Plant signaling & behavior (Plant Signal Behav)

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

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ISSN 1559-2324

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Taylor & Francis

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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a multifunctional eukaryotic organelle where the vast majority of secretory proteins are folded and assembled to achieve their correct tertiary structures. The lumen of the ER and Golgi apparatus also provides an environment for numerous glycosylation reactions essential for modifications of proteins and lipids, and for cell wall biosynthesis. These glycosylation reactions require a constant supply of cytosolically synthesized substrate precursors, nucleotide sugars, which are transported by a group of dedicated nucleotide sugar transporters (NST). Recently, we have reported on the identification of a novel ER-localized NST protein, ROCK1, which mediates the transport of UDP-linked acetylated hexosamines across the ER membrane in Arabidopsis. Interestingly, it has been demonstrated that the activity of ROCK1 is important for the regulation of cytokinin-degrading enzymes, cytokinin oxidases/dehydrogenases (CKX), in the ER and, thus, for cytokinin responses. In this addendum we will address the biochemical and cellular activity of the ROCK1 transporter and its phylogenetic relation to other NST proteins.
    Plant signaling & behavior 09/2015; DOI:10.1080/15592324.2015.1072668
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    ABSTRACT: Impact of transition metals which catalyze the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), on activation of cell death signaling in plant cells have been documented to date. Similarly in green paramecia (Paramecium bursaria), an aquatic protozoan species harboring symbiotic green algae in the cytoplasm, toxicities of various metallic ions have been documented. We have recently examined the effects of double-stranded GC-rich DNA fragments with copper-binding nature and ROS removal catalytic activity as novel plant cell-protecting agents, using the suspension-cultured tobacco cells. Here, we show that above DNA oligomers protect the cells of green paramecia from copper-induced cell death, suggesting that the phenomenon firstly observed in tobacco cells is not limited only within higher plants but it could be universally observable in wider range of organisms.
    Plant signaling & behavior 09/2015; DOI:10.1080/15592324.2015.1010919
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    ABSTRACT: It is well documented that extracellular alkalization occurs in plants under the challenges by pathogenic microbes. This may eventually induce the pH-dependent extracellular peroxidase-mediated oxidative burst at the site of microbial challenges. By employing the purified proteins of horse radish peroxidase as a model, we have recently proposed a likely role for free Fe(2+) in reduction of ferric enzyme of plant peroxidases into ferrous intermediate and oxygen-bound form of enzyme known as Compound III which may eventually releases superoxide anion radical (O2(•-)), especially under alkaline condition, possibly contributing to the plant defense mechanism. In the present study, we employed the purified protein of soybean peroxidase (SBP) as an additional model, and examined the changes in the redox status of enzyme accompanying the generation of O2(•-) in response to Fe(2+) under alkaline condition.
    Plant signaling & behavior 09/2015; DOI:10.1080/15592324.2015.1010917
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    ABSTRACT: When plants receive volatiles from a damaged plant, the receivers become more resistant to herbivory. This phenomenon has been reported in many plant species and called plant-plant communication. Lab experiments have suggested that several compounds may be functioning as airborne signals. The objective of this study is to identify potential airborne signals used in communication between sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) individuals in the field. We collected volatiles of one branch from each of 99 sagebrush individual plants. Eighteen different volatiles were detected by GC-MS analysis. Among these, four compounds; 1.8-cineol, β-caryophyllene, α-pinene and borneol, were investigated as signals of communication under natural conditions. The branches which received either 1,8-cineol or β-caryophyllene tended to get less damage than controls. These results suggested that 1,8-cineol and β-caryophyllene should be considered further as possible candidates for generalized airborne signals in sagebrush.
    Plant signaling & behavior 09/2015; DOI:10.1080/15592324.2015.1095416
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    ABSTRACT: The evolution of apical dominance in maize during domestication from teosinte is associated with higher expression from the teosinte branched1 (tb1) gene that inhibits tiller bud outgrowth. Unlike many standard maize varieties, the sweet corn inbred P39 that carries a mutation in a starch biosynthesis gene sugary1 produces multiple tillers and providing an opportunity to explore the diversification of the tb1 signal in maize. Through gene expression analysis, we show that tiller buds in P39 continue to grow by overriding the high expression level of tb1 that arrests bud outgrowth in maize inbred B73. In addition, we demonstrate that while B73 is largely non-responsive to shade, both P39 and teosinte respond through tb1-independent and tb1-dependent molecular mechanisms, respectively, leading to inhibition of tiller bud outgrowth.
    Plant signaling & behavior 09/2015; DOI:10.1080/15592324.2015.1078954
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    ABSTRACT: Giant-celled Characeae (Chara australis Brown), grown for 4 months on 12/12 hr day/night cycle and summer/autumn temperatures, exhibited distinct concentration maxima in auxin (indole-3-acetic acid; IAA), melatonin and serotonin about 4 hr after subjective daybreak. These concentration peaks persisted after three day pretreatment in continuous darkness: confirming a circadian rhythm, rather than a response to "light on". The plants pretreated for three days in continuous light exhibited several large IAA concentration maxima throughout the 24 hr. The melatonin and serotonin concentrations decreased and were less synchronized with IAA. Chara plants grown on 9/15 hr day/night cycle for 4 months and winter/spring temperatures contained much smaller concentrations of IAA, melatonin and serotonin. The IAA concentration maxima were observed in subjective dark phase. Serotonin concentration peaks were weakly correlated with those of IAA. Melatonin concentration was low and mostly independent of circadian cycle. The "dark" IAA concentration peaks persisted in plants treated for three days in the dark. The plants pretreated for three days in the light again developed more IAA concentration peaks. In this case the concentration maxima in melatonin and serotonin became more synchronous with those in IAA. The abscisic acid (ABA) and jasmonic acid (JA) concentrations were also measured in plants on winter regime. The ABA concentration did not exhibit circadian pattern, while JA concentration peaks were out of phase with those of IAA. The data are discussed in terms of crosstalk between metabolic pathways.
    Plant signaling & behavior 09/2015; DOI:10.1080/15592324.2015.1082697
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    ABSTRACT: Life cycle adaptation to seasonal changes in photoperiod and ambient temperature is a major determinant of the ecological success behind the widespread domestication of flowering plants. The circadian clock plays a role in the underlying mechanism for adaptation through generating endogenous rhythms that allow plants to adapt and adjust to both the 24 h diurnal rotation and 365 d seasonal revolution. Nevertheless, the mechanism by which the circadian clock tracks seasonal changes in photoperiod and temperature is a longstanding subject in the field. Recently, we have begun to understand the question of how the light and ambient temperature signals feed into the circadian clock transcriptional circuitry in day-night cycles in order to track seasonal changes in photoperiod and ambient temperature. (1-4) Our results collectively indicate that the evening complex (EC) nighttime repressor consisting of LUX-ELF3-ELF4 plays a crucial role in this respect. Here, we discuss about these recent studies to add further implications.
    Plant signaling & behavior 09/2015; DOI:10.1080/15592324.2015.1087630
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    ABSTRACT: The yield of chlorophyll fluorescence Ft was measured in leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana over periods of several days under conditions of continuous illumination (LL) without the application of saturating light pulses. After linearization of the time series of the chlorophyll fluorescence yield (ΔFt), oscillations became apparent with periodicities in the circatidal range. Alignments of these linearized time series ΔFt with the lunisolar tidal acceleration revealed high degrees of synchrony and phase congruence. Similar congruence with the lunisolar tide was obtained with the linearized quantum yield of PSII (ΔФII), recorded after application of saturating light pulses. These findings strongly suggest that there is an exogenous timekeeper which is a stimulus for the oscillations detected in both the linearized yield of chlorophyll fluorescence (ΔFt) and the linearized quantum yield of PSII (ΔФII).
    Plant signaling & behavior 09/2015; DOI:10.1080/15592324.2015.1057367
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    ABSTRACT: The process of host plant penetration by parasitic dodder (genus Cuscuta) is accompanied by molecular and structural changes at the host/parasite interface. Recently, changes in pectin methyl esterification levels in the host cell walls abutting parasitic cells in established infection sites were reported. In addition to that, we show here that the composition of cell wall glycoproteins in Cuscuta-infected Pelargonium zonale undergoes substantial changes. While several arabinogalactan protein epitopes exhibit decreased abundances in the vicinity of the Cuscuta reflexa haustorium, extensins tend to increase in the infected areas.
    Plant signaling & behavior 09/2015; DOI:10.1080/15592324.2015.1086858
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    ABSTRACT: In vivo redox activities in the apoplast of axenically cultured intact seedling roots (superoxide anion generation, and superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activities) in contact with the compatible arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) were clearly attenuated in comparison with those in contact with the pathogenic fungus (PF) or treated with MeJA, even at the early stages of treatment. Contact of roots with the AMF did not enhance the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds (total phenolics, flavonoids, and phenylpropanoid glycosides), while contact with the PF significantly enhanced the biosynthesis of all phenolic fractions. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species both seemed to be involved in these responses from the first moments of contact, but the fluorescence imaging of roots showed that ROS were mainly accumulated in the apoplast while NO was mainly stored in the cytosol. In conclusion, intact olive seedling roots clearly differentiated between AMF and PF.
    Plant signaling & behavior 09/2015; 10(9):e1049789. DOI:10.1080/15592324.2015.1049789
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    ABSTRACT: Autophagy is a pathway in which a cell degrades part of its cytoplasm in vacuoles or lysosomes. To identify the physiological functions of autophagy in plants, we disrupted ATG5, an autophagy-related gene, in Physcomitrella, and confirmed that atg5 mutants are deficient in the process of autophagy. On carbon or nitrogen starvation medium, atg5 colonies turned yellow earlier than the wild-type (WT) colonies, showing that Physcomitrella atg5 mutants, like yeast and Arabidopsis, are sensitive to nutrient starvation. In the dark, even under nutrient-sufficient conditions, colonies turned yellow and the net degradation of chlorophyll and Rubisco protein occurred together with the upregulation of several senescence-associated genes. Yellowing reactions were inhibited by the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide, suggesting that protonemal colonies undergo dark-induced senescence like the green leaves of higher plants. Such senescence responses in the dark occurred earlier in atg5 colonies than WT colonies. The sugar content was almost the same between WT and atg5 colonies, indicating that the early-senescence phenotype of atg5 is not explained by sugar deficiency. However, the levels of seven amino acids showed significantly different alteration between atg5 and WT in the dark: six amino acids, particularly arginine and alanine, were much more deficient in the atg5 mutants, irrespective of the early degradation of Rubisco protein. On nutrient-sufficient medium supplemented with casamino acids, the early-senescence phenotype was slightly moderated. We propose that the early-senescence phenotype in atg5 mutants is partly explained by amino acid imbalance because of the lack of cytoplasmic degradation by autophagy in Physcomitrella.
    Plant signaling & behavior 09/2015; DOI:10.1080/15592324.2015.1086859
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    ABSTRACT: Tobacco BY-2 cells undergo autophagy in sucrose-free culture medium, which is the process mostly responsible for intracellular protein degradation under these conditions. Autophagy was inhibited by the vacuolar H(+)-ATPase inhibitors concanamycin A and bafilomycin, which caused the accumulation of autophagic bodies in the central vacuoles. Such accumulation did not occur in the presence of the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA), and concanamycin in turn inhibited the accumulation of autolysosomes in the presence of the cysteine protease inhibitor E-64c. Electron microscopy revealed not only that the autophagic bodies were accumulated in the central vacuole, but also that autophagosome-like structures were more frequently observed in the cytoplasm in treatments with concanamycin, suggesting that concanamycin affects the morphology of autophagosomes in addition to raising the pH of the central vacuole. Using BY-2 cells that constitutively express a fusion protein of autophagosome marker protein Atg8 and green fluorescent protein (GFP), we observed the appearance of autophagosomes by fluorescence microscopy, which is a reliable morphological marker of autophagy, and the processing of the fusion protein to GFP, which is a biochemical marker of autophagy. Together, these results suggest the involvement of vacuole type H(+)-ATPase in the maturation step of autophagosomes to autolysosomes in the autophagic process of BY-2 cells. The accumulation of autophagic bodies in the central vacuole by concanamycin is a marker of the occurrence of autophagy; however, it does not necessarily mean that the central vacuole is the site of cytoplasm degradation.
    Plant signaling & behavior 09/2015; DOI:10.1080/15592324.2015.1082699
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    ABSTRACT: Many plants show heterophylly, which is variation in leaf form within a plant owing to environmental change. The molecular mechanisms underlying heterophylly have recently been investigated in several plant species. However, little is known about how plants exhibiting heterophylly sense environmental cues. Here, we used Rorippa aquatica (Brassicaceae), which shows heterophylly, to investigate whether a single leaf can sense and transit changes in ambient temperature. The morphology of newly developed leaves after single-leaf warming treatment was significantly different from that of mock-treated control leaves, suggesting that leaves are sensing organs that mediate the responses to changes in ambient temperature in R. aquatica.
    Plant signaling & behavior 09/2015; DOI:10.1080/15592324.2015.1091909
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    ABSTRACT: In 1865, the German botanist Julius Sachs published a seminal monograph entitled Experimental-Physiologie der Pflanzen (Experimental Physiology of Plants) and hence became the founder of a new scientific discipline that originated 150 years ago. Here, we outline the significance of the achievements of Sachs. In addition, we document, with reference to his Vorlesungen über Pflanzen-Physiologie (Lectures on the Physiology of Plants, 1882), that Sachs was one of the first experimentalists who proposed the functional unity of all organisms alive today (humans, animals, plants and other "vegetable" organisms, such as algae, cyanophyceae, fungi, myxomycetes, and bacteria).
    Plant signaling & behavior 09/2015; DOI:10.1080/15592324.2015.1079679