Library Trends

Publisher: University of Illinois (Urbana-Champaign campus). Library School; University of Illinois (Urbana-Champaign campus). Graduate School of Library Science; University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Graduate School of Library Science; University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Graduate School of Library and Information Science, Johns Hopkins University Press


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    Library trends (Online), Library trends
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Johns Hopkins University Press

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    • Reviewed on 03/02/14
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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: For most of 2009, the West Bend Community Memorial Library in West Bend, Wisconsin, was embroiled in controversy due to a series of community-based challenges against the presence of so-called “sexually explicit books” and “books for youth on homosexuality” in the library’s Young Adult section. The controversy generated considerable discussion and debate over the role of the library in providing access to information, the nature of intellectual freedom and professional authority, the influence of community and outside stakeholders, and the role of local governance in library operations. These discussions occurred in public meetings and across dinner tables, in community protests and editorial pages, on blogs and social media, and in professional and academic venues, and they reached far beyond the limits of the rural Wisconsin city, making the West Bend controversy an important and unique opportunity to explore how debates over intellectual freedom play out in the twenty-first century information ecosystem.
    Library Trends 01/2014; 62(4):721-729.
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    ABSTRACT: Traditionally, nineteenth-century etiquette books have been used by scholars mainly as evidence of conventions of manners and good behavior, supporting an expanding print culture in a new mass market. It is argued here that etiquette books should be re-explored in terms of the emerging information culture of the nineteenth century and that viewed in this light they can be seen to be disseminating information of two very particular kinds different from the traditional maxims of behavior and social decorum associated with etiquette. The first was the very practical type of information they espoused—information that served a functional purpose. The second was the way in which new forms of promotion and puffery about products and changing social expectations were used within etiquette books, embracing the broader information discourse of this period. Together, it is suggested that the Victorians’ fascination with information was not limited to early forms of information management or technology but also embraced more sociocultural forms and that information historiography can offer new insights into traditionally overlooked source material.
    Library Trends 01/2014; 62(3):663-680.
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    ABSTRACT: The West Bend library controversy of 2009 was part of a larger conservative movement critical of Young Adult (YA) literature and the American Library Association. Organizations such as Family Friendly Libraries and the American Family Association leveraged community and parental fears about teens’ reading to target public library policies supporting intellectual freedom for youth. Ginny Maziarka and her husband Jim participated in conservative library activism by drawing information and resources from other organizations and by serving as an inspiration to would-be library activists. Their critiques of YA literature and of ALA policies defending youth access propelled them into a community battle contesting the purpose and mission of the public library.
    Library Trends 01/2014; 62(4):730-739.
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    ABSTRACT: Most public libraries in the United States did not include collections, rooms, or librarians dedicated to work with children until the early twentieth century. The establishment of children’s rooms as a customary feature of U.S. public libraries coincided with bequests to public libraries by the Carnegie Corporation. One such library, St. Louis (Missouri) Public Library, provides an example of how large, urban library systems expanded to included neighborhood branches as well as a central branch building, all of which contained a purpose-built space for work with children. As branch buildings with children’s rooms emerged, so did the need for trained children’s librarians. Paradoxically, as soon as there were rooms dedicated to children, librarians extended their reach to municipal playgrounds, schools, and other venues outside of the library. Children’s librarians found themselves traversing a variety of spaces, serving a diverse population in multiple sites.
    Library Trends 01/2014; 62(3):489-503.
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    ABSTRACT: Progressive ideas about library economy, emanating from American and British libraries, contributed directly to the development of local procedures in public libraries in Australia in the late nineteenth century. The new consciousness of library professionalism, and scientific approaches to classification and library organization, led to new ideas on library design and functioning in the major Australian public libraries, building upon a consideration of local conditions and requirements. These developments coincided fruitfully with the Federation period, when the separate Australian colonies joined to form the Australian nation. Librarians sought to modernize their institutions in a positively charged climate of national progress, self-awareness, and pride. However, the transition to progressive practices was not uniform across the major Australian libraries. Conflicts between moral and technological values meant that some librarians rejected progressive practice and maintained older approaches, particularly in the area of classification. The Tasmanian Public Library, led by Chief Librarian Alfred J. Taylor, was an example of this. This paper examines Taylor’s approach in the wider context of changing attitudes to professionalism and library economy, his own paternalistic and humanistic approach to library organization, and the specific needs of the Tasmanian community.
    Library Trends 01/2014; 62(3):541-555.
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    ABSTRACT: Contemporary literature on the divergence of libraries, archives, and museums over the course of the twentieth century credits the rise of distinct professional practices required to handle different physical forms. This paper explores the extent that librarianship influenced museum information practices in a predigital era. Instead of divergence, I find examples where museums adapted library methods to fit their needs instead of developing their own set of professional practices. Because museum professionalization placed an emphasis on discipline-based university training, information work in museums has been incorporated into nonuniversity technical education and on-the-job training programs. That this divergence of information work from academic preparation has fallen along gender lines requires additional attention.
    Library Trends 01/2014; 62(3):596-612.
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    ABSTRACT: Nearly twenty years ago, W. Boyd Rayward became one of the first academics to examine how electronic information and the functional integration of libraries, archives, and museums has affected, and will affect, the information profession. In doing so, he laid the groundwork for an entire research agenda on the topic of digital convergence, where the increased use of, and reliance on, digital resources in libraries, archives, and museums has increasingly blurred the traditional distinctions between these institutions. This paper explores how Rayward’s early work in this area influenced the development of this topic over time, focusing on how information professionals in cultural heritage organizations can and should reconcile their internal perceptions of identity with the external expectations of their users, particularly those who do not or cannot clearly distinguish between different institutions or the information resources they manage. In a world where the traditional assumptions we take for granted about information organization and access in libraries, archives, and museums are simply not shared by our users, the future of the information profession depends on the ability of cultural heritage information professionals to transcend the traditional boundaries between libraries, archives, and museums to meet information needs in the digital age.
    Library Trends 01/2014; 62(3):613-627.
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    ABSTRACT: Page references in boldface indicate major treatments of a topic. Italic locators indicate photographs. Italic t, f, or n indicates tables, figures or notes. A-series paper formats, 485–486 Abbate, Janet, 706 Academic libraries, Chinese. See Chinese academic libraries Access to Learning Award (Gates Foundation), 210, 212 Acknowledgments, by W. Boyd Rayward, 289–290 ACLU (American Civil Liberties Union), 761 ACLU (Wisconsin) Civil Libertarian of the Year Award, 727 Action Plan for Agricultural and Rural Informatization in China, 49 Activism antigay, 735–736 library, 730–739 Adams, Scott, 690 ADI (American Documentation Institute), 689 Administrative surveillance, 644–645, 646. See also Surveillance Advertising etiquette books, 672–676, 675–676 relationship to Die Brücke, 479–480 source of commercial information, 637 AEG (Allgemeine-Elektricitäts-Gesellschaft), 479 Age of Reason. See Enlightenment Ai Hua Libraries, 164 AIBO Youth Center, 174 Air conditioning systems. See HVAC systems ALA. See American Library Association (ALA) Alingh Prins, Jan, 329–331, 383 Alkalimat, Abdul, 145, 255 All the World’s Knowledge: The Paper Internet, 285 Alle Kennis Van de Wereld, 285 Allgemeine-Elektricitäts-Gesellschaft (AEG), 479 American Association of Museums, 604, 607 American Bibliography (Evans), 461 American Booksellers Foundation for Free Expression, 726–727 American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU), 761 American Civil Liberties Union (Wisconsin) Civil Libertarian of the Year Award, 727 American Documentation Institute (ADI), 385, 689 American Family Association, 731, 735–736 American Institute of Higher Learning, 534 American Library Association (ALA) attacks by social conservatives, 731–733 Code of Ethics, 742, 772 definition of censorship, 744 Library Bill of Rights, 742, 761, 771 WBCML controversy, 726–727 American Library Association (ALA). Office for Intellectual Freedom, 761, 763 “American Practice in Information Science” (Vormelker), 385, 389 American Society for Information Science and Technology. (ASIS&T) Special Interest Group. History and Foundations of Information Science, 305 Americans for Truth about Homo- sexuality, 749n Americans with Disabilities Act, 571 Amory, Hugh, 457 Amsterdam, Netherlands, 635–636 Amway (China) Co., Ltd., 165 Analogous Spaces: Architecture and the Space of Information, Intellect, Action, Ghent, 2008, 308 Andersen, Hendrik Christian, 531 Anderson, Augusta, 502n Anderson, H.C.L., 543, 546 Announcement for the Standardization of Commercial Activities in Cybercafes and the Strengthening of Security Management, 124 Annuaire de la vie internationale, 316 Annual Meeting of German Librarians (Bibliothekartag), Göttingen, 1928, 351 Anonymous scientific publications, identifying authors, 451–452 Anschluss, 380 Anthropometric classification, criminals, 446–450 Anthropometry, relationship to scientific bibliography and classification, 442–455 Antigay activism, 735–736. See also “Ex-gay” books Apers, René, 533 Appadurai, Arjun, 509–510, 512 Apprenticeship programs, museum, 597, 605–607, 609–610 Apres le Congrès Mondial (Otlet), 380 Archaeological Data Bank Conference, 601–602 Architectural elements. See also Library architecture basements and underground spaces, 537–538 books used as, 536–537 brickwork, 569, 578 historic library buildings, 556–559 terracotta, 568 towers, 532–536 Architecture of Knowledge: The Mundaneum and European Antecedents of the World Wide Web, Mondeneum, Mons, 2002, 308 The Architecture of Knowledge: The Mundaneum and European Antecedents of the World Wide Web, 323 Archives. See also Cultural heritage organizations functional integration with libraries and museums, 613–614, 615–616, 619, 621 of Otlet and La Fontaine, 319–320 Aristocracy, marketing of, 674 ARL (Association of Research Libraries), 689 Armstrong, Edmund La Touche, 544, 546 Armstrong, Henry Edward, 448, 438 Asbestos, 562 ASIS (American Society for Information Science), 696 ASIS&T SIG HFIS, 305 Aslib. See Association of Special Libraries and Information Bureaux (Aslib) Aslib-FID joint conference, Oxford, 1938. See Joint Conference of FID and Aslib, Oxford, 1938 Aslib Information, 383 Association des Amis du Palais Mondial, 318, 319–320, 321 Association of American Publishers, 727 Association of Research Libraries (ARL), 689 Association of Special Libraries and Information Bureaux (Aslib), 371, 396, 689 collaboration with BSIB, 468–469 joint conference with FID, Oxford, 1938, 378–401 Association of the Friends of the Palais Mondial, 318, 319–320, 321 Astrographical Catalogue, 686 Astronomy, bibliographies, 686 Atheneums. See Mechanics institutes Atherton, Pauline, 431–432. See also Cochrane, Pauline Atherton Austin, Derek, 436 Australia federation period, 1880–1900, 542–543 immigration of Kaeser family, 410–411 Australian librarians, growth of library...
    Library Trends 01/2014; 62(4):773-811.
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    ABSTRACT: Focusing on the development of international librarianship in the interwar period, this paper uses the Paris Library School as a case study to explore the impact of new forms of internationalism on the development of the profession globally. Administered by the American Library Association from 1923 to 1928, the Paris Library School offers a unique view of the evolving international network of library and information professionals that formed such organizations as the International Federation of Library Associations. Through this historical case study, international librarianship is viewed in the context of globalization theories that focus the advent of international nongovernmental organizations, growth of global networks, and impact of transnational cultural flows. This analysis places international librarianship in the context of the wider social and technological developments that contributed to the economic and cultural phenomena characterized as globalization and provides a new theoretical basis for examining the growth, impact, and flow of international library development.
    Library Trends 01/2014; 62(3):504-518.
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    ABSTRACT: The redefining of the scope and function of the public library in the twenty-first century, and reconstruction of the virtual and physical space it occupies, appear to have taken public libraries on a journey to “there and back again.” In some of the debates surrounding contemporary challenges, we can discern echoes from previous generations as they too debated the primary role of the public library in the community, the nature and purpose of services and resources provided, and the best way to meet community needs. Perhaps somewhat surprisingly, many of the solutions reached by twenty-first century libraries have much in common with the solutions of previous generations. Reflecting early public library activities, today’s responses include the introduction of nonstandard classification schemes; the expansion of programs to enhance recreational and educational pursuits; the integration of multiple community services within the library; and provision of a variety of community learning, creative, and recreational spaces. Using the development of public libraries in Australia as a case study, and a critical narrative approach, this paper will argue that the vision for the function and purpose of the public library in the twenty-first century is not a new one but, perhaps unconsciously, a return to historical foundations.
    Library Trends 01/2014; 62(3):581-595.
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    ABSTRACT: One of the most satisfying undertakings in library building design can be the expansion and remodeling of historic public libraries from the early twentieth century. However, although the logic of preservation and conservation leads to strong public interest in the reuse of existing structures, the costs can be extremely high and the results can be functionally disappointing. Among the major problems frequently faced are modern building codes, load-bearing walls, the difficulty of installing modern HVAC systems, flimsy original construction materials, locations that no longer meet community needs, poor electrical wiring, elderly windows, historic brickwork that is difficult to match, inadequate sites, total inaccessibility for users with disabilities, bad modern lighting, and basements with low ceilings. However, many of these problems can be solved—or at least dealt with—with careful programming and planning, and expansion projects can result in handsome libraries that can serve for a second century.
    Library Trends 01/2014; 62(3):556-580.
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    ABSTRACT: I do not know whether it must be said that the critical task still entails faith in the Enlightenment: I continue to think that this task requires work on our limits, that is, a patient labor giving form to our impatience for liberty. This investigation of the West Bend (Wisconsin) Community Memorial Library controversy of 2009 is, most immediately, a case study of a library confronting organized challenge to its execution of its role in American culture. State and local statutes ensure the funding of public libraries with tax dollars and establish independent boards of trustees charged with oversight for the expenditure of such funds. In Wisconsin, Legislative Document Chapter 43 grants public library boards “exclusive charge, control and custody of all lands, buildings, money or other property” as well as authority to appoint the administration of the library. The library board may also cooperate with other agencies, including specifically the University of Wisconsin system, “to foster and encourage . . . the wider use of books and other resource, reference and educational materials upon scientific, historical, economic, literary, educational, and other useful subjects” (Chapter 43.58). These rights and privileges also establish the responsibility of the public library for intellectual and cultural enrichment of the service community, without any delineation of restrictions on that responsibility, ensuring that any boundaries of content, service populations, or types of materials are determined by the library itself. The missions of public libraries emerge from the roots of American democracy, while those who drafted the Constitution that shaped that democracy were themselves influenced by the broad period of the European Enlightenment. The Age of Reason—as the Enlightenment is also known—decentered religion as a political structure and prioritized the values of freedom and equality. New political structures ostensibly drew their authority from the consent of those to be governed, and consent would be ideally generated through rational debate. Democracies then required space for those debates to occur, which stimulated the emergence of the “public sphere.” The democratic foundations of freedom and equality required institutions of value, open and accessible to all, to support that space. The concept of public sphere is, most broadly, that “space in which citizens deliberate about their common affairs” (Fraser, 1990, p. 57). Libraries, through support of “broad social goals and values: an open and dynamic society, equalizing access to information, facility and ease of use” (Buschman, 2007), have emerged as one public-sphere institution committed to service to all. Throughout the twentieth century, librarians refined their developing commitment to their inclusive practice through a code of ethics and a collection of policies that advance best practices to support community service models. The principle of intellectual freedom is central to professional ethics and prioritized in the Library Bill of Rights. This issue of Library Trends is a case study in intellectual freedom and the conflicts that so often surround it (Appendix I and Appendix II in this issue provide statements on the matter of intellectual freedom by the American Library Association). The case study is a research tool that can be used to advance a range of social inquiries, allowing investigators to study “how general social forces take shape and produce results in specific settings” (Walton, 2009, p. 122). Case-based research allows investigators to explore one event, institution, or organization from multiple angles. The particular focus encourages a detailed description that can expose multiple themes related to the case, enriching the analysis. West Bend Community Memorial Library (WBCML) was selected for this study because of the complexity of the events and their visibility. The availability of documents and digital exchanges generated by multiple participants related to the “materials challenges” and professional authority support a robust research process. This study investigates the strategies of conservative social agents in their attempts to recast the role of the public library as a negative element in advancing the public good. But it is also a case study of the resistance to the expansion of the public sphere to include traditionally marginalized populations, such as GLBTQ populations. In her essay in this issue of Library Trends, Loretta Gaffney argues that, in the view of the challengers, “any GLTBQ content in YA literature was...
    Library Trends 01/2014; 62(4):715-720.
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    ABSTRACT: This paper aims to discuss the future of information history by interrogating its past. It presents in outline an account of the conditions and the trajectory of events that have culminated in today’s “information revolution” and “information society.” It suggests that we have already passed through at least two information orders or revolutions as we transition, first, from the long era of print that began over five hundred years ago with Gutenberg and the printing press. We have then moved through a predigital era after World War II, finally to a new era characterized by the advent of the ubiquitous technologies that are considered to herald a new “digital revolution” and the creation of new kind of “information society.” It argues that it is possible to see that the past is now opening itself to new kinds of scrutiny as a result of the apparently transformative changes that are currently taking place. It suggests that the future of the history of information science is best thought of as part of a still unrealized convergence of diverse historical approaches to understanding how societies are constituted, sustained, reproduced, and changed in part by information and the infrastructures that emerge to manage information access and use. In conclusion it suggests that different bodies of historical knowledge and historical research methodologies have emerged as we move into the digital world that might be usefully brought together in the future to broaden and deepen explorations of important historical information phenomena from Gutenberg to Google.
    Library Trends 01/2014; 62(3):681-713.
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    ABSTRACT: Verticality, and related figures such as the tower, stack, or mountain, are commonly used as spatial metaphors to express the hierarchy that we apply to information and knowledge. But these metaphors that transform the vertical dimension of knowledge into words are also translated into library architecture. Different libraries include, or have been built in the form of, a tower. In these cases, verticality as a spatial metaphor is folded back onto the spatial and architectural field where it originated. Library towers transform verticality as a concept that conveys relations in knowledge into architectural language. The translation of verticality as a dimension of knowledge into architecture thus forms a strange double bind between space and knowledge. This article analyzes how libraries have expressed the vertical dimension of knowledge in their architecture and identifies different approaches that make the vertical dimension of knowledge architecturally present. The library of Ghent University (Belgium), by Henry van de Velde, includes a storehouse of books that has been completely accommodated in a tower. The architecture of the French National Library, by Dominique Perrault, plays with the metaphor of the tower in a semantic manner. Other libraries, such as the “Book Mountain” by MVRDV in Spijkenisse, exploit the book stack architecturally; and some libraries, such as The Netherlands Institute for Sound and Vision, by Neutelings Riedijk architects, do not build up but down, in the underground, to house their collections.
    Library Trends 01/2014; 62(3):530-540.
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    ABSTRACT: An examination of the controversy at the West Bend Community Memorial Library over homosexual materials in the young adult collection, and an informal survey of the collection development plans, challenge procedures, and challenge forms of more than sixty Wisconsin public libraries, raise questions about the challenge process itself. The survey shows widespread support of intellectual freedom principles but great variety in procedures to address patron concerns. Boards should consider policies that specify who may file a challenge, require an intermediate staff committee to document reviews and circulation statistics, and make a recommendation, set an expeditious timetable, and decide when or whether a public hearing is needed. A process that focuses on the offending item, not the offended patron, and asks whether the work meets the criteria of the library’s collection development process might enhance the process itself and the public’s understanding of why the library’s provision of diverse viewpoints benefits the entire community.
    Library Trends 01/2014; 62(4):759-770.
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    ABSTRACT: The word “place” can mean both the physical brick-and-mortar and the concept of “appropriate space,” defined functionally. This article examines the language of children’s place in public libraries from 1876 to 1925 in order to understand debates around the establishment of children’s rooms. Debates over the proper place for children encompassed the establishment of practices allowing children to enter the doors of the building as well as the creation of physical “children’s rooms,” although these rooms were policed in ways that restricted and defined their use. Examining the rhetoric of place and physicality illuminates some of the emerging cultural ideas about libraries as children’s places, their purposes, and their limitations.
    Library Trends 01/2014; 62(3):519-529.
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    ABSTRACT: In response to the perceived (by some) onset of an information society, historians have begun to study its roots and antecedents. The past is replete with the rise, fall, and transformation of systems of information, which are not to be confused with the narrower computer-mediated world of information systems. The history of systems of information—which for digestibility can be labeled information history—lacks neither scale nor scope. Systems of information have played a critical role in the transition to, and subsequent development of, capitalism; the growth of the state, especially the modern, nation-state; the rise of modernity, science, and the public sphere; imperialism; and geopolitics. In the context of these epochal shifts and episodes in human thinking and social organization, this essay presents a critical bibliographic survey of histories—outside the well-trodden paths of library and information-science history—that have foregrounded, or made reference to, a wide variety of systems of information.
    Library Trends 01/2014; 62(3):628-662.