Molecular Neurobiology (MOL NEUROBIOL)

Publisher: Humana Press, Humana Press

Journal description

As one of the premier review journals in the neurosciences, Molecular Neurobiology is specifically designed to synthesize and critically assess research trends in experimental and clinical neuroscience at the molecular level. Its distinguished editorial board is comprised of four Nobelists and other preeminent neuroscientists who carefully review papers to ensure their high quality.

Current impact factor: 5.29

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2015
2013 / 2014 Impact Factor 5.286
2012 Impact Factor 5.471
2011 Impact Factor 5.735
2010 Impact Factor 6.068
2009 Impact Factor 4.735
2008 Impact Factor 3.025
2007 Impact Factor 4.067
2006 Impact Factor 3.762
2005 Impact Factor 4.311
2004 Impact Factor 4.373
2003 Impact Factor 4.516
2002 Impact Factor 2.095
2001 Impact Factor 2.4
2000 Impact Factor 4.382
1999 Impact Factor 5.623
1998 Impact Factor 4.388
1997 Impact Factor 3.483

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 5.54
Cited half-life 5.70
Immediacy index 0.78
Eigenfactor 0.01
Article influence 1.80
Website Molecular Neurobiology website
Other titles Molecular neurobiology
ISSN 1559-1182
OCLC 15640289
Material type Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Journal / Magazine / Newspaper, Internet Resource

Publisher details

Humana Press

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • Authors own final version only can be archived
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • On author's personal website immediately
    • On any open access repository after 12 months from publication
    • Published source must be acknowledged
    • Must link to publisher version
    • Set phrase to accompany link to published version: The original publication is available at
    • Articles in some journals can be made Open Access on payment of additional charge
    • 'Humana Press' is an imprint of 'Springer Verlag (Germany)'
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), in addition to its neurotrophic action, also possesses antioxidant activities. However, the underlying mechanisms remain to be fully defined. Sestrin2 is a stress-responsive gene implicated in the cellular defense against oxidative stress. Currently, the potential functions of sestrin2 in nervous system, in particular its correlation with neurotrophic factors, have not been well established. In this study, we hypothesized that BDNF may enhance sestrin2 expression to confer neuronal resistance against oxidative stress induced by 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP), an irreversible mitochondrial complex II inhibitor, and characterized the molecular mechanisms underlying BDNF induction of sestrin2 in primary rat cortical cultures. We found that BDNF-mediated sestrin2 expression in cortical neurons required formation of nitric oxide (NO) with subsequent production of 3',5'-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) and activation of cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG). BDNF induced localization of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) subunits p65 and p50 into neuronal nuclei that required PKG activities. Interestingly, BDNF exposure led to formation of a protein complex containing at least PKG-1 and p65/p50, which bound to sestrin2 promoter with resultant upregulation of its protein products. Finally, BDNF preconditioning mitigated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as a result of 3-NP exposure; this antioxidative effect of BDNF was dependent upon PKG activity, NF-κB, and sestrin2. Taken together, our results indicated that BDNF enhances sestrin2 expression to confer neuronal resistance against oxidative stress induced by 3-NP through attenuation of ROS formation; furthermore, BDNF induction of sestrin2 requires activation of a pathway involving NO/PKG/NF-κB.
    Molecular Neurobiology 07/2015; DOI:10.1007/s12035-015-9357-1
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    ABSTRACT: The progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been associated with astrocytes-induced neuroinflammation. However, the detailed mechanism of astrocytes associated with learning impairments and neuronal loss in AD is poorly defined. Here, we provide novel evidences that astrocytic miR-135a is critical for neuronal viability and spatial learning ability in vivo. The AppTg/Cebpd (-/-) mice showed a spatial learning improvement compared with the APPswe/PS1/E9 bigenic (AppTg) mice. miR-135a was found to be a CCAAT/enhancer binding protein δ (CEBPD) responsive miRNA and can repress the transcription of thrombospondin 1 (THBS1) / Thbs1 (mouse) via its 3'-untranslated region (3'UTR). We used different experimental approaches to attenuate the expression of CEBPD/Cebpd (mouse) or miR-135a in astrocytes and found the following results: increase in THBS1/Thbs1 expression, decrease in neuronal apoptosis, and increase in growth of neurites. Importantly, injection of miR-135a antagonist (AM135a) into the brain of AppTg mice was found to prevent neuronal apoptosis and improved the spatial learning ability. Together, our findings demonstrate a critical function for the astrocytic CEBPD, and point to miR-135a antagonist as an attractive therapeutic target for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.
    Molecular Neurobiology 07/2015; DOI:10.1007/s12035-015-9359-z
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    ABSTRACT: Our previous study has demonstrated that hydrogen sulfide (H2S) attenuates neuronal injury induced by vascular dementia (VD) in rats, but the mechanism is still poorly understood. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether the neuroprotection of H2S was associated with synaptic plasticity and try to interpret the potential underlying mechanisms. Adult male Wistar rats were suffered the ligation of bilateral common carotid arteries. At 24 h after surgery, rats were administered intraperitoneally with sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS, 5.6 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)), a H2S donor, for 3 weeks in the VD+NaHS group and treated intraperitoneally with saline in the VD group respectively. Our results demonstrated that NaHS significantly decreased the level of glutamate. It obviously ameliorated cognitive flexibility as well as the spatial learning and memory abilities by Morris water maze. Moreover, NaHS significantly improved the long-term depression (LTD), and was able to elevate the expression of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit 2A, which plays a pivotal role in synaptic plasticity. Interestingly, NaHS decreased the phosphorylation of Akt, and it could maintain the activity of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β). Surprisingly, NaHS triggered the canonical Notch pathway by increasing expressions of Jagged-1 and Hes-1. These findings suggest that NaHS prevents synaptic plasticity from VD-induced damage partly via Akt/GSK-3β pathway and Notch signaling pathway.Hydrogen sulfide modulated the ratio of NMDAR 2A/2B and improved the synaptic plasticity via Akt/GSK-3β pathway and Notch signaling pathway in VD rats.
    Molecular Neurobiology 07/2015; DOI:10.1007/s12035-015-9324-x
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    ABSTRACT: Gliomas are the most frequent type of primary brain tumor in adults. Their highly proliferative nature, complex cellular composition, and ability to escape therapies have confronted investigators for years, hindering the advancement toward an effective treatment. Agents that are safe and can be administered as dietary supplements have always remained priority to be most feasible for cancer therapy. Withania somnifera (ashwagandha) is an essential ingredient of Ayurvedic preparations and is known to eliminate cancer cells derived from a variety of peripheral tissues. Although our previous studies have addressed the in vitro anti-proliferative and differentiation-inducing properties of ashwagandha on neuronal cell lines, in vivo studies validating the same are lacking. While exploring the mechanism of its action in vitro, we observed that the ashwagandha water extract (ASH-WEX) induced the G2/M phase blockade and caused the activation of multiple pro-apoptotic pathways, leading to suppression of cyclin D1, bcl-xl, and p-Akt, and reduced the expression of polysialylated form of neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM) as well as the activity of matrix metalloproteinases. ASH-WEX reduced the intracranial tumor volumes in vivo and suppressed the tumor-promoting proteins p-nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), p-Akt, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), PSA-NCAM, and cyclin D1 in the rat model of orthotopic glioma allograft. Reduction in glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and upregulation of mortalin and neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) expression specifically in tumor-bearing tissue further indicated the anti-glioma efficacy of ASH-WEX in vivo. Combining this enhanced understanding of the molecular mechanisms of ASH-WEX in glioma with in vivo model system offers new opportunities to develop therapeutic strategy for safe, specific, and effective formulations for treating brain tumors.
    Molecular Neurobiology 07/2015; DOI:10.1007/s12035-015-9320-1
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    ABSTRACT: Population aging is a worldwide demographic trend. Consequently, the prevalence of chronic age-related conditions such as clinically diagnosed neurological diseases, cognitive decline, and dementia will significantly increase in the near future. The important role of diets and healthy lifestyle as preventative of neurodegenerative diseases is widely accepted nowadays, and it may provide preventive strategies in very early, non-symptomatic phases of dementia well, especially because there are still no effective treatments for it. In this article, we review the known effects of selected micronutrients on the aging brain and we propose strategies for dietary improvements.
    Molecular Neurobiology 07/2015; DOI:10.1007/s12035-015-9349-1
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    ABSTRACT: Autophagy occurs prior to apoptosis and plays an important role in cell death regulation during spinal cord injury (SCI). This study aimed to determine the effects and potential mechanism of the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) agonist extendin-4 (Ex-4) in SCI. Seventy-two male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned to sham, SCI, 2.5 μg Ex-4, and 10 μg Ex-4 groups. To induce SCI, a 10-g iron rod was dropped from a 20-mm height to the spinal cord surface. Ex-4 was administered via intraperitoneal injection immediately after surgery. Motor function evaluation with the Basso Beattie Bresnahan (BBB) locomotor rating scale indicated significantly increased scores (p < 0.01) in the Ex-4-treated groups, especially 10 μg, which demonstrated the neuroprotective effect of Ex-4 after SCI. The light chain 3-II (LC3-II) and Beclin 1 protein expression determined via western blot and the number of autophagy-positive neurons via immunofluorescence double labeling were increased by Ex-4, which supports promotion of autophagy (p < 0.01). The caspase-3 protein level and neuronal apoptosis via transferase UTP nick end labeling (TUNEL)/NeuN/DAPI double labeling were significantly reduced in the Ex-4-treated groups, which indicates anti-apoptotic effects (p < 0.01). Finally, histological assessment via Nissl staining demonstrated the Ex-4 groups exhibited a significantly greater number of surviving neurons and less cavity (p < 0.01). To our knowledge, this is the first study to indicate that Ex-4 significantly enhances motor function in rats after SCI, and these effects are associated with the promotion of autophagy and inhibition of apoptosis.
    Molecular Neurobiology 07/2015; DOI:10.1007/s12035-015-9327-7
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    ABSTRACT: Simvastatin (SV) has been reported to improve cognitive deficits in Alzheimer's disease. Here, we show that chronic administration of SV (20 mg/kg) for 30 days in adult mice (SV mice) enhanced spatial cognitive performance as assessed by Morris water maze and Y-maze. To explore mechanisms underlying SV-enhanced spatial cognition, we further examined synaptic properties and long-term potentiation (LTP) in hippocampal CA1, hippocampal α7nAChR expression, and Akt and ERK2 phosphorylation. In comparison with controls, the SV administration caused increase in presynaptic glutamate release and amplitude of NMDAr-dependent LTP (LTP-augmentation), and decrease in threshold of NMDAr-independent LTP induction (LTP-facilitation). The supplement of isoprenoid farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) by applying farnesol (FOH) could abolish the spatial cognitive potentiation, increased glutamate release, and LTP-augmentation/facilitation in SV mice. Expression of α7nAChR, but not α4β2nAChR, was increased in hippocampal pyramidal cells of SV mice with the reduction of transcription factor AP-2α, which were abolished by FOH. Levels of Akt and ERK2 phosphorylation in SV mice were elevated, which were suppressed by FOH or α7nAChR antagonist methyl-lycaconitine (MLA). In hippocampal slices obtained from SV mice, acute perfusion of MLA blocked the increased glutamate release, whereas FOH, PI3K inhibitor LY294002, or MEK inhibitor U0126 could not. In the slices of SV mice, the perfusion of MLA or U0126, but not FOH, abolished the LTP-augmentation and LTP-facilitation. By contrast, LY294002 prevented the LTP-facilitation but failed to affect the LTP-augmentation. The findings indicate that the administration of SV through reducing FPP increases α7nAChR expression and α7nAChR-related Akt and ERK2 phosphorylation, leading to LTP enhancement and spatial cognitive potentiation.
    Molecular Neurobiology 07/2015; DOI:10.1007/s12035-015-9344-6
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    ABSTRACT: Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) reported CR1 rs3818361 polymorphism to be an Alzheimer's disease (AD) susceptibility variant in European ancestry. Three independent studies investigated this association in Chinese population. However, these studies reported weak or no significant association. Here, we reinvestigated the association using all the samples from three independent studies in Chinese population (N = 4047, 1244 AD cases and 2803 controls). We also selected three independent studies in European ancestry population (N = 11787, 3939 AD cases and 7848 controls) to evaluate the effect of rs3818361 polymorphism on AD risk in different ethnic backgrounds. In Chinese population, we did not identified significant heterogeneity using additive, recessive, and dominant genetic models. Meta-analysis showed significant association between rs3818361 and AD with P = 6.00E-03 and P = 5.00E-03. We further identified no heterogeneity of rs3818361 polymorphism between Chinese and European populations. We found that rs3818361 polymorphism contributed to AD with similar genetic risk in Chinese and European populations. In summary, this is the first study to show significant association between rs3818361 polymorphism and AD in Chinese population by a meta-analysis method. Our findings indicate that the effect of CR1 rs3818361 polymorphism on AD risk in Chinese cohorts is consistent with the increased risk observed in European AD cohorts.
    Molecular Neurobiology 07/2015; DOI:10.1007/s12035-015-9343-7
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    ABSTRACT: Studies show that gender plays an important role in stress-related disorders, and women are more vulnerable to its effect. The present study was undertaken to investigate differences in the change in expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and its tyrosine intracellular kinase-activating receptor (TrkB) genes in the male and female rats' hippocampus (HPC) under chronic mild repeated stress (CMRS) conditions. In this experiment, male and female Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: the CMRS and the control group. To induce stress, a repeated forced swimming paradigm was employed daily for adult male and female rats for 21 days. At the end of the stress phase, elevated plus maze (EPM) was used for measuring the stress behavioral effects. Serum corticosterone level was measured by ELISA. BDNF and TrkB gene methylation and protein expression in the HPC were detected using real-time PCR and Western blotting. Chronic stress in the adolescence had more effects on anxiety-like behavior and serum corticosterone concentration in female rats than males. Furthermore, stressed female rats had higher methylation levels and following reduced protein expression of BDNF but not TrkB compared to stressed male rats. These findings suggest that in exposure to a stressor, sex differences in BDNF methylation may be root cause of decreased BDNF levels in females and may underlie susceptibility to pathology development.
    Molecular Neurobiology 07/2015; DOI:10.1007/s12035-015-9345-5
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    ABSTRACT: Recently, two high-quality clinical randomized controlled trials (RCTs) regarding the preventive effect of exogenous melatonin on delirium drew inconsistent conclusions. We therefore performed a systemic review to explore whether melatonin had a benefit on delirium prevention. MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library were searched from January 1980 to April 2015 for English language studies. After strict selection and evaluation, the data were extracted from the included four RCTs. The primary outcome of this meta-analysis was the incidence of delirium. The secondary outcome was the improvement of sleep-wake rhythm. A total of four RCTs with 669 elderly patients were included in the present study. Melatonin group showed a tendency to decrease the incidence of delirium (relative risk [RR] 0.41, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.15 to 1.13; P = 0.08) compared with control group. In subgroup analysis of the elderly patients in medical wards, melatonin supplementation decreased the incidence of delirium by 75 % (RR 0.25, 95 % CI 0.07 to 0.88; P = 0.03), but not in sleep-wake disturbance (RR 1.24, 95 % CI 0.51 to 3.00; P = 0.64). No differences were found in the incidence of delirium between the two groups in the elderly patients that were presented to surgical wards. In conclusion, melatonin supplementation had a significant preventive effect in decreasing the incidence of delirium in elderly patients that were presented to medical wards. Further studies should provide sufficient evidence about the effect of melatonin on delirium in a large sample size.
    Molecular Neurobiology 07/2015; DOI:10.1007/s12035-015-9350-8
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    ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia. Numerous genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have found several AD susceptibility common loci but with limited effect size. Recent next-generation sequencing studies of large AD pedigrees had identified phospholipase D3 (PLD3) p.V232M as the potentially functional rare variant with causal effect. However, four follow-up replication studies (Brief Communications Arising on Nature) questioned that PLD3 V232M might not be so important in AD. In this study, we re-analyzed all public-available genetic (rare and common variants) and expression data of PLD3, and screened coding variants within PLD3 in probands of 18 Han Chinese families with AD, to clarify the exact involvement of PLD3 in AD. Two closest homologues of PLD3, PLD1 and PLD2, were also analyzed to comprehensively understand the role of phospholipase D members in AD. We found that PLD3 variant V232M was associated with AD risk in overall sample sets (∼40,000 subjects) with a modest to moderate effect size (odds ratio [OR] = 1.53). Our results also showed that common variants and mRNA expression alterations of PLD2 play a role in AD genetic risk and pathology. Although we provided a systematic view of the involvement of PLD3 in AD at the genetic, mRNA expression, and protein levels, we could not define the exact causal or essential role of PLD3 rare variants in AD based on currently available data.
    Molecular Neurobiology 07/2015; DOI:10.1007/s12035-015-9353-5
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    ABSTRACT: Based on current knowledge on the role of the CX3CL1/CX3CR1 axis in the regulation of microglial activation and on the involvement of activated microglia in damaging oligodendrocytes, we hypothesized that CX3CL1/CX3CR1 axis is associated with the development of ischemic oligodendrocyte and white matter injury. We investigated the effects of CX3CL1, CX3CR1 shRNA, and p38MAPK inhibitor on the apoptosis, proliferation, and myelin proteolipid protein (PLP) expression in oligodendrocytes in co-cultures with BV2 microglia under ischemia. We demonstrated that CX3CL1 markedly increased the numbers of apoptotic oligodendrocytes, decreased PLP expression in oligodendrocytes, and inhibited the increased proliferation of oligodendrocytes induced by ischemia in co-cultures. All these effects of CX3CL1 were suppressed by pre-treatment of BV2 microglia with CX3CR1 shRNA to silence CX3CR1 expression or SB203580 to inhibit p38MAPK pathway. Our findings support that CX3CL1/CX3CR1 axis plays a key role in the development of ischemia-induced oligodendrocyte injury via p38MAPK signaling pathway.
    Molecular Neurobiology 07/2015; DOI:10.1007/s12035-015-9339-3
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    ABSTRACT: The alteration of protein tau in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) has been widely evaluated, possessing a significant diagnostic value for CJD. With the biotin-labeled tau-exon-specific mAbs, direct ELISA methods were established and the levels of tau isoforms containing exon-2 and exon-10 segments in CSF of the patients with various human prion diseases and in brain tissues of scrapie-infected animals were evaluated. The results showed that the levels of tau, especially containing four repeats in microtubule binding domain, were increased in the CSF samples of the patients with sporadic CJD (sCJD). Using the unlabeled (cold) mixed exon-specific mAbs, a competitive tau ELISA was conducted based on a commercial tau kit. It revealed that the majority of the increased tau in the CSF of sCJD cases was derived from the tau isoforms with exon-2 and exon-10 segments. Increases of CSF tau isoforms with exon-2 and exon-10 segments were also observed in the patients of E200K and T188K genetic CJD (gCJD), but not in the cases of fatal familiar insomnia (FFI). The increasing levels of tau isoforms with exon-2 and exon-10 segments in the group of sCJD correlated well with the positive 14-3-3 in CSF. Additionally, the similar alterative profiles of tau isoforms with exon-2 and exon-10 segments were also observed in the brain tissues of scrapie-infected rodents and a sCJD patient. Our data here propose the tau isoforms with exon-2 and exon-10 segments increase in CSF of sCJD and some types of gCJD, which may help to understand the physiological metabolism and pathological significance of various tau isoforms in the pathogenesis of prion diseases.
    Molecular Neurobiology 07/2015; DOI:10.1007/s12035-015-9348-2
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    ABSTRACT: Abnormal regulation of neural migration and neurite growth is thought to be an important feature of developmental dyslexia (DD). We investigated 16 genetic variants, selected by bioinformatics analyses, in six key genes in the neuronal migration and neurite outgrowth network in a Chinese population. We first observed that KIAA0319L rs28366021, KIAA0319 rs4504469, and DOCK4 rs2074130 were significantly associated with DD risk after false discovery rate (FDR) adjustment for multiple comparisons (odds ratio (OR) = 0.672, 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 0.505-0.894, P = 0.006; OR = 1.608, 95 % CI = 1.174-2.203, P = 0.003; OR = 1.681, 95 % CI = 1.203-2.348, P = 0.002). The following classification and regression tree (CART) analysis revealed a prediction value of gene-gene interactions among DOCK4 rs2074130, KIAA0319 rs4504469, DCDC2 rs2274305, and KIAA0319L rs28366021 variants. Compared with the lowest risk carriers of the combination of rs2074130 CC, rs4504469 CC, and rs2274305 GG genotype, individuals carrying the combined genotypes of rs2074130 CC, rs4504469 CT or TT, and rs28366021 GG had a significantly increased risk for DD (OR = 2.492, 95 % CI = 1.447-4.290, P = 0.001); individuals with the combination of rs2074130 CT or TT and rs28366021 GG genotype exhibited the highest risk for DD (OR = 2.770, 95 % CI = 2.265-6.276, P = 0.000). A significant dose effect was observed among these four variants (P for trend = 0.000). In summary, this study supports the importance of single- and multiple-risk variants in this network in DD susceptibility in China.
    Molecular Neurobiology 07/2015; DOI:10.1007/s12035-015-9334-8
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    ABSTRACT: Altered activity of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is associated with psychiatric diseases and neurodegenerative diseases. GSK-3 is a key regulator in multiple aspects of neuronal differentiation in the brain. However, little is known about the role of GSK-3 in astrocyte development. To examine the role of GSK-3 in astrocytes, we generated a conditional knockout mouse using a glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-cre driver, in which the GSK-3 alpha and beta genes are deleted in astrocytes. We found that GFAP-cre-mediated GSK-3 deletion led to a larger brain. The number and size of astrocytes were increased in GSK-3 mutant brains. The levels of GFAP and phospho-STAT3, indicators of astrogenesis, were elevated in GSK-3 mutants. Furthermore, we found upregulation of astrocyte regulatory molecules such as phospho-AKT, phospho-S6, and cyclin D in GSK-3 mutant brains. Finally, GSK-3 mutant mice exhibited aberrant anxiety and social behavior. Our results suggest that GSK-3 plays a significant role in astrocyte development and behavioral control in mice.
    Molecular Neurobiology 07/2015; DOI:10.1007/s12035-015-9326-8
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    ABSTRACT: In recent decades, the chemokine receptor CXCR4 and its ligand CXCL12 have been extensively reported to be associated with tumorigenesis. In addition, Twist signaling induces the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process in glioblastoma development. In the present study, in vitro assays were used to investigate the role of CXCR4 and Twist in human glioblastoma. We explored the impact of CXCR4 and Twist on human glioblastoma using in vitro protein and gene assays. We found the administration of CXCL12 upregulated the expression of p-ERK, p-AKT, Twist, N-cadherin, and MMP9 in U87 cells, whereas the increase of E-cadherin protein was affected. Subsequently, Twist activity and EMT signaling were directly influenced by PD98059 and LY294002. Most importantly, the genetic silencing of Twist inhibited CXCL12-induced EMT occurrence, including proliferation, migration, and tumor formation of U87 cells. In conclusion, CXCL12/CXCR4 pathway activates ERK and PI3K/AKT signaling to upregulate Twist pathway, leading to the progression of EMT in human glioblastoma. Our study creates a new stage for molecule-targeted therapy of human glioblastoma.
    Molecular Neurobiology 07/2015; DOI:10.1007/s12035-015-9340-x
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    ABSTRACT: 3-Nitropropionic acid (3-NP)-induced neurotoxicity is an experimental model which mimics the pathology and motor abnormalities seen in Huntington's disease (HD) in human. The present investigation was directed to estimate the role of rho kinase (ROCK) inhibition in the possible protective effect of fasudil and simvastatin in 3-NP-induced striatal neurodegeneration in rats. Animals were injected s.c. with 3-NP (20 mg/kg/day) for 1 week with or without administration of fasudil (10 mg/kg/day, p.o.) or simvastatin (20 mg/kg/day, p.o.). At the end of experiment, motor and behavioral abnormalities were evaluated. Animals were then sacrificed for measurement of mitochondrial membrane potential as well as succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and caspase-3 activities in striatum. Moreover, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) level and protein expressions of proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α), ROCK, phosphorylated-Akt (p-Akt), endothelial and inducible nitric oxide synthase (eNOS and iNOS), Bax, and Bcl-2 were estimated. Finally, histological changes as demonstrated by striatum injury score, glial activation, and percentage of altered mitochondria were assessed. Both fasudil and simvastatin effectively inhibited 3-NP-induced behavioral, biochemical, and histological changes through inhibition of ROCK activity. However, fasudil provided more amelioration in histological changes, mitochondrial membrane potential and SDH activity in addition to p-Akt and PGC-1α protein expressions. The present study highlights a significant role of ROCK/p-Akt/eNOS pathway in the protective effects of fasudil and simvastatin neurotoxicity and mitochondrial dysfunction induced by 3-NP in rats. Thus, specific inhibition of ROCK may be considered a promising new approach in the management of HD.
    Molecular Neurobiology 07/2015; DOI:10.1007/s12035-015-9303-2
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    ABSTRACT: Immune responses and inflammation play an important role in the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke. We therefore evaluated the 6-month prognostic value of early measurement of serum neopterin levels, a marker of inflammation and immune system activation, in Chinese patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Consecutive AIS patients admitted to the emergency department were identified. Clinical information was collected. Serum concentration of neopterin and NIH stroke scale (NIHSS) were measured at the time of admission. Functional outcome was measured by modified Rankin scale (mRS) 6 months after admission. Multivariate analyses were performed using logistic regression models. During the inclusion period, 312 patients with first-ever AIS were included and 290 completed follow-up. The results indicated that the serum neopterin levels were significantly (P < 0.0001) higher in acutely ischemic stroke patients as compared to normal controls. Neopterin was an independent prognostic marker of 6-month functional outcome and death [odds ratio (OR) 4.33 (1.83-10.32) and 6.68 (2.44-12.13), respectively, P < 0.0001 for both, adjusted for NIHSS, other predictors and vascular risk factors] in patients with AIS. Neopterin improved the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the NHISS score for functional outcome from 0.75 (95 % CI 0.69-0.83) to 0.85 (95 % CI 0.79-0.91; P < 0.001) and for mortality from 0.76 (95 % CI 0.68-0.85) to 0.87 (95 % CI 0.81-0.94; P < 0.001). Serum neopterin is a useful, independent tool to predict functional outcome and mortality 6 months after stroke.
    Molecular Neurobiology 07/2015; DOI:10.1007/s12035-015-9310-3
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    ABSTRACT: Immunity and neuroinflammation play major roles in neuropathic pain. Spinal interleukin (IL)-17A, as a mediator connecting innate and adaptive immunity, has been shown to be an important cytokine in neuroinflammation and acute neuropathic pain. However, the effects and underlying mechanisms of spinal IL-17A in the maintenance of neuropathic pain remain unknown. This study was designed to investigate whether spinal IL-17A acted to maintain neuropathic pain and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms in IL-17A knockout or wild-type (WT) mice following L4 spinal nerve ligation (L4 SNL). WT mice were treated with anti-IL-17A neutralized monoclonal antibody (mAb) or recombinant IL-17A (rIL-17A). We showed that IL-17A levels were significantly increased 1, 3, 7, and 14 days after SNL in spinal cord. Double immunofluorescence staining showed that astrocytes were the major cellular source of spinal IL-17A. IL-17A knockout or anti-IL-17A mAb treatment significantly ameliorated hyperalgesia 7 days after SNL, which was associated with a significant reduction of p-CaMKII and p-CREB levels in spinal cord, whereas rIL-17A treatment conferred the opposite effects. Furthermore, we showed that blocking CaMKII with KN93 significantly reduced SNL- or rIL-17A-induced hyperalgesia and p-CREB expression. Our in vitro data showed that KN93 also significantly inhibited rIL-17A-induced CREB activation in primary cultured spinal neurons. Taken together, our study indicates that astrocytic IL-17A plays important roles in the maintenance of neuropathic pain through CaMKII/CREB signaling pathway in spinal cord, and thus targeting IL-17A may offer an attractive strategy for the treatment of chronic persistent neuropathic pain.
    Molecular Neurobiology 07/2015; DOI:10.1007/s12035-015-9322-z