Plant signaling & behavior (Plant Signal Behav)

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

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ISSN 1559-2324

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Taylor & Francis

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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Formation of secondary walls is a complex process that requires the coordinated and developmentally regulated expression of secondary wall biosynthetic genes. In Arabidopsis thaliana, a transcriptional network orchestrates the biosynthesis and deposition of the main SCW components in xylem and fiber cells. It was recently reported that interacting TALE homeodomain proteins BEL-LIKE HOMEODOMAIN6 (BLH6) and KNOTTED ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA7 (KNAT7) negatively regulate secondary cell wall formation in the interfascicular fibers of Arabidopsis inflorescence stems. Members of the Arabidopsis OVATE FAMILY PROTEIN (OFP) family of transcriptional regulators have been shown to physically interact in yeast with various KNAT and BLH proteins, forming a proposed TALE-OFP protein interaction network. This study presents molecular and genetic data indicating that OFP1 and OFP4, previously reported to interact with TALE homeodomain proteins, enhance the repression activity of BLH6, supporting a role for these OFPs as components of a putative multi-protein transcription regulatory complex containing BLH6 and KNAT7.
    Plant signaling & behavior 06/2015; DOI:10.1080/15592324.2015.1033126
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    ABSTRACT: Protein intrinsic disorder (ID), referring to the lack of a fixed tertiary structure, is significant in signaling and transcription. We recently characterized ID in six phylogenetically representative Arabidopsis thaliana NAC transcription factors. Their transcription regulatory domains are mostly disordered but contain short, functionally important regions with structure propensities known as molecular recognition features. Here, we analyze for NAC subgroup-specific ID patterns. Some subgroups, such as the VND subgroup implicated in secondary cell wall biosynthesis, and the NAP/SHYG subgroup have highly conserved ID profiles. For the stress-associated ATAF1 subgroup and the CUC/ORE1 subgroup involved in development, only sub clades have similar ID patterns. For similar ID profiles, conserved molecular recognition features and sequence motifs represent likely functional determinants of e.g. transcriptional activation and interactions. Based on our analysis, we suggest that ID profiling of regulatory proteins in general can be used to guide identification of interaction partners of network proteins.
    Plant signaling & behavior 06/2015; DOI:10.1080/15592324.2015.1010967
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    ABSTRACT: De novo meristem formation in tissue culture critically depends on the correct organization of hormonal domains, which is followed by expression shoot meristem pattern genes. The genetic basis of plant regeneration is fragmentary, but mutant studies demonstrate that signaling through MONOPTEROS (MP)/AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 5 is necessary for the formation of shoots from Arabidopsis calli. Most strikingly, variants of MP, uncoupling MP activity from negative regulation by Aux/IAA proteins, showed that MP is also sufficient for promoting de novo shoot formation even from normally recalcitrant tissues. In this function MP acts through pathways involving the homeobox transcription factor SHOOT MERISTEMLESS (STM) and AP2 domain transcription factor CYTOKININ RESPONSE FACTOR2 (CRF2). Our findings provide an entry point to better address the molecular genetics underlying divergent regeneration properties and demonstrate the potential of ARF-derived constructs as novel genetic tools to develop high frequency regeneration systems in recalcitrant explants and species.
    Plant signaling & behavior 06/2015; DOI:10.4161/15592324.2014.993293
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the effect of salt stress on seed germination, early growth, antioxidant enzymes activity and ABA content of chicory ecotypes (Cichorium intybus) a factorial experiment was conducted at College of Agriculture, Shiraz University in 2014 based on completely randomized design with four replications. The treatments comprised five salinity levels (tapwater, 3, 6, 9, 12 dS m(-1)) of sodium chloride on Shirazi-black and white chicory ecotypes. The results showed that germination characteristics and primary seedling growth were decreased in both ecotypes with increasing in salinity severity. The effects of salinity on radicle and plumule length as well as seedling weight were the same as its effects on seed germination. The effect of salt stress on antioxidant enzymes activity (especially catalase) and ABA content were significant which they were enhanced with increasing salinity level; Black ecotype performs better than the white one under high salinity, as indicated by a lower decreasing in germination characteristics and primary growth and higher antioxidant enzymes activity as well as ABA content. These facts should be taken into consideration in the economic cultivation of this valuable horticultural and medicinal plant and this data would be useful for the crop breeding projects.
    Plant signaling & behavior 06/2015; DOI:10.1080/15592324.2015.1052925
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    ABSTRACT: Strigolactones (SLs) play significant role in shaping root architecture whereby auxin-SL crosstalk has been observed in SL-mediated responses of primary root elongation, lateral root formation and adventitious root (AR) initiation. Whereas GR24 (a synthetic strigolactone) inhibits LR and AR formation, the effect of SL biosynthesis inhibitor (fluridone) is just the opposite (root proliferation). Naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) leads to LR proliferation but completely inhibits AR development. The diffusive distribution of PIN1 in the provascular cells in the differentiating zone of the roots in response to GR24, fluridone or NPA treatments further indicates the involvement of localized auxin accumulation in LR development responses. Inhibition of LR formation by GR24 treatment coincides with inhibition of ACC synthase activity. Profuse LR development by fluridone and NPA treatments correlates with enhanced [Ca(2+)]cyt in the apical region and differentiating zones of LR, indicating a critical role of [Ca(2+)] in LR development in response to the coordinated action of auxins, ethylene and SLs. Significant enhancement of carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase (CCD) activity (enzyme responsible for SL biosynthesis) in tissue homogenates in presence of cPTIO (NO scavenger) indicates the role of endogenous NO as a negative modulator of CCD activity. Differences in the spatial distribution of NO in the primary and lateral roots further highlight the involvement of NO in SL-modulated root morphogenesis in sunflower seedlings. Present work provides new report on the negative modulation of SL biosynthesis through modulation of CCD activity by endogenous nitric oxide during SL-modulated LR development.
    Plant signaling & behavior 06/2015; DOI:10.1080/15592324.2015.1054087
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    ABSTRACT: The SAND domain protein ULTRAPETALA1 (ULT1) functions as a trithorax group factor that regulates a variety of developmental processes in Arabidopsis. We have recently shown that ULT1 regulates developmental patterning in the gynoecia and leaves. ULT1 acts together with the KANADI1 (KAN1) transcription factor to pattern the apical-basal axis during gynoecium formation, whereas the two genes act antagonistically to pattern the adaxial-abaxial axis during both gynoecium and leaf formation. In particular, our data showed that ULT1 is necessary for the kan1 adaxialized organ phenotype. Here, we observe the internal structure of ult1, kan1 and ult1 kan1 rosette leaves to better understand the suppression of the kan1 adaxialized leaf polarity defect by ult1 mutations. Our results indicate that ULT1 and KAN1 act antagonistically to pattern the adaxial-abaxial axis in leaves by establishing the asymmetry of the internal cell layers.
    Plant signaling & behavior 06/2015; DOI:10.1080/15592324.2015.1034422
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    ABSTRACT: Plant's transition from vegetative to reproductive phase is balanced by intricate cascade of genes regulated by both endogenous and environmental inputs. Stress causes suppression of vegetative growth and acceleration of flowering as an emergency response for preservation of the species. Recently, we determined that expression levels of a transcription factor with 2 B-Box motifs, BBX19, is notably reduced in response to accumulation of high levels of Methylerythritol cyclodiphosphate (MEcPP), a plastidial produced isoprenoids intermediate that also functions as a stress-specific retrograde signaling metabolite. We now have identified BBX19 as a repressor of Flower locus T (FT) expression and the corresponding downstream genes, SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS 1 (SOC1), Leafy (LFY) and Fruitful (FUL), through competition with CONSTANS (CO). Collectively our finding identifies BBX19 as a link between the stress-specific retrograde signal MEcPP and regulation of flowering time by depleting the active CO pool required for transcription of FT.
    Plant signaling & behavior 06/2015; 10(6):e1022012. DOI:10.1080/15592324.2015.1022012
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    ABSTRACT: The TCP family of transcription factors is named after the first four characterized members, namely TEOSINTE BRANCHED1 (TB1) from maize (Zea mays), CYCLOIDEA (CYC) from snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus), as well as PROLIFERATING CELL NUCLEAR ANTIGEN FACTOR1 (PCF1) and PCF2 from rice (Oryza sativa). Phylogenic analysis of this plant-specific protein family unveils a conserved bHLH-containing DNA-binding motif known as the TCP domain. In accordance with the structure of this shared domain, TCP proteins are grouped into class I (TCP-P) and class II (TCP-C), which are suggested to antagonistically modulate plant growth and development via competitively binding similar cis-regulatory modules called site II elements. Over the last decades, TCPs across the plant kingdom have been demonstrated to control a plethora of plant processes. Notably, TCPs also regulate plant development and defense responses via stimulating the biosynthetic pathways of bioactive metabolites, such as brassinosteroid (BR), jasmonic acid (JA) and flavonoids. Besides, mutagenesis analysis coupled with biochemical experiments identifies several crucial amino acids located within the TCP domain, which confer the redox sensitivity of class I TCPs and determine the distinct DNA-binding properties of TCPs. In this review, developmental functions of TCPs in various biological pathways are briefly described with an emphasis on their involvement in the synthesis of bioactive substances. Furthermore, novel biochemical aspects of TCPs with respect to redox regulation and DNA-binding preferences are elaborated. In addition, the unexpected participation of TCPs in effector-triggered immunity (ETI) and defense against insects indicates that the widely recognized developmental regulators are capable of fine-tuning defense signaling and thereby enable plants to evade deleterious developmental phenotypes. Altogether, these recent impressive breakthroughs remarkably advance our understanding as to how TCPs integrate internal developmental cues with external environmental stimuli to orchestrate plant development.
    Plant signaling & behavior 06/2015; DOI:10.1080/15592324.2015.1044192
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    ABSTRACT: Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) is established by the entry of AM fungi into the host plant roots and the formation of symbiotic structures called arbuscules. The host plant supplies photosynthetic products to the AM fungi, which in return provide phosphate and other minerals to the host through the arbuscules. Both partners gain great advantages from this symbiotic interaction, and both regulate AM development. Our recent work revealed that gibberellic acids (GAs) are required for AM development in the legume Lotus japonicus. GA signaling interact with symbiosis signaling pathways, directing AM fungal colonization in host roots. Expression analysis showed that genes for GA biosynthesis and metabolism were induced in host roots around AM fungal hyphae, suggesting that the GA signaling changes with both location and time during AM development. The fluctuating GA concentrations sometimes positively and sometimes negatively affect the expression of AM-induced genes that regulate AM fungal infection and colonization.
    Plant signaling & behavior 05/2015; DOI:10.1080/15592324.2015.1028706
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    ABSTRACT: The first indication of the aluminium (Al) toxicity in plants growing in acidic soils is the cessation of root growth, but the detailed mechanism of Al effect is unknown. Here we examined the impact of Al stress on the activity of non-specific phospholipase C (NPC) in the connection with the processes related to the plasma membrane using fluorescently labelled phosphatidylcholine. We observed a rapid and significant decrease of labelled diacylglycerol (DAG), product of NPC activity, in Arabidopsis seedlings treated with AlCl3. Interestingly, an application of the membrane fluidizer, benzyl alcohol, restored the level of DAG during Al treatment. Our observations suggest that the activity of NPC is affected by Al-induced changes in plasma membrane physical properties.
    Plant signaling & behavior 05/2015; DOI:10.1080/15592324.2015.1031938
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    ABSTRACT: Inbreeding commonly occurs in flowering plants and often results in a decline in the plant's defense response. Insects prefer to feed and oviposit on inbred plants more than outbred plants - suggesting that selecting inbred host plants offers them fitness benefits. Until recently, no studies have examined the effects of host plant inbreeding on insect fitness traits such as growth and dispersal ability. In a recent article, we documented that tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta L.) larvae that fed on inbred horsenettle (Solanum carolinense L.) plants exhibited accelerated larval growth and increased adult flight capacity compared to larvae that fed on outbred plants. Here we report that M. sexta mortality decreased by 38.2% when larvae were reared on inbred horsenettle plants compared to larvae reared on outbreds. Additionally, inbred plants showed a notable reduction in the average relative expression levels of LIPOXYGENEASE-D (LoxD) and 12-OXOPHYTODIENOATE REDUCTASE-3 (OPR3), two genes in the jasmonic acid signaling pathway that are upregulated in response to herbivore damage. Our study presents evidence that furthers our understanding of the biochemical mechanism responsible for differences in insect performance on inbred vs. outbred host plants.
    Plant signaling & behavior 05/2015; 10(5):e998548. DOI:10.1080/15592324.2014.998548
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    ABSTRACT: Experimental evidences support that the circadian rhythm regulates the transcription levels of genes encoding the enzymes involved in plant metabolism. However, there is no paper to refer the correlation of the circadian rhythms and the metabolic processes for facilitating pollen tube growth. In this study, we found that many central components of the circadian clock were highly enriched and specifically present in the in vivo grown Arabidopsis pollen tubes. Our analysis also identified the significant differentially expressed genes encoding co-expressed enzymes in the consecutive steps of fatty acid β-oxidation II, pentose phosphate pathway (oxidative branch) and phosphatidic acid biosynthesis pathway in the in vivo grown Arabidopsis pollen tubes during pollination. Thus, it is implicated that the circadian rhythms of pollen tube may be adjusted and have a greater probability of the direct or indirect functional relationship with enhanced intracellular Ca(2+) dynamics and ATP production for facilitating pollen tube growth in vivo.
    Plant signaling & behavior 05/2015; 10(5):e1017699. DOI:10.1080/15592324.2015.1017699
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    ABSTRACT: In Arabidopsis thaliana, the R3-type MYB transcription factor CAPRICE (CPC) and bHLH transcription factor GLABRA3 (GL3) cooperatively regulate epidermal cell differentiation. CPC and GL3 are involved in root-hair differentiation, trichome initiation and anthocyanin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis epidermal cells. Previously, we showed that CPC and GL3 also influence anthocyanin accumulation in tomato. Introduction of 35S::CPC into tomato significantly inhibits anthocyanin accumulation in cotyledons, leaves and stems. In contrast, introduction of GL3::GL3 strongly enhances anthocyanin accumulation in cotyledons, leaves and stems of tomato. In this study, we investigated the effect of CPC and GL3 on anthocyanin accumulation in the epidermis of tomato fruit. Unlike the results with vegetative tissues, overexpression of CPC and GL3 did not influence anthocyanin biosynthesis in tomato fruit peel.
    Plant signaling & behavior 05/2015; 10(5):e1000131. DOI:10.1080/15592324.2014.1000131
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    ABSTRACT: Plant cellulose biosynthesis is a complex process involving cellulose-synthase complexes (CSCs) and various auxiliary factors essential for proper orientation and crystallinity of cellulose microfibrils in the apoplast. Among them is KORRIGAN1 (KOR1), a type-II membrane protein with multiple N-glycans within its C-terminal cellulase domain. N-glycosylation of the cellulase domain was important for KOR1 targeting to and retention within the trans-Golgi network (TGN), and prevented accumulation of KOR1 at tonoplasts. The degree of successful TGN localization of KOR1 agreed well with in vivo-complementation efficacy of the rsw2-1 mutant, suggesting non-catalytic functions in the TGN. A dynamic interaction network involving microtubules, CSCs, KOR1, and currently unidentified glycoprotein component(s) likely determines stress-triggered re-organization of cellulose biosynthesis and resumption of cell-wall growth under stress.
    Plant signaling & behavior 05/2015; 10(5):e1024397. DOI:10.1080/15592324.2015.1024397