Diabetes Technology &amp Therapeutics (DIABETES TECHNOL THE )

Publisher: Mary Ann Liebert

Description

This new peer-reviewed quarterly journal covers new technology and new products for the treatment, monitoring, diagnosis, and prevention of diabetes and its complications. Technologies include noninvasive glucose monitoring, implantable continuous glucose sensors, novel routes of insulin administration, genetic engineering, the artificial pancreas, measures of longterm control, computer applications for case management, telemedicine, the internet, and new medications.

  • Impact factor
    2.21
  • 5-year impact
    2.25
  • Cited half-life
    3.80
  • Immediacy index
    0.82
  • Eigenfactor
    0.01
  • Article influence
    0.60
  • Website
    Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics website
  • Other titles
    Diabetes technology & therapeutics (Online), Diabetes technology & therapeutics, Diabetes technology and therapeutics
  • ISSN
    1557-8593
  • OCLC
    43498340
  • Material type
    Document, Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Mary Ann Liebert

  • Pre-print
    • Author cannot archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • Author's final version or publisher's version/PDF
    • Publisher's version/PDF may be used
    • On own website, institution's intranet, or institutional repository
    • Authors may deposit in funding agency designated repository after 12 months
    • Set statement to accompany deposit (see policy)
    • Publisher copyright and source must be acknowledged
    • NIH authors will have their final paper, (post peer review, copy-editing and proof-reading) deposited in PubMed Central on their behalf
  • Classification
    ​ blue

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Background: This study evaluated the predictors of effectiveness and durability of insulin pump therapy in children and adolescents who have initiated continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) within 2 years after the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Subjects and Methods: The charts of individuals with T1DM using insulin pumps who were treated at our center were reviewed, including subjects with age at onset of <22 years, interval between onset and insulin pump commencement (interval onset-commencement) of <2 years, use of pumps of >1 year, and use of glucose sensors for <4 weeks/year. The primary end point was the mean glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) value (MHbA1c) throughout the follow-up. Results: From 684 patients treated with insulin pumps, 119 met the inclusion criteria, and 113 were selected for statistical analysis (60 females; age at diabetes onset, 8.9±5.6 years [mean±SD]; follow-up, 4.0±1.8 years; range, 1-8 years; baseline HbA1c, 9.3±1.8%). Only the interval onset-commencement was a linear predictor of the MHbA1c (P=0.01; R(2)=0.089). A significant reduction of the mean yearly HbA1c from baseline throughout all the follow-up was observed (P<0.001). Categorizing the sample into four quartiles on the basis of an increasing interval onset-commencement resulted in levels of MHbA1c significantly lower in the first and second quartiles in comparison with the fourth quartile (7.6±0.8% and 7.8±1.0%, respectively, versus 8.5±0.8%; P<0.001 and P=0.004, respectively). Conclusions: The present study suggests that early pump commencement in children and adolescents with T1DM provides lower and more durable HbA1c values than a late commencement. It is possible that an early pump commencement could prolong the honeymoon phase, but we cannot confirm or exclude this hypothesis because the lack of data about C-peptide levels during the follow-up.
    Diabetes Technology &amp Therapeutics 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Background: This study investigated whether teneligliptin, a novel dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, ameliorated glucose fluctuations in hospitalized Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes receiving insulin therapy, with or without other antidiabetes drugs, and using continuous glucose monitoring (CGM). Patients and Methods: Twenty-six patients with type 2 diabetes were admitted for glycemic control. After admission, patients continued to be treated with optimal dietary therapy plus insulin therapy, with or without other antidiabetes drugs, until they achieved stable glycemic control. CGM measurements were made for 7 consecutive days. On Days 1-3, patients received insulin with or without other antidiabetes drugs, and on Days 4-7, teneligliptin 20 mg once daily at breakfast was added to ongoing therapy. Doses of insulin were fixed during the study. Levels of serum glycated albumin (GA), 1,5-anhydro-d-glucitol (1,5-AG), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) were measured. Results: Add-on treatment with teneligliptin led to significant improvements in 24-h mean glucose levels, the proportion of time in normoglycemia, mean amplitude of glycemic excursions, and total area under the curve within 2 h after each meal. The proportion of time in hypoglycemia and hsCRP levels did not increase significantly compared with before teneligliptin. Values of 1,5-AG and GA were significantly improved by treatment with teneligliptin. Conclusions: Addition of teneligliptin to insulin therapy led to a significant improvement in diurnal glycemic control and significant reductions in glucose fluctuations in 24-h periods without increasing hypoglycemia in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes on insulin therapy, with or without other antidiabetes agents.
    Diabetes Technology &amp Therapeutics 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Background: The HOT (Healthy Outcome for Teens) Project is an innovative online educational intervention for middle school children for prevention of diabetes and obesity by balancing food intake with physical activity. The objective was to improve knowledge, outcome expectations, self-efficacy, and self-reported food intake and skills and to compare a passive online learning (POL) control group with an active online learning (AOL) treatment group by implementing a social cognitive theory (SCT)-grounded online intervention. Subjects and Methods: In total, 214 participants were recruited from three middle schools. Full data were secured for 181 students. Six valid, reliable questionnaires were administered online, pre/post, to both the AOL and POL groups to assess knowledge gain, self-reported intake, and meal planning skills, as well as change in SCT constructs. Results: Subjects in the AOL group improved significantly for all five categories of planning a meal questionnaire (P=0.001) and also for outcome expectations for exercise (P=0.001). At postintervention, no significant differences were found for composite scores of exercise self-efficacy, weight efficacy lifestyle, and rapid eating assessment plan questionnaires between AOL versus POL (by Mann-Whitney test). Conclusions: We conclude that teens participating in the AOL version of the HOT Project intervention acquired skills for planning a meal and improved outcome expectations for exercise.
    Diabetes Technology &amp Therapeutics 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Aims: This study estimated the levels of glycemic control among subjects with self-reported diabetes in urban and rural areas of four regions in India. Research Design and Methods: Phase I of the Indian Council of Medical Research-India Diabetes (ICMR-INDIAB) Study was conducted in a representative population of three states of India (Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, and Jharkhand) and one Union Territory (Chandigarh) and covering a population of 213 million people. Using a stratified multistage sampling design, individuals ≥20 years of age were recruited. Glycemic control among subjects with self-reported diabetes was assessed by measurement of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), estimated by the Variant™ II Turbo method (Bio-Rad, Hercules, CA). Results: Among the 14,277 participants in Phase I of INDIAB, there were 480 subjects with self-reported diabetes (254 urban and 226 rural). The mean HbA1c levels were highest in Chandigarh (9.1±2.3%), followed by Tamil Nadu (8.2±2.0%), Jharkhand (8.2±2.4%), and Maharashtra (8.0±2.1%). Good glycemic control (HbA1c <7%) was observed only in 31.1% of urban and 30.8% of rural subjects. Only 22.4% of urban and 15.4% of rural subjects had reported having checked their HbA1c in the past year. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed younger age, duration of diabetes, insulin use, and high triglyceride levels to be significantly associated with poor glycemic control. Conclusions: The level of glycemic control among subjects with self-reported diabetes in India is poor. Urgent action is needed to remedy the situation.
    Diabetes Technology &amp Therapeutics 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Modern technological devices supporting coping and management for patients with diabetes are increasingly popular and could be important healthcare tools. This review aimed to evaluate patient satisfaction and perceptions regarding these devices, examples of which include short message service reminder systems, online educational programs, and clinician-patient electronic communication. Therapy devices such as continuous glucose monitors and continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion pumps are not included in this review. Embase, Psychinfo, Medline, CINAHL, and gray literature databases were searched for "diabetes mellitus," "technical device," "patient satisfaction," and their synonyms. This review was carried out according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement guidelines. The search produced 1,902 studies, 26 of which were included in the review: type 1 diabetes mellitus (eight studies), type 2 diabetes mellitus (nine studies), and both (nine studies). High satisfaction was seen with almost all devices and correlated strongly with ease of use and improved diabetes management. Satisfaction was not affected by participant age, and the effect of diabetes type was not assessed. Web devices were reported as easiest to use. Increased support was valued and resulted from devices facilitating interaction with healthcare professionals (HCPs) or peers. Technical difficulties were barriers to both use and satisfaction. Overall, patients enjoyed supplementing their usual therapy with these devices. Perceived support from HCPs or peers formed an important aspect of patient satisfaction and should be considered for future interventions.
    Diabetes Technology &amp Therapeutics 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Background: Children with severe chronic pancreatitis may undergo total pancreatectomy with islet autotransplantation (TPIAT) to relieve pain while minimizing the risk of postsurgical diabetes. Because overstimulation of transplanted islets by hyperglycemia can result in β-cell loss, we developed a specialized intravenous insulin infusion protocol (IIP) for pediatric TPIAT recipients to maintain euglycemia or near-euglycemia posttransplant. Subjects and Methods: Our objective was to review glucose control using an IIP specific for TPIAT recipients at a single institution. We reviewed postoperative blood glucose (BG) levels for 32 children 4-18 years old with chronic pancreatitis who underwent TPIAT between July 2011 and June 2013. We analyzed the proportion of BG values in the range of 70-140 mg/dL, mean glucose, glucose variability, and occurrence of hypoglycemia during the IIP; we also evaluated the transition to subcutaneous therapy (first 72 h with multiple daily injections [MDI]). Results: During IIP, the mean patient BG level was 116±27 mg/dL, with 83.1% of all values in the range of 70-140 mg/dL. Hypoglycemia was rare, with only 2.5% of values <70 mg/dL. The more recent era (n=16) had a lower mean BG and less variability than the early era (first 16 patients) (P≤0.004). Mean glucose level (116 vs. 128 mg/dL) and glucose variability were significantly lower during the IIP compared with MDI therapy (P<0.0001). Conclusions: Tight glycemic control without excessive severe hypoglycemia was achieved in children undergoing TPIAT using an IIP specifically designed for this population; the ability to maintain BG in target range improved with experience with the protocol.
    Diabetes Technology &amp Therapeutics 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Background: The prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in youth is increasing. Treatment options beyond metformin and insulin are needed. The safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of liraglutide once daily in youth (10-17 years old) with T2D were investigated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Subjects and Methods: Youth treated with diet/exercise alone or with metformin and having a hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level of 6.5-11% were randomized to liraglutide (n=14) or placebo (n=7). Starting at 0.3 mg/day, doses were escalated weekly to 0.6, 0.9, 1.2, and 1.8 mg/day (or placebo equivalent) for 5 weeks. Results: Nineteen participants completed the trial. Baseline characteristics were similar between groups, with mean (SD) values for age of 14.8 (2.2) years, weight of 113.2 (35.6) kg (range, 57-214 kg), diabetes duration of 1.7 (1.4) years, and HbA1c level of 8.1% (1.2%). No serious adverse events (AEs), including severe hypoglycemia, occurred. Transient gastrointestinal AEs were most common at lower liraglutide doses during dose escalation. No significant changes in safety and tolerability parameters occurred. There was no evidence of pancreatitis or lipase elevations above three times the upper normal limit; calcitonin levels remained within the normal range. For liraglutide 1.8 mg, mean half-life was 12 h, and clearance was 1.7 L/h. After 5 weeks, the decline in HbA1c level was greater with liraglutide versus placebo (-0.86 vs. 0.04%, P=0.0007), whereas mean body weight remained stable (-0.50 vs. -0.54 kg, P=0.9703). Conclusions: Liraglutide was well tolerated in youth with T2D, with safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetic profiles similar to profiles in adults.
    Diabetes Technology &amp Therapeutics 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Background: Europeans and Americans are gradually accepting the hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) threshold of 6.5% for diagnosing diabetes proposed by the American Diabetes Association, but the cutoff of HbA1c for the Chinese population is unclear. We evaluated the diagnostic efficiency of HbA1c for diagnosing newly diagnosed diabetes and prediabetes in community-based Chinese adults 40 years of age or older. Subjects and Methods: In this study 8,239 subjects (5,496 women) 40-90 years of age underwent HbA1c and oral glucose tolerance test measurement after an overnight fast. Diabetes and prediabetes were defined by the World Health Organization criteria. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was used to evaluate the diagnostic efficiency of HbA1c, and the optimal cutoff was defined as the point on the receiver operating characteristic curve with the largest Youden index. Spearman correlation was used for correlation analysis. Results: The prevalence of newly diagnosed diabetes and prediabetes was 10.7% (880/8,239) and 19.0% (1,564/8,239), respectively. Fasting plasma glucose and postprandial plasma glucose were positively correlated with HbA1c level (r=0.725 and r=0.673, both P<0.001, respectively). For diagnosing diabetes, the AUC was 0.857 (95% confidence interval, 0.841-0.873), and the optimal cutoff for HbA1c was 6.3%, with the largest Youden index being 0.581. For diagnosing prediabetes, the AUC was 0.681 (95% confidence interval, 0.666-0.697), and the optimal cutoff for HbA1c was 5.9%, with the largest Youden index being 0.280. Conclusions: An HbA1c threshold of 6.3% was highly valuable for diagnosing newly diagnosed diabetes, and a value of 5.9% was weakly valuable for diagnosing prediabetes in community-based Chinese adults 40 years of age or older.
    Diabetes Technology &amp Therapeutics 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Background: This study describes the clinical course of adult patients with type 2 diabetes taking a sulfonylurea and presenting to the hospital with severe hypoglycemia. Subjects and Methods: This was a retrospective chart review of all patients >15 years of age with type 2 diabetes and taking a sulfonylurea who presented to the emergency services of Auckland City Hospital over a 6-year period with severe hypoglycemia. Results: One hundred eighty-five patients met the inclusion criteria. Their mean±SD age was 71±11 years, and known duration of diabetes was 14.7±10 years. Of the patients, 167 had micro- and/or macrovascular complications of diabetes, and one-third had had a previous admission with hypoglycemia. Only 61 patients (33%) had a glomerular filtration rate of >60 mL/min. The length of stay was not correlated with admission creatinine level (highest tertile of creatinine, 71±93 h; lowest tertile, 51±79 h). Recurrent in-hospital hypoglycemia occurred in over one-third of patients, and 28 (15%) were re-admitted to the hospital within 28 days of discharge for various reasons, including further hypoglycemia in 13 patients. Two patients died during their admission. Conclusions: Patients with type 2 diabetes presenting to the hospital with sulfonylurea-associated hypoglycemia have a high burden of comorbidity, require a long hospital stay, and are at risk of subsequent re-admission to hospital. Careful evaluation of their best future treatment strategies must be undertaken taking account of their comorbidities, including their renal function.
    Diabetes Technology &amp Therapeutics 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Background: The Control to Range Study was a multinational artificial pancreas study designed to assess the time spent in the hypo- and hyperglycemic ranges in adults and adolescents with type 1 diabetes while under closed-loop control. The controller attempted to keep the glucose ranges between 70 and 180 mg/dL. A set of prespecified metrics was used to measure safety. Research Design and Methods: We studied 53 individuals for approximately 22 h each during clinical research center admissions. Plasma glucose level was measured every 15-30 min (YSI clinical laboratory analyzer instrument [YSI, Inc., Yellow Springs, OH]). During the admission, subjects received three mixed meals (1 g of carbohydrate/kg of body weight; 100 g maximum) with meal announcement and automated insulin dosing by the controller. Results: For adults, the mean of subjects' mean glucose levels was 159 mg/dL, and mean percentage of values 71-180 mg/dL was 66% overall (59% daytime and 82% overnight). For adolescents, the mean of subjects' mean glucose levels was 166 mg/dL, and mean percentage of values in range was 62% overall (53% daytime and 82% overnight). Whereas prespecified criteria for safety were satisfied by both groups, they were met at the individual level in adults only for combined daytime/nighttime and for isolated nighttime. Two adults and six adolescents failed to meet the daytime criterion, largely because of postmeal hyperglycemia, and another adolescent failed to meet the nighttime criterion. Conclusions: The control-to-range system performed as expected: faring better overnight than during the day and performing with variability between patients even after individualization based on patients' prior settings. The system had difficulty preventing postmeal excursions above target range.
    Diabetes Technology &amp Therapeutics 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract The objectives of this review were (1) to examine characteristics associated with enrollment and utilization of portals among patients with diabetes and (2) to identify barriers and facilitators of electronic patient portal enrollment and utilization. PubMed and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) were systematically searched for papers reporting original research using quantitative or qualitative methods on characteristics, barriers, and facilitators associated with portal enrollment and utilization among patients with diabetes in the United States. The search was limited to articles published between February 1, 2005 (the date of the national symposium on personal health records) and January 1, 2014. Sixteen articles were identified. Of these, nine were quantitative, three were qualitative, and four used mixed-methods. Several demographic characteristics, having better-controlled diabetes, and providers who engaged in and encouraged portal use were associated with increased portal enrollment and utilization. Barriers to portal enrollment included a lack of patient (1) capacity, (2) desire, and (3) awareness of portal/portal functions. Barriers to portal utilization included (1) patient capacity, (2) lack of provider and patient buy-in to portal benefits, and (3) negative patient experiences using portals. Facilitators of portal enrollment and utilization were providers and family members recommending and engaging in portal use. Improved usability, increased access, educating patients how to use and benefit from portals, and greater endorsement by providers and family members might increase portal enrollment and utilization. As more providers and hospitals offer portals, addressing barriers and leveraging facilitators may help patients with diabetes achieve potential benefits.
    Diabetes Technology &amp Therapeutics 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Background: The expanding role of technology to augment diabetes care and management highlights the need for clinicians to learn about these new tools. As these tools continue to evolve and enhance improved outcomes, it is imperative that clinicians consider the role of telemonitoring, or remote monitoring, in patient care. This article describes a successful telemonitoring project in Utah. Subjects and Methods: This was a nonrandomized prospective observational preintervention-postintervention study, using a convenience sample. Patients with uncontrolled diabetes and/or hypertension from four rural and two urban primary care clinics and one urban stroke center participated in a telemonitoring program. The primary clinical outcome measures were changes in hemoglobin A1C (A1C) and blood pressure. Other outcomes included fasting lipids, weight, patient engagement, diabetes knowledge, hypertension knowledge, medication adherence, and patient perceptions of the usefulness of the telemonitoring program. Results: Mean A1C decreased from 9.73% at baseline to 7.81% at the end of the program (P<0.0001). Systolic blood pressure also declined significantly, from 130.7 mm Hg at baseline to 122.9 mm Hg at the end (P=0.0001). Low-density lipoprotein content decreased significantly, from 103.9 mg/dL at baseline to 93.7 mg/dL at the end (P=0.0263). Other clinical parameters improved nonsignificantly. Knowledge of diabetes and hypertension increased significantly (P<0.001 for both). Patient engagement and medication adherence also improved, but not significantly. Per questionnaires at study end, patients felt the telemonitoring program was useful. Conclusions: Telemonitoring improved clinical outcomes and may be a useful tool to help enhance disease management and care of patients with diabetes and/or hypertension.
    Diabetes Technology &amp Therapeutics 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Background: For patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus, a bihormonal artificial endocrine pancreas system utilizing glucagon and insulin has been found to stabilize glycemic control. However, commercially available formulations of glucagon cannot currently be used in such systems because of physical instability characterized by aggregation and chemical degradation. Storing glucagon at pH 10 blocks protein aggregation but results in chemical degradation. Reductions in pH minimize chemical degradation, but even small reductions increase protein aggregation. We hypothesized that common pharmaceutical excipients accompanied by a new excipient would inhibit glucagon aggregation at an alkaline pH. Methods and Results: As measured by tryptophan intrinsic fluorescence shift and optical density at 630 nm, protein aggregation was indeed minimized when glucagon was formulated with curcumin and albumin. This formulation also reduced chemical degradation, measured by liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry. Biological activity was retained after aging for 7 days in an in vitro cell-based bioassay and also in Yorkshire swine. Conclusions: Based on these findings, a formulation of glucagon stabilized with curcumin, polysorbate-80, l-methionine, and albumin at alkaline pH in glycine buffer may be suitable for extended use in a portable pump in the setting of a bihormonal artificial endocrine pancreas.
    Diabetes Technology &amp Therapeutics 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Background: Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) time-series are often analyzed, retrospectively, to investigate glucose variability (GV), a risk factor for the development of complications in type 1 diabetes (T1D). In the literature, several tens of different indices for GV quantification have been proposed, but many of them carry very similar information. The aim of this article is to select a relatively small subset of GV indices from a wider pool of metrics, to obtain a parsimonious but still comprehensive description of GV in T1D datasets. Materials and Methods: A pool of 25 GV indices was evaluated on two CGM time-series datasets of 17 and 16 T1D subjects, respectively, collected during the European Union Seventh Framework Programme project "Diadvisor" (2008-2012) in two different clinical research centers using the Dexcom(®) (San Diego, CA) SEVEN(®) Plus. After the indices were centered and scaled, the Sparse Principal Component Analysis (SPCA) technique was used to determine a reduced set of metrics that allows preserving a high percentage of the variance of the whole original set. In order to assess whether or not the selected subset of GV indices is dataset-dependent, the analysis was applied to both datasets, as well as to the one obtained by merging them. Results: SPCA revealed that a subset of up to 10 different GV indices can be sufficient to preserve more than the 60% of the variance originally explained by all the 25 variables. It is remarkable that four of these GV indices (i.e., Index of Glycemic Control, percentage of Glycemic Risk Assessment Diabetes Equation score due to euglycemia, percentage Coefficient of Variation, and Low Blood Glucose Index) were selected for all the considered T1D datasets. Conclusions: The SPCA methodology appears a suitable candidate to identify, among the large number of literature GV indices, subsets that allow obtaining a parsimonious, but still comprehensive, description of GV.
    Diabetes Technology &amp Therapeutics 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Background: Glucose fluctuation often remains to be corrected under basal-supported oral therapy. We investigated the efficacy of adding once-daily rapid-acting insulin in Japanese diabetes patients treated with basal-supported oral therapy. Subjects and Methods: In this 8-week, parallel-group, randomized, open-label trial, 62 Japanese adults with type 2 diabetes treated with insulin glargine and 50 mg of sitagliptin were randomized into the following two arms: the single-bolus group, in which once-daily insulin glulisine was initiated at a main meal at a fifth (i.e., 20%) the dose of insulin glargine, and the control group, in which the dose of sitagliptin was maximized to 100 mg. The primary end point was the change of glycemic fluctuation assessed with the M-value. Results: Baseline hemoglobin A1c levels, mean blood glucose profiles, and M-value were 7.2±0.6%, 9.3±1.7 mmol/L, and 21±13 units, respectively. At the end of the study, the single-bolus group had a greater reduction of M-value than the control group (P=0.02); the difference was 6.5 units (95% confidence interval, 1.1-11.9 units). The single-bolus group also had a greater reduction of mean blood glucose levels (P=0.01). There were no significant differences in the incidence of hypoglycemia or the weight change between the two groups (P>0.05). Conclusions: Adding once-daily insulin glulisine was more effective in controlling the glycemic fluctuation in Japanese type 2 diabetes patients treated with insulin glargine together with sitagliptin.
    Diabetes Technology &amp Therapeutics 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract The Affordable Care Act-"Obamacare"-is the most important federal medical legislation to be enacted since Medicare. Although the goal of the Affordable Care Act is to improve healthcare coverage, access, and quality for all Americans, people with diabetes are especially poised to benefit from the comprehensive reforms included in the act. Signed into law in 2010, this massive legislation will slowly be enacted over the next 10 years. In the making for at least a decade, it will affect every person in the United States, either directly or indirectly. In this review, we discuss the major changes in healthcare that will take place in the next several years, including (1) who needs to purchase insurance on the Web-based exchange, (2) the cost to individuals and the rebates that they may expect, (3) the rules and regulations for purchasing insurance, (4) the characteristics of the different "metallic" insurance plans that are available, and (5) the states that have agreed to participate. With both tables and figures, we have tried to make the Affordable Care Act both understandable and appreciated. The goal of this comprehensive review is to highlight aspects of the Affordable Care Act that are of importance to practitioners who care for people with diabetes by discussing both the positive and the potentially negative aspects of the program as they relate to diabetes care.
    Diabetes Technology &amp Therapeutics 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of a new continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) calibration algorithm and to compare it with the Guardian(®) REAL-Time (RT) (Medtronic Diabetes, Northridge, CA) calibration algorithm in hypoglycemia. Subjects and Methods: CGM data were obtained from 10 type 1 diabetes patients undergoing insulin-induced hypoglycemia. Data were obtained in two separate sessions using the Guardian RT CGM device. Data from the same CGM sensor were calibrated by two different algorithms: the Guardian RT algorithm and a new calibration algorithm. The accuracy of the two algorithms was compared using four performance metrics. Results: The median (mean) of absolute relative deviation in the whole range of plasma glucose was 20.2% (32.1%) for the Guardian RT calibration and 17.4% (25.9%) for the new calibration algorithm. The mean (SD) sample-based sensitivity for the hypoglycemic threshold of 70 mg/dL was 31% (33%) for the Guardian RT algorithm and 70% (33%) for the new algorithm. The mean (SD) sample-based specificity at the same hypoglycemic threshold was 95% (8%) for the Guardian RT algorithm and 90% (16%) for the new calibration algorithm. The sensitivity of the event-based hypoglycemia detection for the hypoglycemic threshold of 70 mg/dL was 61% for the Guardian RT calibration and 89% for the new calibration algorithm. Application of the new calibration caused one false-positive instance for the event-based hypoglycemia detection, whereas the Guardian RT caused no false-positive instances. The overestimation of plasma glucose by CGM was corrected from 33.2 mg/dL in the Guardian RT algorithm to 21.9 mg/dL in the new calibration algorithm. Conclusions: The results suggest that the new algorithm may reduce the inaccuracy of Guardian RT CGM system within the hypoglycemic range; however, data from a larger number of patients are required to compare the clinical reliability of the two algorithms.
    Diabetes Technology &amp Therapeutics 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Clinical inertia and poor knowledge by many physicians play an important role in delaying diabetes control. Among other guidelines, the Position Statement of the American Diabetes Association/European Association for the Study of Diabetes on Management of Hyperglycemia in Type 2 Diabetes is a respected guideline with high impact on this subject in terms of influencing physicians in the definition of strategic approach to overcome poor glycemic control. But, on the other hand, it carries a recommendation that might contribute to clinical inertia because it can delay the needed implementation of more vigorous, intensive, and effective strategies to overcome poor glycemic control within a reasonable time frame during the evolution of the disease. The same is true with other respected algorithms from different diabetes associations. Together with pharmacological interventions, diabetes education and more intensive blood glucose monitoring in the initial phases after the diagnosis are key strategies for the effective control of diabetes. The main reason why a faster glycemic control should be implemented in an effective and safe way is to boost the confidence and the compliance of the patient to the recommendations of the diabetes care team. Better and faster results in glycemic control can only be safely achieved with educational strategies, structured self-monitoring of blood glucose, and adequate pharmacological therapy in the majority of cases.
    Diabetes Technology &amp Therapeutics 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Background: Several clinical studies have shown that low blood glucose (BG) levels affect electroencephalogram (EEG) rhythms through the quantification of traditional indicators based on linear spectral analysis. Nonlinear measures used in the last decades to characterize the EEG in several physiopathological conditions have never been assessed in hypoglycemia. The present study investigates if properties of the EEG signal measured by nonlinear entropy-based algorithms are altered in a significant manner when a state of hypoglycemia is entered. Subjects and Methods: EEG was acquired from 19 patients with type 1 diabetes during a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic-hypoglycemic clamp experiment. In parallel, BG was frequently monitored by the standard YSI glucose and lactate analyzer and used to identify two 1-h intervals corresponding to euglycemia and hypoglycemia, respectively. In each subject, the P3-C3 EEG derivation in the two glycemic intervals was assessed using the multiscale entropy (MSE) approach, obtaining measures of sample entropy (SampEn) at various temporal scales. The comparison of how signal irregularity measured by SampEn varies as the temporal scale increases in the two glycemic states provides information on how EEG complexity is affected by hypoglycemia. Results: For both glycemic states, the MSE analysis showed that SampEn increases at small time scales and then monotonically decreases as the time scale becomes larger. Comparing the two conditions, SampEn was higher in hypoglycemia only at medium time scales. Conclusions: A decrease in the complexity of EEG occurs when a state of hypoglycemia is entered, because of a degradation of the EEG long-range temporal correlations. Thanks to its ability to assess nonlinear dynamics of the EEG signal, the MSE approach seems to be a useful tool to complement information brought by standard linear indicators and provide new insights on how hypoglycemia affects brain functioning.
    Diabetes Technology &amp Therapeutics 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Background: A noninvasive method of monitoring the loss of islet cells can provide an earlier and improved diagnosis for therapeutics development of preclinical phases of diabetes. The use of [(18)F]fallypride, a dopamine D2/D3 receptor radiotracer, has been developed as a surrogate marker to evaluate loss of pancreatic islet cells in a rodent model of type 1 diabetes. Materials and Methods: Healthy Sprague-Dawley rats were administered [(18)F]fallypride and imaged for 2 h in a positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) scan. Diabetes was then induced in the same rats by administration of streptozotocin, and a PET/CT scan was performed 4 days after establishing diabetes. Pancreata of a separate set of rats were evaluated by insulin immunostaining for loss of islet cells by streptozotocin. Results: Blood glucose levels of 125 mg/dL and 550 mg/dL were established for those rats without and with diabetes, respectively. [(18)F]Fallypride uptake in the pancreas of both groups of rats was rapid, but the rats with diabetes showed a significantly lower uptake (less than 50%). The specific binding ratio was decreased by 77% in the diabetic rats. Conclusions: [(18)F]Fallypride can be a useful surrogate marker for monitoring changes in pancreatic islet cells, thus providing a noninvasive method to evaluate efficacy of therapeutics.
    Diabetes Technology &amp Therapeutics 05/2014;

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