Epigenetics: official journal of the DNA Methylation Society Impact Factor & Information

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

Journal description

Epigenetics is a new peer-reviewed journal available in print and online. This multidisciplinary journal publishes original research articles and reviews covering the latest aspects of epigenetic mechanisms and their regulation of diverse biological processes. The goal is to foster communication and rapid exchange of information through timely publication of important results using traditional as well as electronic formats. The overriding criteria for publication in Epigenetics are originality, scientific merit and general interest. The official journal of the Epigenetics Society.

Current impact factor: 5.11

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2015
2013 / 2014 Impact Factor 5.108
2012 Impact Factor 4.92
2011 Impact Factor 4.318
2010 Impact Factor 4.622
2009 Impact Factor 4.584

Impact factor over time

Impact factor
Year

Additional details

5-year impact 0.00
Cited half-life 2.30
Immediacy index 0.68
Eigenfactor 0.00
Article influence 1.85
Website Epigenetics website
Other titles Epigenetics (Online), Epigenetics
ISSN 1559-2308
OCLC 62511506
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Taylor & Francis

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
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    • On author's personal website or departmental website immediately
    • On institutional repository or subject-based repository after either 12 months embargo
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • On a non-profit server
    • Published source must be acknowledged
    • Must link to publisher version
    • Set statements to accompany deposits (see policy)
    • The publisher will deposit in on behalf of authors to a designated institutional repository including PubMed Central, where a deposit agreement exists with the repository
    • STM: Science, Technology and Medicine
    • Publisher last contacted on 25/03/2014
    • This policy is an exception to the default policies of 'Taylor & Francis'
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Some but not all neonates are affected by prenatal exposure to serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants (SRI) and maternal mood disturbances. Distinguishing the impact of these two exposures is challenging and raises critical questions about whether pharmacological, genetic, or epigenetic factors can explain the spectrum of reported outcomes. Using unbiased DNA methylation array measurements followed by a detailed candidate gene approach, we examined whether prenatal SRI exposure was associated with neonatal DNA methylation changes and whether such changes were associated with differences in birth outcomes. Prenatal SRI exposure was first associated with increased DNA methylation status primarily at CYP2E1(βNon-exposed = 0.06, βSRI-exposed = 0.30, FDR = 0); however, this finding could not be distinguished from the potential impact of prenatal maternal depressed mood. Then, using pyrosequencing of CYP2E1 regulatory regions in an expanded cohort, higher DNA methylation status-both the mean across 16 CpG sites (P < 0.01) and at each specific CpG site (P < 0.05)-was associated with exposure to lower 3(rd) trimester maternal depressed mood symptoms only in the SRI-exposed neonates, indicating a maternal mood × SRI exposure interaction. In addition, higher DNA methylation levels at CpG2 (P = 0.04), CpG9 (P = 0.04) and CpG10 (P = 0.02), in the interrogated CYP2E1 region, were associated with increased birth weight independently of prenatal maternal mood, SRI drug exposure, or gestational age at birth. Prenatal SRI antidepressant exposure and maternal depressed mood were associated with altered neonatal CYP2E1 methylation status, which, in turn, appeared to be associated with birth weight.
    Epigenetics: official journal of the DNA Methylation Society 04/2015; DOI:10.1080/15592294.2015.1026031
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Although age-associated gene expression and methylation changes have been reported throughout the literature, the unifying epigenomic principles of aging remain poorly understood. Recent explosion in availability and resolution of functional/regulatory genome annotation data (epigenomic data), such as that provided by the ENCODE and Roadmap Epigenomics projects, provides an opportunity for the identification of epigenomic mechanisms potentially altered by age-associated differentially methylated regions (aDMRs) and to find regulatory signatures in the promoters of age-associated genes (aGENs). In this study we found that aDMRs and aGENs identified in multiple independent studies share a common Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 signature marked by EZH2, SUZ12, CTCF binding sites, repressive H3K27me3, and activating H3K4me1 histone modification marks, and a "poised promoter" chromatin state. This signature is depleted in RNAP II-associated transcription factor binding sites, activating H3K79me2, H3K36me3, H3K27ac marks, and an "active promoter" chromatin state. The PRC2 signature was shown to be generally stable across cell types. When considering the directionality of methylation changes, we found the PRC2 signature to be associated with aDMRs hypermethylated with age, while hypomethylated aDMRs were associated with enhancers. In contrast, aGENs were associated with the PRC2 signature independently of the directionality of gene expression changes. In this study we demonstrate that the PRC2 signature is the common epigenomic context of genomic regions associated with hypermethylation and gene expression changes in aging.
    Epigenetics: official journal of the DNA Methylation Society 04/2015; DOI:10.1080/15592294.2015.1040619
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    ABSTRACT: Prenatal maternal psychological distress increases risk for adverse infant outcomes. However, the biological mechanisms underlying this association remain unclear. Prenatal stress can impact fetal epigenetic regulation that could underlie changes in infant stress responses. It has been suggested that maternal glucocorticoids may mediate this epigenetic effect. We examined this hypothesis by determining the impact of maternal cortisol and depressive symptoms during pregnancy on infant NR3C1 and BDNF DNA methylation. Fifty-seven pregnant women were recruited during the second or third trimester. Participants self-reported depressive symptoms and salivary cortisol samples were collected diurnally and in response to a stressor. Buccal swabs for DNA extraction and DNA methylation analysis were collected from each infant at two months of age, and mothers were assessed for postnatal depressive symptoms. Prenatal depressive symptoms significantly predicted increased NR3C1 1F DNA methylation in male infants (β = 2.147, P = 0.044). Prenatal depressive symptoms also significantly predicted decreased BDNF IV DNA methylation in both male and female infants (β = -3.244, P = 0.013). No measure of maternal cortisol during pregnancy predicted infant NR3C1 1F or BDNF promoter IV DNA methylation. Our findings highlight the susceptibility of males to changes in NR3C1 DNA methylation and present novel evidence for altered BDNF IV DNA methylation in response to maternal depression during pregnancy. The lack of association between maternal cortisol and infant DNA methylation suggests that effects of maternal depression may not be mediated directly by glucocorticoids. Future studies should consider other potential mediating mechanisms in the link between maternal mood and infant outcomes.
    Epigenetics: official journal of the DNA Methylation Society 04/2015; DOI:10.1080/15592294.2015.1039221
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    ABSTRACT: Increasing evidence suggests that aberrant DNA methylation changes may contribute to prostate cancer (PCa) ethnic disparity. To comprehensively identify DNA methylation alterations in PCa disparity, we used the Illumina 450K methylation platform to interrogate the methylation status of 485,577 CpG sites focusing on gene-associated regions of the human genome. Genomic DNA from African-American (AA; 7 normal and 3 cancers) and Caucasian (Cau; 8 normal and 3 cancers) was used in the analysis. Hierarchical clustering analysis identified probe-sets unique to AA and Cau samples, as well as common to both. We selected 25 promoter-associated novel CpG sites most differentially methylated by race (fold change > 1.5-fold; adjusted P < 0.05) and compared the β-value of these sites provided by the Illumina, Inc. array with quantitative methylation obtained by pyrosequencing in 7 prostate cell lines. We found very good concordance of the methylation levels between β-value and pyrosequencing. Gene expression analysis using qRT-PCR in a subset of 8 genes after treatment with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine and/or trichostatin showed up-regulation of gene expression in PCa cells. Quantitative analysis of 4 genes, SNRPN, SHANK2, MST1R, and ABCG5, in matched normal and PCa tissues derived from AA and Cau PCa patients demonstrated differential promoter methylation and concomitant differences in mRNA expression in prostate tissues from AA vs. Cau. Regression analysis in normal and PCa tissues as a function of race showed significantly higher methylation prevalence for SNRPN (P = 0.012), MST1R (P = 0.038), and ABCG5 (P < 0.0002) for AA vs. Cau samples. We selected the ABCG5 and SNRPN genes and verified their biological functions by Western blot analysis and siRNA gene knockout effects on cell proliferation and invasion in 4 PCa cell lines (2 AA and 2 Cau patients-derived lines). Knockdown of either ABCG5 or SNRPN resulted in a significant decrease in both invasion and proliferation in Cau PCa cell lines but we did not observe these remarkable loss-of-function effects in AA PCa cell lines. Our study demonstrates how differential genome-wide DNA methylation levels influence gene expression and biological functions in AA and Cau PCa.
    Epigenetics: official journal of the DNA Methylation Society 04/2015; DOI:10.1080/15592294.2015.1022019
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: How alternative chromatin-based regulatory states can be made stable and heritable in order to provide robust epigenetic memory is poorly understood. Here, we develop a stochastic model of the silencing system in Saccharomyces cerevisiae that incorporates cooperative binding of the repressive SIR complex and antisilencing histone modifications, in addition to positive feedback in Sir2 recruitment. The model was able to reproduce key features of SIR regulation of an HM locus, including heritable bistability, dependence on the silencer elements, and sensitivity to SIR dosage. We found that antisilencing methylation of H3K79 by Dot1 was not needed to generate these features, but acted to reduce spreading of SIR binding, consistent with its proposed role in containment of silencing. In contrast, cooperative inter-nucleosome interactions mediated by the SIR complex were critical for concentrating SIR binding around the silencers in the absence of barriers, and for providing bistability in SIR binding. SIR-SIR interactions magnify the cooperativity in the Sir2-histone deacetylation positive feedback reaction and complete a double-negative feedback circuit involving antisilencing modifications. Thus, our modeling underscores the potential importance of cooperative interactions between nucleosome-bound complexes both in the SIR system and in other chromatin-based complexes in epigenetic regulation.
    Epigenetics: official journal of the DNA Methylation Society 04/2015; DOI:10.1080/15592294.2015.1017200
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    ABSTRACT: Epigenetic silencing of tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) is considered a significant event in the progression of cancer. For example, EPB41L3, a potential biomarker in cervical cancer, is often silenced by cancer-specific promoter methylation. Artificial transcription factors (ATFs) are unique tools to re-express such silenced TSGs to functional levels; however, the induced effects are considered transient. Here, we aimed to improve the efficiency and sustainability of gene re-expression using engineered zinc fingers fused to VP64 (ZF-ATFs) or DNA methylation modifiers (ZF-Tet2 or ZF-TDG) and/or by co-treatment with epigenetic drugs [5-aza-dC2'-deoxycytidine or Trichostatin A (TSA)]. EPB41L3-ZF effectively bound its methylated endogenous locus, as also confirmed by ChIP-seq. ZF-ATFs reactivated the epigenetically silenced target gene EPB41L3 (˜10-fold) in breast, ovarian, and cervical cancer cell lines. Prolonged high levels of EPB41L3 (˜150-fold) induction could be achieved by short-term co-treatment with epigenetic drugs. Interestingly, for otherwise ineffective ZF-Tet2 or ZF-TDG treatments, TSA facilitated re-expression of EPB41L3 by up to twofold. ATF-mediated re-expression demonstrated a tumor suppressive role for EPB41L3 in cervical cancer cell lines. In conclusion, epigenetic reprogramming provides a novel way to improve sustainability of re-expression of epigenetically silenced promoters.
    Epigenetics: official journal of the DNA Methylation Society 04/2015; DOI:10.1080/15592294.2015.1034415
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    ABSTRACT: Werner Syndrome (WS) is a rare inherited disease characterized by premature aging and increased propensity for cancer. Mutations in the WRN gene can be of several types, including nonsense mutations, leading to a truncated protein form. WRN is a RecQ family member with both helicase and exonuclease activities, and it participates in several cell metabolic pathways, including DNA replication, DNA repair, and telomere maintenance. Here, we reported a novel homozygous WS mutation (c.3767 C>G) in two Argentinian brothers, which resulted in a stop codon and a truncated protein (p.S1256X). We also observed increased WRN promoter methylation in the cells of patients and decreased messenger WRN RNA (WRN mRNA) expression. Finally, we showed that the read-through of nonsense mutation pharmacologic treatment with both aminoglycosides (AGs) and ataluren (PTC-124) in these cells restores full-length protein expression and WRN functionality.
    Epigenetics: official journal of the DNA Methylation Society 04/2015; DOI:10.1080/15592294.2015.1027853
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    ABSTRACT: Leptin is an adipokine that acts in the central nervous system and regulates energy balance. Animal models and human observational studies have suggested that leptin surge in the perinatal period has a critical role in programming long-term risk of obesity. In utero exposure to maternal hyperglycemia has been associated with increased risk of obesity later in life. Epigenetic mechanisms are suspected to be involved in fetal programming of long term metabolic diseases. We investigated whether DNA methylation levels near LEP locus mediate the relation between maternal glycemia and neonatal leptin levels using the 2-step epigenetic Mendelian randomization approach. We used data and samples from up to 485 mother-child dyads from Gen3G, a large prospective population-based cohort. First, we built a genetic risk score to capture maternal glycemia based on 10 known glycemic genetic variants (GRS10) and showed it was an adequate instrumental variable (β = 0.046 mmol/L of maternal fasting glucose per additional risk allele; SE = 0.007; P = 7.8 × 10(-11); N = 467). A higher GRS10 was associated with lower methylation levels at cg12083122 located near LEP (β = 0.072 unit per additional risk allele; SE = 0.04; P = 0.05; N = 166). Direction and effect size of association between the instrumental variable GRS10 and methylation at cg12083122 were consistent with the negative association we observed using measured maternal glycemia. Lower DNA methylation levels at cg12083122 were associated with higher cord blood leptin levels (β = 0.17 log of cord blood leptin per unit; SE = 0.07; P = 0.01; N = 170). Our study supports that maternal glycemia is part of causal pathways influencing offspring leptin epigenetic regulation.
    Epigenetics: official journal of the DNA Methylation Society 03/2015; DOI:10.1080/15592294.2015.1029700
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    ABSTRACT: Early-life stress (ELS) induces long-lasting changes in gene expression conferring an increased risk for the development of stress-related mental disorders. Glucocorticoid receptors (GR) mediate the negative feedback actions of glucocorticoids (GC) in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary and therefore play a key role in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the endocrine response to stress. We here show that ELS programs the expression of the GR gene (Nr3c1) by site-specific hypermethylation at the CpG island (CGI) shore in hypothalamic neurons that produce corticotropin-releasing hormone (Crh), thus preventing Crh upregulation under conditions of chronic stress. CpGs mapping to the Nr3c1 CGI shore region are dynamically regulated by ELS and underpin methylation-sensitive control of this region's insulation-like function via Ying Yang 1 (YY1) binding. Our results provide new insight into how a genomic element integrates experience-dependent epigenetic programming of the composite proximal Nr3c1 promoter, and assigns an insulating role to the CGI shore.
    Epigenetics: official journal of the DNA Methylation Society 03/2015; 10(3):247-257. DOI:10.1080/15592294.2015.1017199
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Chordomas are aggressive rare type of malignant bone tumors arising from the remnant of the notochord. Chordomas occur mainly in vertebral bones and account for 1%-4% of malignant bone tumors. Management and treatment of chordomas are difficult as they are resistant to conventional chemotherapy; therefore, they are mainly treated with surgery and radiation therapy. In this study, we performed DNA methylation profiling of 26 chordomas and normal nucleus pulposus samples plus UCH-1 chordoma cell line using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChips. Combined bisulfite restriction analysis and bisulfite sequencing was used to confirm the methylation data. Gene expression was analyzed using RT-PCR before and after 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-azaDC) treatment of chordoma cell lines. Analysis of the HumanMethylation450 BeadChip data led to the identification of 8819 loci (2.9%) that were significantly differentially methylated (>0.2 average β-value difference) between chordomas and nucleus pulposus samples (adjusted P < 0.05). Among these, 5868 probes (66.5%) were hypomethylated, compared to 2951 (33.5%) loci that were hypermethylated in chordomas compared to controls. From the 2951 differentially hypermethylated probes, 33.3% were localized in the promoter region (982 probes) and, among these, 104 probes showed cancer-specific hypermethylation. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis indicates that the cancer-specific differentially methylated loci are involved in various networks including cancer disease, nervous system development and function, cell death and survival, cellular growth, cellular development, and proliferation. Furthermore, we identified a subset of probes that were differentially methylated between recurrent and non-recurrent chordomas. BeadChip methylation data was confirmed for these genes and gene expression was shown to be upregulated in methylated chordoma cell lines after treatment with 5-azaDC. Understanding epigenetic changes in chordomas may provide insights into chordoma tumorigenesis and development of epigenetic biomarkers.
    Epigenetics: official journal of the DNA Methylation Society 01/2015; DOI:10.1080/15592294.2015.1006497
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    ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT The response of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) to injury may go together with alterations in epigenetics, a conjecture that has not been subjected to a comprehensive, genome-wide test. Using reduced representation bisulfite sequencing, we report widespread remodeling of DNA methylation in the rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) occurring within 24 h of peripheral nerve ligation, a neuropathy model of allodynia. Significant (P < 10-4) cytosine hyper- and hypo-methylation was found at thousands of CpG sites. Remodeling occurred outside of CpG islands. Changes affected genes with known roles in the PNS, yet methylome remodeling also involved genes that were not linked to neuroplasticity by prior evidence. Consistent with emerging models relying on genome-wide methylation and RNA-seq analysis of promoter regions and gene bodies, variation of methylation was not tightly linked with variation of gene expression. Furthermore, approximately 44% of the dynamically changed CpGs were located outside of genes. We compared their positions with the intergenic, tissue-specific differentially methylated CpGs (tDMCs) of an independent experimental set consisting of liver, spleen, L4 control DRG, and muscle. Dynamic changes affected those intergenic CpGs that were different between tissues (P < 10(-15)) and almost never the invariant portion of the methylome (those CpGs that were identical across all tissues). Our findings-obtained in mixed tissue-show that peripheral nerve injury leads to methylome remodeling in the DRG. Future studies may address which of the cell types found in the DRG, such as specific groups of neurons or non-neuronal cells are affected by which aspect of the observed methylome remodeling.
    Epigenetics: official journal of the DNA Methylation Society 01/2015; DOI:10.1080/15592294.2015.1006493
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Preterm birth is a leading cause of infant mortality and can lead to poor life-long health and adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. The pathophysiologic mechanisms that precede preterm labor remain elusive, and the role that epigenetic phenomena play is largely unstudied. The objective of this study was to assess the association between microRNA (miRNA) expression levels in cervical cells obtained from swabs collected during pregnancy and the length of gestation. We analyzed cervical samples obtained between 16 and 19 weeks of gestation from 53 women in a prospective cohort from Mexico City, and followed them until delivery. Cervical miRNA was extracted and expression was quantified using the NanoString nCounter Analysis System. Linear regression models were used to examine the association between miRNA expression levels and gestational age at delivery, adjusted for maternal age, education, parity, body mass index, smoke exposure, and inflammation assessed on a Papanicolaou smear. We identified six miRNAs that were significantly associated with gestational age at the time of delivery, including miR-21, 30e, 142, 148b, 29b, and 223. Notably, per each doubling in miR-21 expression, gestations were 0.9 (95% CI: 0.2-1.5) days shorter on average (P = 0.009). Per each doubling in miR-30e, 142, 148b, 29b, and 223 expression, gestations were shorter by 1.0 to 1.6 days. The predicted targets of the miRNAs were enriched for molecules involved in DNA replication and inflammatory processes. The levels of specific miRNAs in the human cervix during pregnancy are predictive of gestational age at delivery, and should be validated in future studies as potential biomarkers of preterm birth risk.
    Epigenetics: official journal of the DNA Methylation Society 01/2015; DOI:10.1080/15592294.2015.1006498
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Secretoglobins are a superfamily of secreted proteins thought to participate in inflammation, tissue repair, and tumorigenesis. Secretoglobin family 2A member 1 (Scgb2a1) is a component of prostatein, a major androgen-binding protein secreted by the rat prostate. Using a rat model for developmental reprogramming of susceptibility to prostate carcinogenesis, we identified, by RNA-seq, that Scgb2a1 is significantly upregulated (>100-fold) in the prostate of adult rats neonatally exposed to bisphenol A (BPA), with increased gene expression confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR and chromatin immunoprecipitation for histone H3 lysine 9 acetylation. Bisulfite analysis of two CpG islands located within 10 kb of the Scgb2a1 promoter identified significant hypomethylation of the CpG island upstream of the transcription start site of this gene in the reprogrammed prostate. These data suggest that expression of Scgb2a1 in the adult prostate could be epigenetically reprogrammed by BPA exposure during prostate development, with potential implications for cancer risk and response to chemotherapeutics associated with prostatein binding.
    Epigenetics: official journal of the DNA Methylation Society 01/2015; DOI:10.1080/15592294.2015.1009768
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) constitutes >90% of oral cancers and is the sixth most common malignancy among males worldwide and the fourth leading cause of death due to cancer among males in Taiwan. However, most patients do not receive a diagnosis of OSCC until the late stages, which have a lower survival rate. The use of molecular marker analysis to identify early-stage OSCC would permit optimal timing for treatments and consequently prolong survival. The aim of this study was to identify biomarkers of OSCC using the Illumina GoldenGate Methylation Cancer Panel, which comprised a total of 1,505 CpG sites covering 807 genes. Samples of buccal mucosa resected from 40 OSCC patients and normal tissue samples obtained from 15 patients (normal mucosa from OSCC patients or from patients undergoing surgery unrelated to OSCC) were analyzed. Fms-related tyrosine kinase 4 (FLT4) methylation exhibited a perfect specificity for detecting OSCC, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.91 for both all-stage and early-stage OSCC. Methylation of seven genes (ASCL1, FGF3, FLT4, GAS7, KDR, TERT, and TFPI2) constitutes the top-20 panels for detecting OSCC. The top-20 panels for detecting early-stage OSCC contain 8 genes: ADCYAP1, EPHA7, FLT4, GSTM2, KDR, MT1A, NPY, and TFPI2. FLT4 RNA expression and methylation level were validated using reverse-transcription PCR and a pyrosequencing methylation assay. The median level of FLT4 expression was 2.14-fold for normal relative to OSCC tissue samples (P<0.0001). Among the eight pyrosequenced FLT4 CpG sites, methylation level was much higher in the OSCC samples. In conclusion, methylation statuses of selected genes, and especially FLT4, KDR, and TFPI2, might be of great potential as biomarkers for early detection of buccal OSCC.
    Epigenetics: official journal of the DNA Methylation Society 01/2015; DOI:10.1080/15592294.2015.1006506
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Histone acetylation modulates gene expression and has been described as increased in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We investigated interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF1) interactions that influence H4 acetylation (H4ac) in SLE. Intracellular flow cytometry for H4 acetylated lysine (K) 5, K8, K12, and K16 was performed. Histone acetylation was defined in monocytes and T cells from controls and SLE patients. RNA-Seq studies were performed on monocytes to look for an imbalance in histone acetyltransferases and histone deacetylase enzyme expression. Expression levels were validated using real-time quantitative RT-PCR. IRF1 induction of H4ac was evaluated using D54MG cells overexpressing IRF1. IRF1 protein interactions were studied using co-immunoprecipitation assays. IRF1-dependent recruitment of histone acetyltransferases to target genes was examined by ChIP assays using p300 antibody. Flow cytometry data showed significantly increased H4K5, H4K8, H4K12, and H4K16 acetylation in SLE monocytes. HDAC3 and HDAC11 gene expression were decreased in SLE monocytes. PCAF showed significantly higher gene expression in SLE than controls. IRF1-overexpressing D54MG cells were associated with significantly increased H4K5, H4K8, and H4K12 acetylation compared to vector-control D54MG cells both globally and at specific target genes. Co-immunoprecipitation studies using D54MG cells revealed IRF1 protein-protein interactions with PCAF, P300, CBP, GCN5, ATF2, and HDAC3. ChIP experiments demonstrated increased p300 recruitment to known IRF1 targets in D54MG cells overexpressing IRF1. In contrast, p300 binding to IRF1 targets decreased in D54MG cells with IRF1 knockdown. SLE appears to be associated with an imbalance in histone acetyltransferases and histone deacetylase enzymes favoring pathologic H4 acetylation. Furthermore, IRF1 directly interacts with chromatin modifying enzymes, supporting a model where recruitment to specific target genes is mediated in part by IRF1.
    Epigenetics: official journal of the DNA Methylation Society 01/2015; DOI:10.1080/15592294.2015.1009764