Endocrine (Endocrine)

Publisher: Humana Press

Journal description

Current impact factor: 3.53

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2015
2013 / 2014 Impact Factor 3.527
2012 Impact Factor 2.25
2011 Impact Factor 1.416

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 1.58
Cited half-life 6.50
Immediacy index 0.31
Eigenfactor 0.00
Article influence 0.48
ISSN 1559-0100

Publisher details

Humana Press

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    • 'Humana Press' is an imprint of 'Springer Verlag (Germany)'
  • Classification
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Publications in this journal

  • Endocrine 03/2015; DOI:10.1007/s12020-015-0581-2
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    ABSTRACT: Neuroendocrine tumors of the lung are classified into low-grade typical and intermediate-grade atypical carcinoids, and high-grade poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas of the large and small cell types. This scheme is strongly predictive of patients' prognosis but relies on few and scarcely reproducible pathological parameters (namely mitotic count and assessment of the presence of necrosis), which have been demonstrated to affect the inter-observer agreement of the classification. Moreover, tumor and nodal staging schemes are not specific for lung carcinoids, at variance with neuroendocrine tumors of the gastro-entero-pancreatic system, despite these tumors have specific features that strongly differ from conventional lung cancer. Finally, there is no grading for lung neuroendocrine neoplasms and prognostication, as well as the definition of treatment modalities and clinical strategies, which are based on tumor histotypes, only. However, literature data indicate that the evaluation of Ki-67 proliferation index may be a reliable and useful tool to determine the biological and clinical behavior of neuroendocrine tumors, with special reference to carcinoids, both in pre-operative and surgical samples.
    Endocrine 03/2015; DOI:10.1007/s12020-015-0578-x
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    ABSTRACT: Recent studies have reported that standardized uptake values of FDG-PET imaging might predict malignant thyroid nodules and can be used in the preoperative evaluation of thyroid lesions. The aim of our study was to evaluate FDG-PET imaging in patients with cold thyroid nodules and to compare the imaging findings with Tc-99m MIBI scans and with post-op histopathology results. Twenty-three patients (18F, 5M) with 24 nodules that were suspicious in ultrasound and cold in Tc-99m pertechnetate scan, were included in the study. Each nodule underwent sonographically guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy. FDG-PET and MIBI scans were performed with an interval of 3-5 days. All patients underwent thyroidectomy and their FDG-PET, and MIBI thyroid scan results were compared with post-thyroidectomy pathology results. Post-op histopathology results found 7 malignant and 17 benign nodules. Six of the seven malignant nodules had increased uptake, which were positive for malignancy in both PET and MIBI scans. Each imaging method used different radiopharmaceuticals but showed one false-negative result in two different patients. FDG-PET produced false positives in eight nodules and MIBI scans found false positives in four nodules. FDG-PET imaging and MIBI scan showed the same sensitivity in malignant nodule evaluation, but their specificity differed. As a result, we suggest that FDG-PET imaging is not superior to MIBI scanning in differentiating malignant from benign thyroid nodules. MIBI imaging should be the first choice in the preoperative evaluation of patients with cold thyroid nodules as an adjunct procedure to FNAB because of its low cost and availability. This imaging technique can be used routinely in patients who are reluctant to undergo FNAB.
    Endocrine 03/2015; DOI:10.1007/s12020-015-0580-3
  • Endocrine 03/2015; DOI:10.1007/s12020-015-0582-1
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the utility of a personalized risk stratification and radioactive iodine (RAI) selection protocol (PRSP) using post-operative stimulated thyroglobulin (Stim-Tg) and neck ultrasound in low- and intermediate-risk papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) patients. Patients with PTC tumors ≥1 cm were prospectively followed after total thyroidectomy and selective therapeutic central compartment neck dissection. Low/intermediate risk was defined as PTC confined to the thyroid or central (level VI) lymph nodes. Stim-Tg and neck ultrasound were performed approximately 3 months after surgery and used to guide RAI selection. Patients with Stim-Tg < 1 µg/L did not receive RAI, while those with Stim-Tg >5 µg/L routinely did. Those with Stim-Tg 1-5 µg/L received RAI on the basis of several clinical risk factors. Patients were followed for >6 years with serial neck ultrasound and basal/stimulated thyroglobulin. Among the 129 patients, 84 (65 %) had undetectable Stim-Tg after initial surgery, 40 (31 %) had Stim-Tg of 1-5 µg/L, and 5 (4 %) had Stim-Tg >5 µg/L. RAI was administered to 8 (20 %) patients with Stim-Tg 1-5 µg/L and 5 (100 %) with Stim-Tg >5 µg/L. Using this approach, RAI therapy was avoided in 17/20 (85 %) patients with tumors >4 cm, in 72/81 (89 %) patients older than 45 years, and in 6/9 (67 %) patients with central lymph node involvement. To date, 116 (90 %) patients in this cohort have not received RAI therapy with no evidence of residual/recurrent disease, whereas among the 13 patients who received RAI, 1 (8 %) had pathologic residual/recurrence disease. Using the proposed PRSP, RAI can be avoided in the majority of low/intermediate-risk PTC patients. Moreover, traditional risk factors considered to favor RAI treatment were not always concordant with the PRSP and may lead to overtreatment.
    Endocrine 03/2015; DOI:10.1007/s12020-015-0575-0
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study is to determine the property of human perirenal adipose tissue (PAT) and assess the adipose property of PAT in hypertension. Ninety-four patients, including 64 normotensive patients (T-NP) and 30 hypertensive patients (HP), who underwent renal surgery were included. Expression analysis was performed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry in PAT and back subcutaneous adipose tissue (bSAT) depots. Compared with bSAT, PAT adipocytes were smaller, and the expressions of uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) mRNA and protein were markedly higher, while the mRNA expressions of markers for classic beige and white adipocytes were lower in PAT. Immunohistochemistry analysis showed more multilocular UCP1-positive adipocytes in PAT than in bSAT. UCP1 expressions were lower in PAT in HP than in the T-NP or age- and body mass index-matched NP groups. Bigger unilocular adipocytes with less UCP1 staining in PAT were detected in HP than in NP group, although no such difference was observed in bSAT. PAT acts as a brown-like fat. UCP1 expression of PAT was lower in HP than in normotensive patients. UCP1 expression of PAT may serve as a protective indicator for hypertension.
    Endocrine 03/2015; DOI:10.1007/s12020-015-0572-3
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    ABSTRACT: Activating germline mutations in the RET proto-oncogene are responsible for about 98 % of the familial forms of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), which represent 25 % of all MTC cases. The search for germline mutations in this gene is important for the recognition of hereditary forms of MTC and further identification of at-risk relatives who may benefit from early clinical intervention. Genotype-phenotype correlations are well established for most disease-causing RET mutations, allowing risk stratification. The association of a new RET variant with the MTC phenotype and familial predisposition requires the assessment of its functional and clinical significance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the oncogenic potential of two newly identified RET germline variants associated with late-onset MTC. In vitro functional assays were designed to address the transforming potential of novel RET variants, through their expression in non-transformed cells, and comparing their effect with wild-type RET. The new variants were identified in codons 515 (p.C515W) and 636 (p.T636M) located, respectively, in exons 8 and 11, thus resulting in amino acid substitutions in the extracellular region of the tyrosine kinase receptor RET. Through functional assays, we observed increased cell growth and proliferation, loss of contact inhibition, and a stimulation of cell migration, suggesting that these new RET variants hold some relevant transforming potential. The transforming potential of these novel RET variants was of low-grade, when compared to that of RET MEN2A-causing mutation p.C634R, probably explaining the mild phenotype characterized by late onset and low clinical aggressiveness.
    Endocrine 03/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: The familial forms of non-medullary thyroid carcinoma (FNMTC) represent approximately 5 % of thyroid neoplasms. Nine FNMTC susceptibility loci have been mapped; however, only the DICER1 and SRGAP1 susceptibility genes have been identified. The transcription factors NKX2-1, FOXE1, PAX8, and HHEX are involved in the morphogenesis and differentiation of the thyroid. Recent studies have identified NKX2-1 germline mutations in FNMTC families. However, the role of high-penetrant FOXE1 variants in FNMTC etiology remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of FOXE1 germline mutations in the pathogenesis of FNMTC. We searched for molecular changes in the FOXE1 gene in the probands from 60 Portuguese families with FNMTC. In this series, we identified nine polymorphisms and one variant (c.743C>G, p.A248G) which was not previously described. This variant, which involved an amino acid residue conserved in evolution, segregated with disease in one family, and was also detected in an apparently unrelated case of sporadic NMTC. Functional studies were performed using rat normal thyroid cells (PCCL3) clones and human papillary thyroid carcinoma cell line (TPC-1) pools, expressing the wild type and mutant (p.A248G) forms of FOXE1. In these experiments, we observed that the p.A248G variant promoted cell proliferation and migration, suggesting that it may be involved in thyroid tumorigenesis. Additionally, somatic p.V600E BRAF mutations were also detected in the thyroid tumors of two members of the family carrying the p.A248G variant. This study represents the first evidence of involvement of a germline FOXE1 rare variant in FNMTC etiology and suggests that mutations in MAPK pathway-related genes may contribute to tumor development in these familial cases.
    Endocrine 11/2014; DOI:10.1007/s12020-014-0470-0
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated the efficacy of cilostazol treatment for 2 years on the attenuation of carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) progression in type 2 diabetic patients without cardiovascular disease history, as compared with other antiplatelet agents. We recruited a total of 230 type 2 diabetic patients who had undergone IMT measurement twice within 1.5-2.5 years (mean 2.06 ± 0.32 years) interval. Among these participants, we classified them into three groups according to antiplatelet agent administration at baseline: Group I (n = 66), antiplatelet naïve; Group II (n = 75), other antiplatelet agent administration; and Group III (n = 50), cilostazol administration. We then analyzed the changes in clinical characteristics from baseline to 2 years. The changes in annual mean IMT at 2 years were 0.019 ± 0.045 mm/year, -0.001 ± 0.058 mm/year, and -0.019 ± 0.043 mm/year for Group I, II, and III, respectively (P < 0.001). Mean change in total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and triglyceride compared with baseline decreased the most in Group III even after adjustment for statin use. We also observed that the odds ratio of carotid IMT progression at 2 years was the lowest in patients who were treated with cilostazol even after adjustment for change of metabolic parameters. When we categorized patients according to baseline carotid IMT tertile, the efficacy of cilostazol against carotid IMT progression was significant only when baseline IMT was over 0.662 mm (mean 0.801). Two-year treatment with cilostazol strongly inhibited carotid IMT progression compared to other antiplatelet agents in type 2 diabetic patients. This beneficial effect of cilostazol was significant when baseline IMT was thicker than 0.662 mm (mean 0.801 mm).
    Endocrine 09/2014; 47(1). DOI:10.1007/s12020-013-0120-y
  • Endocrine 06/2014; DOI:10.1007/s12020-013-0138-1
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    ABSTRACT: Recently, higher body mass index (BMI) has been associated with aggressive pathologic features of papillary thyroid carcinoma. The aim of this study was to clarify the relationship between BMI and aggressive pathologic features of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC) and to evaluate whether the BMI can be a prognostic factor of PTMC. This retrospective study included 612 PTMC patients who underwent surgical excision at a referral center between April 2006 and December 2007. Patients were grouped according to BMI (<25 or ≥25 kg/m(2)). Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to determine independent predictors of aggressive pathologic features (advanced stage, extrathyroidal extension, and lymph node metastasis), with adjustment for age, gender, tumor size, multifocality, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level, and BMI (value/group). PTMC patients with a BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2) showed significantly higher prevalences of extrathyroidal extension, advanced pathologic TNM stage, and male gender, compared to those of patients with a BMI < 25 kg/m(2). Lymph node metastasis and mean TSH level were not significantly different between the two BMI subgroups. In multivariable analysis, the BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2) group was positively associated with the presence of extrathyroidal extension (adjusted odds ratio 1.49, P = 0.05). Higher BMI was associated with extrathyroidal extension in PTMC patients. This study suggests that the BMI could be considered as a prognostic factor for predicting the presence of extrathyroidal extension and it may help decide the appropriate surgical extent for PTMC patients.
    Endocrine 05/2014; 48(1). DOI:10.1007/s12020-014-0293-z
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    ABSTRACT: Dysfunction of the parathyroid glands is an important cause of complications after thyroid surgery. Intraoperative monitoring of the function of the parathyroid glands can be performed using parathyroid hormone (PTH) kinetics. Unilateral thyroid surgery is associated with a decreased risk for postoperative hypocalcemia (POH) and permanent hypoparathyroidism (PEH). We focused on unilateral thyroid surgery by monitoring the functionality of the parathyroid glands and comparing the perioperative PTH kinetics of patients with and without POH. In a prospective study, 143 patients scheduled for unilateral thyroid surgery underwent monitoring of perioperative changes in serum PTH and serum calcium levels, and of clinical symptoms of hypocalcemia. The rates of POH and PEH were 18.2 and 0 %, respectively. In patients without POH, PTH significantly increased from the time of skin incision to the end of the operation and after the operation (20.1 pg/ml, IQR 15.5-26.8 vs. 21.4 pg/ml, IQR 16.4-29.5; p = 0.005), which was not the case in patients who developed POH. In a multivariate analysis of predictive factors for POH, two parameters became significant, namely female gender (odds ratio 6.87, 95 % confidence interval 0.92-51.01) and lower initial serum calcium levels (odds ratio 3.54*e(-8), 95 % confidence interval 3.63*e(-12); 0.00). The rate of POH was unexpectedly high. Rather than intraoperative PTH declines, an unstable balance of factors that influence calcium metabolism likely is the major contributor to POH after unilateral thyroid surgery. There was no case of PEH after unilateral, primary thyroid surgery, which underlines the need for an individualized approach to the extent of resection.
    Endocrine 05/2014; 48(1). DOI:10.1007/s12020-014-0300-4
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    ABSTRACT: It is well documented that selenium (Se) is involved in the metabolism of glucose. However, whether Se supplementation could lower the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) remains elusive. We aimed to evaluate the association between Se supplementation and the risk of T2DM by performing a meta-analysis. We searched the Pubmed, Embase, and Cochrane databases from January 1990 to November 2013 to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that met pre-stated inclusion criteria. Reference lists of retrieved articles were also reviewed. Either a fixed-effects or, in the presence of heterogeneity, a random-effects model was used to calculate the pooled prevention effects. Four RCTs involving 20,294 participants were included in this meta-analysis. The combined relative risks (RRs) for subjects administered with Se compared with control groups were 1.09 (95 % CI: 0.99-1.20, p = 0.085). Omission of any single study did not change the overall risk estimates significantly. Meta- regression analyses showed almost no impact on the RRs of age and study length. No evidence of publication bias was observed. In conclusion, our findings do not support the routine application of Se supplementation for T2DM prevention in Caucasians. Larger studies are needed to investigate the effects of Se supplementation on T2DM prevention among various populations and further elucidate the impact of age and study length.
    Endocrine 05/2014; DOI:10.1007/s12020-014-0298-7
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    ABSTRACT: The introduction of the endoscope to transsphenoidal pituitary surgery is relatively new, but represents a major advancement in the field. The use of the endoscope to visualize the sella via a direct endonasal approach offers the surgeon dramatically better visualization as well as improved range of motion compared to the operating microscope. Growing evidence confirms that these improvements directly translate into better surgical resections and outcomes. Further, patient comfort and satisfaction are higher with the endonasal method compared with other transsphenoidal approaches, and it is a cost effective technology. This position paper will outline the reasons that endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery is the preferred method for pituitary surgery, and why it will likely be adopted as the standard technique for transsphenoidal surgery worldwide.
    Endocrine 05/2014; 47(2). DOI:10.1007/s12020-014-0294-y
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    ABSTRACT: Altered bone micro-architecture is an important factor in accounting for fragility fractures. Until recently, it has not been possible to gain information about skeletal microstructure in a way that is clinically feasible. Bone biopsy is essentially a research tool. High-resolution peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography, while non-invasive, is available only sparsely throughout the world. The trabecular bone score (TBS) is an imaging technology adapted directly from the Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DXA) image of the lumbar spine. Thus, it is potentially readily and widely available. In recent years, a large number of studies have demonstrated that TBS is significantly associated with direct measurements of bone micro-architecture, predicts current and future fragility fractures in primary osteoporosis, and may be a useful adjunct to BMD for fracture detection and prediction. In this review, we summarize its potential utility in secondary causes of osteoporosis. In some situations, like glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis and in diabetes mellitus, the TBS appears to out-perform DXA. It also has apparent value in numerous other disorders associated with diminished bone health, including primary hyperparathyroidism, androgen-deficiency, hormone-receptor positive breast cancer treatment, chronic kidney disease, hemochromatosis, and autoimmune disorders like rheumatoid arthritis. Further research is both needed and warranted to more clearly establish the role of TBS in these and other disorders that adversely affect bone.
    Endocrine 05/2014; 47(2). DOI:10.1007/s12020-014-0280-4