Epigenetics: official journal of the DNA Methylation Society (Epigenetics )

Description

Epigenetics is a new peer-reviewed journal available in print and online. This multidisciplinary journal publishes original research articles and reviews covering the latest aspects of epigenetic mechanisms and their regulation of diverse biological processes. The goal is to foster communication and rapid exchange of information through timely publication of important results using traditional as well as electronic formats. The overriding criteria for publication in Epigenetics are originality, scientific merit and general interest. The official journal of the Epigenetics Society.

  • Impact factor
    4.58
  • 5-year impact
    0.00
  • Cited half-life
    2.30
  • Immediacy index
    0.68
  • Eigenfactor
    0.00
  • Article influence
    1.85
  • Website
    Epigenetics website
  • Other titles
    Epigenetics (Online), Epigenetics
  • ISSN
    1559-2308
  • OCLC
    62511506
  • Material type
    Document, Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Supplementation of fish oil rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) during pregnancy has been shown to confer favorable health outcomes in the offspring. In a randomized controlled trial, we have previously shown that n-3 PUFA supplementation in pregnancy was associated with modified immune responses and some markers of immune maturation. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these heritable effects are unclear. To determine whether the biological effects of maternal n-3 PUFA supplementation are mediated through DNA methylation, we analyzed CD4(+) T-cells purified from cryo-banked cord blood samples from a previously conducted clinical trial. Of the 80 mother-infant pairs that completed the initial trial, cord blood samples of 70 neonates were available for genome-wide DNA methylation profiling. Comparison of purified total CD4(+) T-cell DNA methylation profiles between the supplement and control groups did not reveal any statistically significant differences in CpG methylation, at the single-CpG or regional level. Effect sizes among top-ranked probes were lower than 5% and did not warrant further validation. Tests for association between methylation levels and key n-3 PUFA parameters, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), or total n-3 PUFAs were suggestive of dose-dependent effects, but these did not reach genome-wide significance. Our analysis of the microarray data did not suggest strong modifying effects of in utero n-3 PUFA exposure on CD4(+) T-cell methylation profiles, and no probes on the array met our criteria for further validation. Other epigenetic mechanisms may be more relevant mediators of functional effects induced by n-3 PUFA in early life.
    Epigenetics: official journal of the DNA Methylation Society 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT Brain metastasis is a major contributor to cancer mortality; yet, the genetic changes underlying the development of this capacity remain poorly understood. RASSF proteins are a family of tumor suppressors that often suffer epigenetic inactivation during tumorigenesis. However, their epigenetic status in brain metastases has not been well characterized. We have examined the promoter methylation of the classical RASSF members (RASSF1A-RASSF6) in a panel of metastatic brain tumor samples. RASSF1A and RASSF2 have been shown to undergo promoter methylation at high frequency in primary lung and breast tumors and in brain metastases. Other members exhibited little or no methylation in these tumors. In examining melanoma metastases, however, we found that RASSF6 exhibits the highest frequency of inactivation in melanoma and in melanoma brain metastases. Most melanomas are driven by an activating mutation in B-Raf. Introduction of RASSF6 into a B-Raf(V600E)-containing metastatic melanoma cell line inhibited its ability to invade through collagen and suppressed MAPK pathway activation and AKT. RASSF6 also appears to increase the association of mutant B-Raf and MST1, providing a potential mechanism by which RASSF6 is able to suppress MAPK activation. Thus, we have identified a novel potential role for RASSF6 in melanoma development. Promoter methylation leading to reduced expression of RASSF6 may play an important role in melanoma development and may contribute to brain metastases.
    Epigenetics: official journal of the DNA Methylation Society 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Alterations in global DNA methylation levels have been associated with chronic diseases. Despite the increase in the number of studies measuring markers of global methylation, few have adequately examined within-individual differences by source of DNA and whether within-individual differences by source of DNA differ by age, race and other lifestyle factors. We examined correlations between peripheral mononuclear cell (PBMC) and granulocyte DNA methylation levels measured by the luminometric methylation assay (LUMA), and in LINE-1, Sat2, and Alu by MethyLight and pyrosequencing, in the same individual in 112 women participating in The New York City Multiethnic Breast Cancer Project. Levels of DNA methylation of Sat2 by MethyLight (r = 0.57; p<0.01) and LINE-1 by pyrosequencing (r = 0.30; p<0.01) were correlated between PBMC and granulocyte DNA of the same individuals, but LUMA and Alu levels were not. The magnitude of the correlations for Sat2 and LINE-1 varied when stratified by selected demographic and lifestyle factors, although the study sample size limited our comparisons across subgroups. These results lend further support to the importance of considering the source of DNA in epidemiologic studies of white blood cell DNA methylation. Results from studies that combine individuals with different available DNA sources need to be interpreted with caution.
    Epigenetics: official journal of the DNA Methylation Society 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Liver regeneration has been well studied with hope of discovering strategies to improve liver disease outcomes. Nevertheless, the signals that initiate such regeneration remain incompletely defined, and translation of mechanism-based pro-regenerative interventions into new treatments for hepatic diseases has not yet been achieved. We previously reported the isoform-specific regulation and essential function of zinc-dependent histone deacetylases (Zn-HDACs) during mouse liver regeneration. Those data suggest that epigenetically regulated anti-proliferative genes are deacetylated and transcriptionally suppressed by Zn-HDAC activity or that pro-regenerative factors are acetylated and induced by such activity in response to partial hepatectomy (PH). To investigate these possibilities, we conducted genome-wide interrogation of the liver histone acetylome during early PH-induced liver regeneration in mice using acetyl-histone chromatin immunoprecipitation and next generation DNA sequencing. We also compared the findings of that study to those seen during the impaired regenerative response that occurs with Zn-HDAC inhibition. The results reveal an epigenetic signature of early liver regeneration that includes both hyperacetylation of pro-regenerative factors and deacetylation of anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic genes. Our data also show that administration of an anti-regenerative regimen of the Zn-HDAC inhibitor suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) not only disrupts gene-specific pro-regenerative changes in liver histone deacetylation but also reverses PH-induced effects on histone hyperacetylation. Taken together, these studies offer new insight into and suggest novel hypotheses about the epigenetic mechanisms that regulate liver regeneration.
    Epigenetics: official journal of the DNA Methylation Society 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT The methylation status of the IGFBP-3 gene is strongly associated with cisplatin sensitivity in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In this study, we found in vitro evidence that linked the presence of an unmethylated promoter with poor response to radiation. Our data also indicate that radiation might sensitize chemotherapy-resistant cells by reactivating IGFBP-3-expression through promoter demethylation, inactivating the PI3K/AKT pathway. We also explored the IGFBP-3 methylation effect on overall survival (OS) in a population of 40 NSCLC patients who received adjuvant therapy after R0 surgery. Our results indicate that patients harboring an unmethylated promoter could benefit more from a chemotherapy schedule alone than from a multimodality therapy involving radiotherapy and platinum-based treatments, increasing their OS by 2.5 years (p = .03). Our findings discard this epi-marker as a prognostic factor in a patient population without adjuvant therapy, indicating that radiotherapy does not improve survival for patients harboring an unmethylated IGFBP-3 promoter.
    Epigenetics: official journal of the DNA Methylation Society 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract DNA methylation changes contribute to bladder carcinogenesis. Trihalomethanes (THM), a class of disinfection by-products, are associated with increased urothelial bladder cancer (UBC) risk. THM exposure in animal models produces DNA hypomethylation. We evaluated the relationship of LINE-1 5-methylcytosine levels (LINE-1%5mC) as outcome of long-term THM exposure among controls and as an effect modifier in the association between THM exposure and UBC risk. We used a case-control study of UBC conducted in Spain. We obtained personal lifetime residential THM levels and measured LINE-1%5mC by pyrosequencing in granulocyte DNA from blood samples in 548 incident cases and 559 hospital controls. Two LINE-1%5mC clusters (above and below 64%) were identified through unsupervised hierarchical cluster analysis. The association between THM levels and LINE-1%5mC was evaluated with beta regression analyses and logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) adjusting for covariables. LINE-1%5mC change between percentiles 75(th) and 25(th) of THM levels was 1.8% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.1, 3.4%) among controls. THM levels above vs. below the median (26 μg/L) were associated with increased UBC risk, OR = 1.86 (95% CI: 1.25, 2.75), overall and among subjects with low levels of LINE-1%5mC (n = 975), OR = 2.14 (95% CI: 1.39, 3.30), but not associated with UBC risk among subjects' high levels of LINE-1%5mC (n = 162), interaction P = 0.03. Results suggest a positive association between LINE-1%5mC and THM levels among controls, and LINE-1%5mC status may modify the association between UBC risk and THM exposure. Because reverse causation and chance cannot be ruled out, confirmation studies are warranted.
    Epigenetics: official journal of the DNA Methylation Society 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Histone deacetylases (HDAC) control gene expression through their ability to acetylate proteins, thereby influencing a diverse range of cellular functions. Class I HDAC (HDAC1-3 and 8) and HDAC6 are predominantly upregulated in malignancies and their altered expression in some cancers has a significant prognostic implication. The expression and prognostic consequence of dysregulated Class I HDAC and HDAC6, key players in multiple myeloma (MM), are unknown. This study hypothesized that HDAC are dysregulated in MM and patients with high expression have significantly poorer prognostic outcomes. Quantitative PCR for 11 HDAC (Class I, II, and IV) was performed in genetically heterogeneous human myeloma cell lines (HMCL) and primary MM and compared to normal plasma cells (PC). In HMCL, HDAC1-3 and 8 (Class I), and HDAC5 and HDAC10 (Class II) were significantly upregulated compared to normal PC. In primary MM, the median expression level of all of the HDAC, except HDAC1 and HDAC11, were elevated when compared to normal PC. Patients with higher levels of HDAC1-3, HDAC4, HDAC6, and HDAC11 transcripts demonstrated a significantly shorter progression-free survival (PFS). Immunohistochemical staining for HDAC1 and HDAC6 on bone marrow trephines from a uniformly treated cohort of transplant eligible MM patients revealed that HDAC1 protein was detectable in most patients and that higher levels of MM cell HDAC1 protein expression (≥90% versus ≤20% MM cell positivity) correlated with both shorter PFS (p = 0.07) and shorter overall survival (p = 0.003). Conversely, while the majority of patients expressed HDAC6, there was no correlation between HDAC6 levels and patient outcome. Together, these results indicate that overexpression of Class I HDAC, particularly HDAC1, is associated with poor prognosis in MM.
    Epigenetics: official journal of the DNA Methylation Society 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Gene transcription is tightly regulated at different levels to ensure that the transcriptome of the cell is appropriate for developmental stage and cell type. The chromatin state in which a gene is embedded determines its expression level to a large extent. Activation or repression of transcription is typically accomplished by the recruitment of chromatin-associated multisubunit protein complexes that combine several molecular tools, such as histone-binding and chromatin-modifying activities. Recent biochemical purifications of such complexes have revealed a substantial diversity. On the one hand, complexes that were thought to be unique have been revealed to be part of large complex families. On the other hand, protein subunits that were thought to only exist in separate complexes have been shown to coexist in novel assemblies. In this review we discuss our current knowledge of repressor complexes that contain MBT domain proteins and/or the CoREST co-repressor and use them as a paradigm to illustrate the unexpected heterogeneity and tool sharing of chromatin regulating protein complexes. These recent insights also challenge the ways we define and think about protein complexes in general.
    Epigenetics: official journal of the DNA Methylation Society 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In utero smoke exposure has been shown to have detrimental effects on lung function and to be associated with persistent wheezing and asthma in children. One potential mechanism of IUS effects could be alterations in DNA methylation, which may have life-long implications. The goal of this study was to examine the association between DNA methylation and nicotine exposure in fetal lung and placental tissue in early development; nicotine exposure in this analysis represents a likely surrogate for in-utero smoke. We performed an epigenome-wide analysis of DNA methylation in fetal lung tissue (n = 85, 41 smoke exposed (48%), 44 controls) and the corresponding placental tissue samples (n = 80, 39 smoke exposed (49%), 41 controls) using the Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array. Differential methylation analyses were conducted to evaluate the variation associated with nicotine exposure. The most significant CpG sites in the fetal lung analysis mapped to the PKP3 (P = 2.94×10(-03)), ANKRD33B (P = 3.12×10(-03)), CNTD2 (P = 4.9×10(-03)) and DPP10 (P = 5.43×10(-03)) genes. In the placental methylome, the most significant CpG sites mapped to the GTF2H2C and GTF2H2D genes (P = 2.87×10(-06) - 3.48×10(-05)). One hundred and one unique CpG sites with P-values < 0.05 were concordant between lung and placental tissue analyses. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis demonstrated enrichment of specific disorders, such as asthma and immune disorders. Our findings demonstrate an association between in utero nicotine exposure and variable DNA methylation in fetal lung and placental tissues, suggesting a role for DNA methylation variation in the fetal origins of chronic diseases.
    Epigenetics: official journal of the DNA Methylation Society 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Despite considerable efforts, our understanding of the organization of higher order chromatin conformations in single cells and how these relate to chromatin marks remains poor. We have earlier invented the Chromatin In Situ Proximity (ChrISP) technique to determine proximities between chromatin fibers within a single chromosome. Here we used ChrISP to identify chromosome 11-specific hubs that are enriched in the H3K9me2 mark and that project towards the nuclear membrane in finger-like structures. Conversely, chromosome 11-specfic chromatin hubs, visualized by the presence of either H3K9me1 or H3K9me3 marks, are chromosome-wide and largely absent at the nuclear periphery. As the nuclear periphery-specific chromatin hubs were lost in the induced reduction of H3K9me2 levels, they likely represent Large Organization Chromatin in Lysine Methylation (LOCK) domains, previously identified by ChIP-seq analysis. Strikingly, the downregulation of the H3K9me2/3 marks also led to the chromosome-wide compaction of chromosome 11, suggesting a pleiotropic function of these features not recognized before. The ChrISP-mediated visualization of dynamic chromatin states in single cells thus provides an analysis of chromatin structures with a resolution far exceeding that of any other light microscopic technique.
    Epigenetics: official journal of the DNA Methylation Society 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract A key step in the process of metastasis is the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). We hypothesized that epigenetic mechanisms play a key role in EMT and to test this hypothesis we analyzed global and gene-specific changes in DNA methylation during TGF-β-induced EMT in ovarian cancer cells. Epigenetic profiling using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip (HM450) revealed extensive (P < 0.01) methylation changes after TGF-β stimulation (468 and 390 CpG sites altered at 48 and 120 hour post cytokine treatment, respectively). The majority of gene-specific TGF-β-induced methylation changes occurred in CpG islands located in or near promoters (193 and 494 genes hypermethylated at 48 and 120 hours after TGF-β stimulation, respectively). Furthermore, methylation changes were sustained for the duration of TGF-β treatment and reversible after the cytokine removal. Pathway analysis of the hypermethylated loci identified functional networks strongly associated with EMT and cancer progression, including cellular movement, cell cycle, organ morphology, cellular development, and cell death and survival. Altered methylation and corresponding expression of specific genes during TGF-β-induced EMT included CDH1 (E-cadherin) and COL1A1 (collagen 1A1). Furthermore, TGF-β induced both expression and activity of DNA methyltransferases (DNMT) -1, -3A, and -3B, and treatment with the DNMT inhibitor SGI-110 prevented TGF-β-induced EMT. These results demonstrate that dynamic changes in the DNA methylome are implicated in TGF-β-induced EMT and metastasis. We suggest that targeting DNMTs may inhibit this process by reversing the EMT genes silenced by DNA methylation in cancer.
    Epigenetics: official journal of the DNA Methylation Society 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Lynch syndrome (LS) is a tumor predisposing condition caused by constitutional defects in genes coding for components of the mismatch repair (MMR) apparatus. While hypermethylation of the promoter of the MMR gene MLH1 occurs in about 15% of colorectal cancer samples, it has also been observed as a constitutional alteration, in the absence of DNA sequence mutations, in a small number of LS patients. In order to obtain further insights on the phenotypic characteristics of MLH1 epimutation carriers, we investigated the somatic and constitutional MLH1 methylation status of 14 unrelated subjects with a suspicion of LS who were negative for MMR gene constitutional mutations and whose tumors did not express the MLH1 protein. A novel case of constitutional MLH1 epimutation was identified. This patient was affected with multiple primary tumors, including breast cancer, diagnosed starting from the age of 55 y. Investigation of her offspring by allele specific expression revealed that the epimutation was not stable across generations. We also found MLH1 hypermethylation in cancer samples from 4 additional patients who did not have evidence of constitutional defects. These patients had some characteristics of LS, namely early age at onset and/or positive family history, raising the possibility of genetic influences in the establishment of somatic MLH1 methylation.
    Epigenetics: official journal of the DNA Methylation Society 10/2014; 9(10):1431-8.
  • Epigenetics: official journal of the DNA Methylation Society 10/2014; 9(10):1317-21.
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    ABSTRACT: Given the possible critical importance of placental gene imprinting and random monoallelic expression on fetal and infant health, most of those genes must be identified, in order to understand the risks that the baby might meet during pregnancy and after birth. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to introduce a workflow and tools for analyzing imprinted and random monoallelic gene expression in human placenta, by applying whole-transcriptome (WT) RNA sequencing of placental tissue and genotyping of coding DNA variants in family trios. Ten family trios, each with a healthy spontaneous single-term pregnancy, were recruited. Total RNA was extracted for WT analysis, providing the full sequence information for the placental transcriptome. Parental and child blood DNA genotypes were analyzed by exome SNP genotyping microarrays, mapping the inheritance and estimating the abundance of parental expressed alleles. Imprinted genes showed consistent expression from either parental allele, as demonstrated by the SNP content of sequenced transcripts, while monoallelically expressed genes had random activity of parental alleles. We revealed 4 novel possible imprinted genes (LGALS8, LGALS14, PAPPA2 and SPTLC3) and confirmed the imprinting of 4 genes (AIM1, PEG10, RHOBTB3 and ZFAT-AS1) in human placenta. The major finding was the identification of 4 genes (ABP1, BCLAF1, IFI30 and ZFAT) with random allelic bias, expressing one of the parental alleles preferentially. The main functions of the imprinted and monoallelically expressed genes included: i) mediating cellular apoptosis and tissue development; ii) regulating inflammation and immune system; iii) facilitating metabolic processes; and iv) regulating cell cycle.
    Epigenetics: official journal of the DNA Methylation Society 10/2014; 9(10):1397-409.
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    ABSTRACT: Human leukocyte antigen II (HLA-II) plays an important role in host immune responses to cancer cells. Changes in gene methylation may result in aberrant expression of HLA-II, serving a key role in the pathogenesis of Kazakh esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). We analyzed the expression level of HLA-II (HLA-DP, -DQ, and -DR) by immunohistochemistry, as well as the methylation status of HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DQB1 by MassARRAY spectrometry in Xinjiang Kazakh ESCC. Expression of HLA-II in ESCC was significantly higher than that in cancer adjacent normal (ACN) samples (P < 0.05). Decreased HLA-II expression was closely associated with later clinical stages of ESCC (P < 0.05). Hypomethylation of HLA-DRB1 and hypermethylation of HLA-DQB1 was significantly correlated with occurrence of Kazakh ESCC (P < 0.01), and mainly manifested as hypomethylation of CpG9, CpG10-11, and CpG16 in HLA-DRB1 and hypermethylation of CpG6-7 and CpG16-17 in HLA-DQB1 (P < 0.01). Moreover, hypomethylation of HLA-DQB1 CpG6-7 correlated with poor differentiation in ESCCs, whereas hypermethylation of HLA-DRB1 CpG16 and hypomethylation of HLA-DQB1 CpG16-17 were significantly associated with later stages of ESCC (P < 0.05). A significant inverse association between HLA-DRB1 CpG9 methylation and HLA-II expression was found in ESCC (P < 0.05). These findings suggest aberrant HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DQB1 methylation contributes to the aberrant expression of HLA-II. These molecular changes may influence the immune response to specific tumor epitopes, promoting the occurrence and progression of Kazakh ESCC.
    Epigenetics: official journal of the DNA Methylation Society 10/2014; 9(10):1366-73.
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    ABSTRACT: There is considerable current interest in the function of epigenetic mechanisms in neuroplasticity with regard to learning and memory formation and to a range of neural diseases. Previously, we described replication timing on human chromosome 21q in the THP-1 human cell line (2n = 46, XY) and showed that several genes associated with neural diseases, such as the neuronal glutamate receptor subunit GluR-5 (GRIK1) and amyloid precursor protein (APP), were located in regions where replication timing transitioned from early to late S phase. Here, we compared replication timing of all known human glutamate receptor genes (26 genes in total) and APP in 6 different human cell lines including human neuron-related cell lines. Replication timings were obtained by integrating our previously reported data with new data generated here and information from the online database ReplicationDomain. We found that many of the glutamate receptor genes were clearly located in replication timing transition zones in neural precursor cells, but this relationship was less clear in embryonic stem cells before neural differentiation; in the latter, the genes were often located in later replication timing zones that displayed DNA hypermethylation. Analysis of selected large glutamate receptor genes (>200 kb), and of APP, showed that their precise replication timing patterns differed among the cell lines. We propose that the transition zones of DNA replication timing are altered by epigenetic mechanisms, and that these changes may affect the neuroplasticity that is important to memory and learning, and may also have a role in the development of neural diseases.
    Epigenetics: official journal of the DNA Methylation Society 10/2014; 9(10):1350-9.
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    ABSTRACT: In the last years, epigenetic processes have emerged as a promising area of complex diseases research. DNA methylation measured in Long Interspersed Nucleotide Element 1 (LINE-1) sequences has been considered a surrogate marker for global genome methylation. New findings have suggested the potential involvement of epigenetic mechanisms in Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) as a crucial interface between the effects of genetic predisposition and environmental influences. Our study evaluated whether global DNA methylation predicted increased risk from T2DM or other carbohydrate metabolism disorders in a cohort study. We used a prospective cohort intervention study and a control group. We collected phenotypic, anthropometric, biochemical, and nutritional information from all subjects. Global LINE-1 DNA methylation was quantified by pyrosequencing technology. Subjects that did not improve their carbohydrate metabolism status showed lower levels of global LINE-1 DNA methylation (63.9 ± 1.7 vs. 64.7 ± 2.4) and they practiced less intense physical activity (5.8% vs. 21.5%). Logistic regression analyses showed a significant association between LINE-1 DNA methylation and metabolic status after adjustment for sex, age, BMI, and physical activity. Our study showed that lower LINE-1 DNA methylation levels were associated with a higher risk metabolic status worsening, independent of other classic risk factors. This finding highlights the potential role for epigenetic biomarkers as predictors of T2DM risk or other related metabolic disorders.
    Epigenetics: official journal of the DNA Methylation Society 10/2014; 9(10):1322-8.
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    ABSTRACT: Quantitating the copy number of demethylated CpG promoter sites of the CD3Z gene can be used to estimate the numbers and proportions of T cells in human blood and tissue. Quantitative methylation specific PCR (qPCR) is useful for studying T cells but requires extensive calibration and is imprecise at low copy numbers. Here we compared the performance of a new digital PCR platform (droplet digital PCR or ddPCR) to qPCR using bisulfite converted DNA from 157 blood specimens obtained from ambulatory care controls and patients with primary glioma. We compared both ddPCR and qPCR with conventional flow cytometry (FACS) evaluation of CD3 positive T cells. Repeated measures on the same blood sample revealed ddPCR to be less variable than qPCR. Both qPCR and ddPCR correlated significantly with FACS evaluation of peripheral blood CD3 counts and CD3/total leukocyte values. However, statistical measures of agreement showed that linear concordance was stronger for ddPCR than for qPCR and the absolute values were closer to FACS for ddPCR. Both qPCR and ddPCR could distinguish clinically significant differences in T cell proportions and performed similarly to FACS. Given the higher precision, greater accuracy, and technical simplicity of ddPCR, this approach appears to be a superior DNA methylation based method than conventional qPCR for the assessment of T cells.
    Epigenetics: official journal of the DNA Methylation Society 10/2014; 9(10):1360-5.