, while their abundances significantly differed between 1 g in space and 1 g on ground. A majority of these proteins (176) were over-represented in space samples and mainly belong to families corresponding to protein synthesis, degradation, transport, lipid metabolism, or ribosomal proteins. In the remaining set of 51 proteins that were under-represented in membranes, aquaporins and chloroplastic proteins are majority. These sets of proteins clearly appear as indicators of plant physiological processes affected in space by stressful factors others than microgravity.
    Plant signaling & behavior 07/2014; 9.
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    ABSTRACT: Plants often learn from previous infections to mount higher level of resistance during subsequent infections, a phenomenon referred to as systemic acquired resistance (SAR). During primary infection, mobile signals generated at the infection site subsequently move to the rest of plant to activate SAR. SAR activation is associated with alteration in the nucleosomal composition at the promoters of several defense-related genes. However, genetic regulations of such epigenetic modifications are largely obscure. Recently, we have demonstrated that Reduced Systemic immunity1/FLOWERING LOCUS D (RSI1; alias FLD) a homolog of human histone demethylase, is required for SAR development in Arabidopsis. Here, we report that exogenous application of a histone demethylase inhibitor trans-2-phenylcyclopropylamine (2-PCPA) mimics rsi1/fld loss-of-function phenotypes in terms of SAR and associated histone demethylation at the promoters of PR1, WRKY 29, and WRKY6 genes, and as well as flowering phenotypes. Our results suggest histone demethylase activity of FLD is important for controlling SAR activation.
    Plant signaling & behavior 07/2014; 9.

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