Endocrine (Endocrine )

Description

  • Impact factor
    1.42
  • 5-year impact
    1.58
  • Cited half-life
    6.50
  • Immediacy index
    0.31
  • Eigenfactor
    0.00
  • Article influence
    0.48
  • ISSN
    1559-0100

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: It is well documented that selenium (Se) is involved in the metabolism of glucose. However, whether Se supplementation could lower the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) remains elusive. We aimed to evaluate the association between Se supplementation and the risk of T2DM by performing a meta-analysis. We searched the Pubmed, Embase, and Cochrane databases from January 1990 to November 2013 to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that met pre-stated inclusion criteria. Reference lists of retrieved articles were also reviewed. Either a fixed-effects or, in the presence of heterogeneity, a random-effects model was used to calculate the pooled prevention effects. Four RCTs involving 20,294 participants were included in this meta-analysis. The combined relative risks (RRs) for subjects administered with Se compared with control groups were 1.09 (95 % CI: 0.99-1.20, p = 0.085). Omission of any single study did not change the overall risk estimates significantly. Meta- regression analyses showed almost no impact on the RRs of age and study length. No evidence of publication bias was observed. In conclusion, our findings do not support the routine application of Se supplementation for T2DM prevention in Caucasians. Larger studies are needed to investigate the effects of Se supplementation on T2DM prevention among various populations and further elucidate the impact of age and study length.
    Endocrine 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Dysfunction of the parathyroid glands is an important cause of complications after thyroid surgery. Intraoperative monitoring of the function of the parathyroid glands can be performed using parathyroid hormone (PTH) kinetics. Unilateral thyroid surgery is associated with a decreased risk for postoperative hypocalcemia (POH) and permanent hypoparathyroidism (PEH). We focused on unilateral thyroid surgery by monitoring the functionality of the parathyroid glands and comparing the perioperative PTH kinetics of patients with and without POH. In a prospective study, 143 patients scheduled for unilateral thyroid surgery underwent monitoring of perioperative changes in serum PTH and serum calcium levels, and of clinical symptoms of hypocalcemia. The rates of POH and PEH were 18.2 and 0 %, respectively. In patients without POH, PTH significantly increased from the time of skin incision to the end of the operation and after the operation (20.1 pg/ml, IQR 15.5-26.8 vs. 21.4 pg/ml, IQR 16.4-29.5; p = 0.005), which was not the case in patients who developed POH. In a multivariate analysis of predictive factors for POH, two parameters became significant, namely female gender (odds ratio 6.87, 95 % confidence interval 0.92-51.01) and lower initial serum calcium levels (odds ratio 3.54*e(-8), 95 % confidence interval 3.63*e(-12); 0.00). The rate of POH was unexpectedly high. Rather than intraoperative PTH declines, an unstable balance of factors that influence calcium metabolism likely is the major contributor to POH after unilateral thyroid surgery. There was no case of PEH after unilateral, primary thyroid surgery, which underlines the need for an individualized approach to the extent of resection.
    Endocrine 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Recently, higher body mass index (BMI) has been associated with aggressive pathologic features of papillary thyroid carcinoma. The aim of this study was to clarify the relationship between BMI and aggressive pathologic features of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC) and to evaluate whether the BMI can be a prognostic factor of PTMC. This retrospective study included 612 PTMC patients who underwent surgical excision at a referral center between April 2006 and December 2007. Patients were grouped according to BMI (<25 or ≥25 kg/m(2)). Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to determine independent predictors of aggressive pathologic features (advanced stage, extrathyroidal extension, and lymph node metastasis), with adjustment for age, gender, tumor size, multifocality, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level, and BMI (value/group). PTMC patients with a BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2) showed significantly higher prevalences of extrathyroidal extension, advanced pathologic TNM stage, and male gender, compared to those of patients with a BMI < 25 kg/m(2). Lymph node metastasis and mean TSH level were not significantly different between the two BMI subgroups. In multivariable analysis, the BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2) group was positively associated with the presence of extrathyroidal extension (adjusted odds ratio 1.49, P = 0.05). Higher BMI was associated with extrathyroidal extension in PTMC patients. This study suggests that the BMI could be considered as a prognostic factor for predicting the presence of extrathyroidal extension and it may help decide the appropriate surgical extent for PTMC patients.
    Endocrine 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The introduction of the endoscope to transsphenoidal pituitary surgery is relatively new, but represents a major advancement in the field. The use of the endoscope to visualize the sella via a direct endonasal approach offers the surgeon dramatically better visualization as well as improved range of motion compared to the operating microscope. Growing evidence confirms that these improvements directly translate into better surgical resections and outcomes. Further, patient comfort and satisfaction are higher with the endonasal method compared with other transsphenoidal approaches, and it is a cost effective technology. This position paper will outline the reasons that endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery is the preferred method for pituitary surgery, and why it will likely be adopted as the standard technique for transsphenoidal surgery worldwide.
    Endocrine 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Altered bone micro-architecture is an important factor in accounting for fragility fractures. Until recently, it has not been possible to gain information about skeletal microstructure in a way that is clinically feasible. Bone biopsy is essentially a research tool. High-resolution peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography, while non-invasive, is available only sparsely throughout the world. The trabecular bone score (TBS) is an imaging technology adapted directly from the Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DXA) image of the lumbar spine. Thus, it is potentially readily and widely available. In recent years, a large number of studies have demonstrated that TBS is significantly associated with direct measurements of bone micro-architecture, predicts current and future fragility fractures in primary osteoporosis, and may be a useful adjunct to BMD for fracture detection and prediction. In this review, we summarize its potential utility in secondary causes of osteoporosis. In some situations, like glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis and in diabetes mellitus, the TBS appears to out-perform DXA. It also has apparent value in numerous other disorders associated with diminished bone health, including primary hyperparathyroidism, androgen-deficiency, hormone-receptor positive breast cancer treatment, chronic kidney disease, hemochromatosis, and autoimmune disorders like rheumatoid arthritis. Further research is both needed and warranted to more clearly establish the role of TBS in these and other disorders that adversely affect bone.
    Endocrine 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Early postoperative hyperglycemia in non-diabetic patients is an important risk factor affecting postoperative complications and mortality. This study aimed at investigating the effects of early postoperative hyperglycemia on postoperative complications, hospital costs, and length of hospital stay in non-diabetic patients with gastrointestinal malignancies; data of 1,015 non-diabetic patients with gastrointestinal malignancies, who underwent surgical intervention between January 2010 and January 2012, were retrospectively evaluated. Records on fasting plasma glucose (FPG), liver function, and kidney function were collected before and one day after surgery. Correlation of early postoperative FPG levels with postoperative complications, hospital costs, and length of hospital stay was further assessed in non-diabetic patients with gastrointestinal malignancies. One day after surgery, FPG results were significantly increased compared to preoperative values. FPG levels greater than or equal to 9.13 mmol/L (or 164.34 mg/dL) were associated with significant increases in the incidence of postoperative complications, length of hospital stay, and hospital costs. An association is shown between FPG and postoperative hyperglycemia in non-diabetic patients undergoing surgery for gastrointestinal malignancies. Significant increases in postoperative complications among these patients suggest that measurement of early postoperative FPG levels is critical to identify patients with postoperative hyperglycemia.
    Endocrine 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The incidence of thyroid metastasis from other primary malignancy is rare. In this case, we present the findings of (18)F-FDG PET/CT in thyroid metastasis from underlying non-small cell carcinoma of the lung and highlight the importance of tracer uptake pattern recognition within the thyroid on (18)F-FDG PET/CT study.
    Endocrine 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Although a high serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level is an established risk factor for atherosclerosis, it is unclear whether it is associated with osteoporosis. In this study, the associations between the serum LDL-C level and bone mineral density (BMD), bone metabolic markers, and the presence of prevalent vertebral or non-vertebral fractures were examined. A total of 211 healthy postmenopausal women (age range, 46-80 years) who visited a community health center were recruited consecutively. Their radiographic and biochemical characteristics were collected. Prevalent vertebral and non-vertebral fractures were found in 49 (23.2 %) and 36 (17.1 %) subjects, respectively. Simple regression analyses showed that the serum LDL-C level was not significantly correlated with lumbar or femoral BMD or serum levels of total amino-terminal propeptide of type I collagen (PINP) or carboxy-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX). Logistic regression analyses adjusted for age and BMI showed that the increased serum LDL-C level was selected as an index affecting the presence of prevalent non-vertebral fractures, but not vertebral fractures. This result was still significant after additional adjustments for years since menopause, physical activity, previous cardiovascular events, bone markers, BMD, serum Ca, P, Cr, 25(OH)D, grip strength, tandem gait test, and use of drugs for hyperlipidemia [odds ratio 1.76 (1.13-2.73), p = 0.012]. These findings suggest that a high serum LDL-C level may be a risk factor for prevalent non-vertebral fragility fractures independent of bone turnover, bone mass, vitamin D insufficiency, or frail status in postmenopausal women, and that it may be detrimental to bone, as well as blood vessels.
    Endocrine 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: To characterize the molecular mechanism and map the response element used by progesterone (P) to upregulate tissue factor (TF) in breast cancer cells. TF expression and mRNA levels were analyzed in breast cancer ZR-75 and T47D cells, using Western blot and real-time PCR, respectively. Mapping of the TF promoter was performed using luciferase vectors. Progesterone receptor (PR) and specificity protein 1 (Sp1) binding to the TF promoter were analyzed by chromatin immuno precipitation assay. Specific or selective inhibitors were used for the MEK1/2 and the c-Src pathways (UO126 and PP2, respectively). TF mRNA increase peaks at 18 h following P treatment in ZR-75 and T47D cells. P upregulation occurs via a transcriptional mechanism that depends on PR and MEK1/2 activation, PR and Sp1 transcription factors bind to a region in the TF promoter that contains three Sp1 sites. TF mRNA upregulation requires an intact PR proline-rich site (mPRO), but it is independent from c-Src. TF upregulation by P is mediated by Sp1 sites in the TF promoter region. Transcriptional upregulation in breast cancer cells occurs via a new mechanism that requires MEK1/2 activation and the mPRO site but independent of c-Src activity. PR Phosphorylation at serine 294 and 345 is not essential.
    Endocrine 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine chemerin levels in preeclampsia and to assess the effects of this anti-inflammatory factor on endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), nuclear factor (NF)-κB, and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM) expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Serum chemerin and eNOS levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, while chemerin mRNA and protein levels were measured by fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting, respectively. Nitric oxide (NO) concentrations were determined with a colorimetric method. Akt and eNOS phosphorylation were assessed by Western blotting. We also tested the effects of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002 and the eNOS inhibitor L-NAME. NF-κB p65 and VCAM-1 phosphorylation were assessed by Western blotting to investigate the role of chemerin in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-induced HUVEC injury. Serum chemerin levels were increased in preeclampsia, while eNOS was decreased. Chemerin mRNA and protein were both increased in placentae from patients with preeclampsia. Furthermore, chemerin serum level positively correlated with blood pressure, body mass index, and serum insulin and was negatively correlated with serum eNOS. Chemerin dose-dependently increased NO concentrations in supernatants. Chemerin can increase eNOS and Akt levels in HUVECs, and these results could be partly blocked by LY294002 and L-NAME. Chemerin significantly decreased TNF-α-induced NF-κB and VCAM-1 in HUVECs, and these changes were partly inhibited by LY294002 and L-NAME. Chemerin may play a protective role by regulating NO signaling. Future studies should assess the role of chemerin in preeclampsia and other vascular diseases.
    Endocrine 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: New modalities are now available to improve the diagnosis of diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN). The present review discusses the progress achieved in this area. First, the minimal diagnostic criteria have been better clarified. Moreover, there are now new bedside tests available, such as the indicator test Neuropad, NeuroQuick, Ipswich Touch Test (IpTT), Vibratip, NC-stat(®)/DPNCheck™ for automated nerve conduction study (NCS), tactile circumferential discriminator, steel ball-bearing, and SUDOSCAN(®), while more sophisticated modalities include skin biopsy and corneal confocal microscopy (CCM). Some tests can be used as screening tools, including primary care setting (Neuropad, IpTT, Vibratip, automated NCS), while others are more suitable for research, including evaluation of DPN in prospective studies (CCM, skin biopsy). Importantly, there is some evidence of earlier DPN diagnosis with the aid of some tests (Neuropad, skin biopsy, CCM). Further advantages provided by different tests are educational value and self-examination. Thus far, the potential of these tests has not been fully utilised. In particular, they have not been validated against standardised clinical examination scores in terms of predicting foot ulcers and amputations. Hence, it now remains to investigate the potential benefits from the widespread use of these tests for earlier and easier diagnosis of DPN in the everyday clinic.
    Endocrine 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated the prevalence and clinical characteristics of ptosis in patients with diabetes in the general Korean population. This cross-sectional study is based on data from the fourth and fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys , conducted in 2009 and 2010 among members of the Korean population. Participants included 5,811 males and 7,650 females 20 years of age or older. Ptosis was defined as the marginal reflex distance 1 of <2 mm. Homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance was calculated in participants without diabetes. HbA1c was measured and diabetic retinopathy was defined in participants with diabetes by ophthalmologic examination. The prevalence of ptosis was 20.8 and 9.4 % among participants with diabetes (n = 1,379) and those without diabetes (n = 12,082), respectively. Results of multiple regression analyses of the correlation between ptosis and the study variables showed that diabetes was a significant determinant in the general population. Patients with diabetes and ptosis had longer duration of diabetes (7.49 ± 0.51 vs. 6.19 ± 0.23 years, P = 0.012), higher serum creatinine level (80.4 ± 1.76 vs. 76.9 ± 0.88 mmol/l, P = 0.009), and higher prevalence of hypertension (60.3 vs. 47.9 %, P < 0.001), and were older (67.0 ± 0.6 vs. 60.5 ± 0.4 years, P < 0.001) compared to those without ptosis. Prevalence of ptosis was found to be remarkably higher in subjects with diabetes compared to those without diabetes. Diabetes is an independent risk factor for ptosis in the general Korean population. Screening for ptosis is warranted for patients with diabetes and longer duration, higher serum creatinine, hypertension, and old age.
    Endocrine 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety of the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and its capacity to suppress growth hormone (GH) in diabetic patients without acromegaly. A total of 135 diabetic patients submitted to the OGTT for GH suppression were studied. The following selection criteria were applied: age between 20 and 70 years; body mass index ≥18.5 and ≤27 kg/m(2); absence of kidney, liver, or thyroid disease; no use of estrogens, androgens, corticosteroids, or levothyroxine. Adequate suppression of GH was defined as a nadir below the cut-off established for a sample of 200 normoglycemic subjects (<0.25 µg/L for men, <0.74 µg/L for premenopausal women, and <0.5 µg/L for postmenopausal women). Acromegaly was diagnosed in five patients. Among the 130 diabetic patients without known pituitary disease or a clinical suspicion of acromegaly, 95.5 % of men, 94 % of premenopausal women, and 96.6 % of postmenopausal women presented adequate GH suppression (vs 97.5 % of normoglycemic controls). In all patients without acromegaly, the lowest GH levels (nadir) were achieved after the administration of glucose and not during baseline measurement. None of the patients had acute complications [ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar state, and symptomatic marked hyperglycemia (>300 mg/dL)] on the day of the test and up to 3 days thereafter. We demonstrated the safety of the OGTT and its capacity to suppress GH in diabetic patients without acromegaly. In addition, we suggest the adoption of a protocol to prevent possible risks of the OGTT in patients with diabetes.
    Endocrine 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Medical therapy with dopaminergic agonists (DAs) has been used for several decades for the treatment of both micro- and macroprolactinomas, without much differentiation between the two conditions. While most cases respond well to DAs in terms of prolactin normalization and control of tumor growth, DAs are often needed for many years, or even for lifetime. Concerns have been raised recently about the possible side effects of long-term use of these medications on the anatomy and function of the heart valves. While macroprolactinomas are rarely surgically curable, pituitary surgery in expert hands is a safe and effective method to permanently cure microprolactinomas, with long-term cure rates around 70 %. In this article, I will review the data on safety of DAs an on the effectiveness and safety of surgery, and I will make an argument that surgery should be offered as a possible therapy to microprolactinoma patients, provided that an experienced pituitary neurosurgeon is available.
    Endocrine 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Based on the literature data in the last two decades, growth hormone deficiency (GHD) in adults has been accepted as a clinical entity. Due to the presence of GH and IGF-I receptors throughout the body, the physiological effects of the GH-IGF-I axis are still under investigation. The effects of GH on skin, sleep, and coagulation parameters in adults have only been investigated in detail only in the recent years. In this review, our aim was to summarize the literature regarding the effects of GHD and GH replacement treatment on the skin, sleep, and coagulation parameters in adults.
    Endocrine 05/2014;
  • Endocrine 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Metabolic bone disease occurs when there is a net loss in bone density. Osteoporosis, the most common metabolic bone disease, is a devastating problem and an increasingly major public health issue. A substantial body of evidence in the elderly population indicates that a relationship exists between the components of body weight and various measures of bone/mass, density, and function. Both muscle and fat contribute to the body's total weight and the intimate associations of muscle, fat, and bone are known. But the close functional interactions between muscle and bone or fat and bone are largely unidentified and have drawn much attention in recent years. Each of these tissues not only responds to afferent signals from traditional hormone systems and the central nervous systems but also secretes factors with important endocrine functions. Studies suggest that during growth, development, and aging, the relationship of muscle and fat with the skeleton possibly governs bone homeostasis and turnover. A better understanding of the endocrine function and the cellular and molecular mechanisms and pathways linking muscle or adipose tissues with bone anabolism and catabolism is a new avenue for novel pathways for anabolic drug discovery. These in turn will likely lead to more rational therapy toward increasingly prevalent disorders like osteoporosis. In this review, some of the recent works on the interaction of bone with muscle and fat are highlighted, and in so doing the role of parathyroid hormone (PTH), and PTH-related peptide (PTHrP) is surveyed.
    Endocrine 05/2014;

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