Diabetes Technology &amp Therapeutics (DIABETES TECHNOL THE )

Publisher: Mary Ann Liebert

Description

This new peer-reviewed quarterly journal covers new technology and new products for the treatment, monitoring, diagnosis, and prevention of diabetes and its complications. Technologies include noninvasive glucose monitoring, implantable continuous glucose sensors, novel routes of insulin administration, genetic engineering, the artificial pancreas, measures of longterm control, computer applications for case management, telemedicine, the internet, and new medications.

  • Impact factor
    2.21
  • 5-year impact
    2.25
  • Cited half-life
    3.80
  • Immediacy index
    0.82
  • Eigenfactor
    0.01
  • Article influence
    0.60
  • Website
    Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics website
  • Other titles
    Diabetes technology & therapeutics (Online), Diabetes technology & therapeutics, Diabetes technology and therapeutics
  • ISSN
    1557-8593
  • OCLC
    43498340
  • Material type
    Document, Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Mary Ann Liebert

  • Pre-print
    • Author cannot archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • Author's final version or publisher's version/PDF
    • Publisher's version/PDF may be used
    • On author's personal website, institution's intranet, or institutional repository
    • Authors may deposit in funder's designated repository after 12 months
    • Set statement to accompany deposit (see policy)
    • Publisher copyright and source must be acknowledged
    • NIH authors will have their final paper, (post peer review, copy-editing and proof-reading) deposited in PubMed Central on their behalf
  • Classification
    ​ blue

Publications in this journal

  • Asma Deeb, Samar Abu-Awad, Salima Abood, Mohamed El-Abiary, Jamal Al-Jubeh, Hana Yousef, Laila AbdelRahman, Ahlam Al Hajeri, Huda Mustafa
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Background: Insulin pumps are equipped with advanced functions. Intensive training and adherence are required for optimum use of the technology. We aimed to assess the association of various key elements in insulin pump functions on blood glucose control. Patients and Methods: Patients on insulin pump therapy were enrolled. Insulin pumps were downloaded (CareLink(®) Pro 3 software; Medtronic Minimed, Northridge, CA), and data were collected over an 8-12-week period. Glycemic control of patients was classified as controlled (hemoglobin A1c [HbA1c] level of 7.5% or less in adults and 8% or less in children) and uncontrolled based on HbA1c level at enrollment. Variables studied were use of sensors and duration, frequency of blood glucose monitoring, Bolus Wizard (Medtronic Minimed) use, frequency of correction boluses, and frequency of cannula changing. Results: Seventy-two patients were enrolled (50 children). Median age was 12 years for children and 27.5 years for adults. Respective median numbers of blood glucose checks were 4.4 and 3.2 for controlled and uncontrolled children (P<0.021) and 3.1 and 2.8 for controlled and uncontrolled adults, respectively. Respective frequency of Bolus Wizard use per day showed a median of 6 and 4.15 for controlled and uncontrolled children (P<0.001) and 3.8 and 3.5 for controlled and uncontrolled adults. Controlled children wore sensors for longer (5 vs. 2.9 days/week) and did more corrections (3.9 vs. 2.5). There was no difference in the frequency of changing the infusion cannula in children's or adults' groups. Conclusions: We conclude that the frequency of blood glucose monitoring and Bolus Wizard use have a favorable association with glycemic control. These observations were more significant in the children's groups. Our data shows that patients with better control tend to bolus more for correction and wear sensors longer.
    Diabetes Technology &amp Therapeutics 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Background: The accuracy of the Contour(®) Plus (Bayer HealthCare LLC, Diabetes Care, Whippany, NJ) blood glucose monitoring system (BGMS) was evaluated in two separate studies. Materials and Methods: In the laboratory study, fingerstick samples from 100 subjects were tested in duplicate using three test strip lots and assessed per International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 15197:2003, Section 7 (≥95% of results within ±15 mg/dL or ±20% of the reference result for samples with glucose concentrations <75 and ≥75 mg/dL, respectively) and ISO 15197:2013, Section 6.3 (≥95% of results within ±15 mg/dL or ±15% of the reference result for samples with glucose concentrations <100 and ≥100 mg/dL, respectively) accuracy criteria. In the clinical trial, 220 subjects with diabetes, naive to the BGMS, tested capillary glucose from fingertip and palm blood samples and completed an ease-of-use questionnaire. BGMS and YSI glucose analyzer results were compared. Results: In the laboratory study, 100% of results met ISO 15197:2003 and ISO 15197:2013 accuracy criteria. In the clinical trial, 100% and 99.1% of subject fingerstick results and 98.1% and 96.7% of subject palm results met ISO 15197:2003 and ISO 15197:2013 accuracy criteria, respectively. By Parkes Consensus Error Grid analysis, 100% of subject fingerstick results and 98.1% of subject palm results were within Zone A (remainder within Zone B). Questionnaire results showed most subjects found the BGMS easy to use. Conclusions: The Contour Plus BGMS meets ISO 15197:2003 and ISO 15197:2013 accuracy criteria in the laboratory and when used by untrained individuals.
    Diabetes Technology &amp Therapeutics 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Background: Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) is increasing worldwide, mostly because of improved technology. The aim of this study was to evaluate the current status of CSII in Italy. Materials and Methods: Physicians from 272 diabetes centers received a questionnaire investigating clinical features, pump technology, and management of patients on CSII. Results: Two hundred seventeen centers (79.8%) joined the study and, by the end of April 2013, gave information about 10,152 patients treated with CSII: 98.2% with type 1 diabetes mellitus, 81.4% adults, 57% female, and 61% with a conventional pump versus 39% with a sensor-augmented pump. CSII advanced functions were used by 68% of patients, and glucose sensors were used 12 days per month on average. Fifty-eight percent of diabetes centers had more than 20 patients on CSII, but there were differences among centers and among regions. The main indication for CSII was poor glucose control. Dropout was mainly due to pump wearability or nonoptimal glycemic control. Twenty-four hour assistance was guaranteed in 81% of centers. A full diabetes team (physician+nurse+dietician+psychologist) was available in 23% of adult-care diabetes centers and in 53% of pediatric diabetes units. Conclusions: CSII keeps increasing in Italy. More work is needed to ensure uniform treatment strategies throughout the country and to improve pump use.
    Diabetes Technology &amp Therapeutics 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Aim: This study looked at the association of adipokines, inflammatory and oxidative stress markers in subjects with the following phenotypes: metabolically healthy, nonobese (MHNO), metabolically healthy, obese (MHO), metabolically obese, nonobese (MONO), and metabolically obese, obese (MOO). Materials and Methods: Subjects with MHNO (n=462), MHO (n=192), MONO (n=315), and MOO (n=335) were randomly selected from the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study. Adiponectin, visfatin, resistin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: Levels of adiponectin were lowest in the MOO group, followed by the MONO, MHO, and the MHNO groups (P=0.042), whereas the levels of visfatin (P=0.042) and resistin (P=0.043) were highest in the MOO group, followed by the MONO, MHO, and the MHNO groups. Levels of hs-CRP (P=0.029), TNF-α (P=0.036), IL-6 (P=0.042), oxidized LDL (P=0.036), and MCP-1 (P=0.039) increased from the MHNO to MHO to MONO to MOO phenotypes. Linear regression analysis of the parameters with body mass index (BMI) and metabolic syndrome components showed that adiponectin is negatively associated with abdominal obesity (β=-0.060; P=0.039) and BMI (β=-0.076; P=0.009) and that TNF-α is negatively associated with high-density lipoprotein levels (β=0.114, P=0.049) even after adjusting for age and gender. hs-CRP (β=0.112, P=0.020) and oxidized LDL (β=0.114, P=0.050) showed a positive association with systolic blood pressure even after adjusting for age and gender. Conclusions: The metabolically obese phenotype is characterized by altered adipokine and inflammatory profiles, which could make this phenotype at high risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases.
    Diabetes Technology &amp Therapeutics 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Background: Multicenter long-term studies of predictors for the effectiveness of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) in clinical practice are lacking. We hypothesized that there are substantially greater reductions in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) in patients with poor glycemic control and that other predictors may also exist. Subjects and Methods: We used data from 10 outpatient diabetic clinics in Sweden and studied CSII treatment over 5 years. Patients with HbA1c values available ≤6 months before starting CSII and at 5 years were included (n=272, 82% of CSII patients) along with 2,437 contemporaneous controls on multiple daily insulin injections (MDI). Baseline variables evaluated were age, sex, diabetes duration, insulin dose, body mass index (BMI), HbA1c at baseline, and outpatient clinical care unit. Results: At 5 years, significantly greater reductions in HbA1c by CSII compared with MDI were found for patients with higher baseline HbA1c (P=0.032) and lower baseline BMI (P=0.013). For baseline HbA1c levels of 7.0%, 8.0%, and 9.0% and a BMI of 25 kg/m(2), the reduction in HbA1c level by CSII was 0.08% (difference not significant), 0.16% (95% confidence interval, 0.03-0.29%), and 0.25% (95% confidence interval, 0.11-0.39%), respectively. Corresponding analyses for the change in HbA1c level from start to 1 and 2 years revealed a significant interaction of insulin pump therapy only with baseline HbA1c levels (P<0.001 and P=0.030, respectively). The interaction term between outpatient clinical care unit and CSII treatment was statistically significant for some care units, with some care units demonstrating a benefit from CSII and others demonstrating a detriment. Conclusions: Patients with high HbA1c levels have a greater probability of improved HbA1c after initiating pump therapy, but effects remain relatively modest even for patients with poor control. Factors predicting successful insulin pump use need further study.
    Diabetes Technology &amp Therapeutics 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Neonatal diabetes mellitus (NDM) results from impaired insulin secretion, occurring within the first 6 months of life. NDM is classified as transient NDM (TNDM) or permanent NDM. To date there are no universal guidelines regarding its management. Intravenous insulin infusion represents the first and most adequate therapeutic approach for sustained hyperglycemia, but this can provide only a short-term solution. Several factors should be taken into account in the choice of the long-term treatment. We describe our experience with two infants affected by TNDM. The first child was treated with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion, whereas the second infant was treated with subcutaneous insulin glargine injections. Our experience shows that the two different therapeutic approaches, if properly managed, are equally effective.
    Diabetes Technology &amp Therapeutics 12/2014; 16(12):880-4.
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Background: The level of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) accuracy needed for insulin dosing using sensor values (i.e., the level of accuracy permitting non-adjunct CGM use) is a topic of ongoing debate. Assessment of this level in clinical experiments is virtually impossible because the magnitude of CGM errors cannot be manipulated and related prospectively to clinical outcomes. Materials and Methods: A combination of archival data (parallel CGM, insulin pump, self-monitoring of blood glucose [SMBG] records, and meals for 56 pump users with type 1 diabetes) and in silico experiments was used to "replay" real-life treatment scenarios and relate sensor error to glycemic outcomes. Nominal blood glucose (BG) traces were extracted using a mathematical model, yielding 2,082 BG segments each initiated by insulin bolus and confirmed by SMBG. These segments were replayed at seven sensor accuracy levels (mean absolute relative differences [MARDs] of 3-22%) testing six scenarios: insulin dosing using sensor values, threshold, and predictive alarms, each without or with considering CGM trend arrows. Results: In all six scenarios, the occurrence of hypoglycemia (frequency of BG levels ≤50 mg/dL and BG levels ≤39 mg/dL) increased with sensor error, displaying an abrupt slope change at MARD =10%. Similarly, hyperglycemia (frequency of BG levels ≥250 mg/dL and BG levels ≥400 mg/dL) increased and displayed an abrupt slope change at MARD=10%. When added to insulin dosing decisions, information from CGM trend arrows, threshold, and predictive alarms resulted in improvement in average glycemia by 1.86, 8.17, and 8.88 mg/dL, respectively. Conclusions: Using CGM for insulin dosing decisions is feasible below a certain level of sensor error, estimated in silico at MARD=10%. In our experiments, further accuracy improvement did not contribute substantively to better glycemic outcomes.
    Diabetes Technology &amp Therapeutics 12/2014;
  • Diabetes Technology &amp Therapeutics 12/2014; 16(12):819-21.
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Aim: This study assessed whether Helicobacter pylori infection could influence metformin tolerance in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Subjects and Methods: Demographic, anthropometric, ultrasound, and laboratory data were obtained from 415 metformin-naive patients with diabetes. H. pylori infection was assessed based on the (13)C-labeled urea breath test ((13)C-UBT). The study duration was 4 weeks, and all subjects started metformin from 500 mg/day to 1,500 mg/day progressively. Gastrointestinal side effects were assessed each week, and the metformin doses were adjusted by the compliance. Gastrointestinal side effects were compared between H. pylori-positive and -negative groups. Results: According to the (13)C-UBT results, 220 patients were categorized as H. pylori negative versus 195 as H. pylori positive. At baseline, the scoring of gastrointestinal symptoms showed no statistical difference between the two groups. After 4 weeks, for gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea, bloating, and anorexia, the respective percentages in H. pylori-positive and -negative subjects were 44.6% versus 21.8% (P<0.01), 20.0% versus 9.6% (P<0.01), 47.7% versus 23.2% (P<0.01), and 32.8% versus 12.3% (P<0.01). The final metformin dose was 951.28±661.1 mg in H. pylori-positive subjects, significantly less than that in H. pylori-negative subjects (1,209.09±522.91 mg) (P<0.01). On multivariate analysis, female gender, H. pylori infection, body mass index, triglycerides, age, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol were the independent parameters associated with any gastrointestinal symptoms. Conclusions: Patients with diabetes having H. pylori infection demonstrated more gastrointestinal side effects than those without H. pylori infection after taking metformin. Furthermore, female gender, H. pylori infection, body mass index, triglycerides, age, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol are independent determinants of metformin's side effects.
    Diabetes Technology &amp Therapeutics 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Objectives: This study assessed the relationship between diabetic retinopathy (DR) and coronary artery diseases (CAD) in Asian Indians, who are known to be at high risk of CAD and diabetes but have lower prevalence of DR. Subjects and Methods: Type 2 diabetes subjects (n=1,736) were selected from the urban component of the population-based Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study Eye Study. Four-field stereo retinal color photography was done, and DR when present was classified according to the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study grading system. Among the 1,723 subjects with gradable fundus photographs, 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) was performed in 1,602 individuals, and analysis was restricted to this group. CAD was diagnosed based on documented medical history of CAD or Minnesota coding of ECGs. Results: The prevalence of CAD was significantly higher among subjects with DR compared with those without (11.3% vs. 6.7%; P=0.007). A significant association was observed between DR and CAD in subjects with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels >7% (P=0.002). After controlling for age and gender, only hard exudates were associated with CAD (P=0.032). Logistic regression analysis revealed that even after adjusting for age, gender, HbA1c, mean arterial blood pressure, smoking, serum cholesterol, triglyceride, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, DR was significantly associated with CAD among the study subjects (odds ratio [OR]=1.58; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00-2.49; P=0.049) and those subjects with duration of diabetes >10 years (OR=4.06; 95% CI, 1.55-10.60; P=0.004). Conclusions: This cross-sectional study shows a significant association between DR and CAD in South Indian subjects with type 2 diabetes.
    Diabetes Technology &amp Therapeutics 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Background: Insulin is an essential therapy for patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). With the progression of the disease, many patients with T1DM may have an increased prevalence of insulin resistance; thus the common standard insulin therapy requires a high insulin dosage (>1 unit/kg/day) and is usually associated with many side effects. Studies have shown that metformin may benefit those insulin-resistant individuals with T1DM. This meta-analysis was performed to provide the evidence of clinical efficacy and safety of metformin in T1DM. Materials and Methods: We conducted a search on Medline, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library for relevant studies published before May 2014 based on "metformin" and "diabetes mellitus, type 1." The following outcomes were evaluated: hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), lipid metabolism, weight, insulin dosage, hypoglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, or gastrointestinal adverse events (AEs). The meta-analysis was performed using Review Manager version 5.2 software (The Nordic Cochrane Centre, Copenhagen, Denmark). Results: In total, eight randomized controlled trials were included. Metformin was associated with a reduction in daily insulin dosage, body weight, total cholesterol level, low-density lipoprotein level, and high-density lipoprotein level but an increase in risk of gastrointestinal AEs compared with placebo treatment in T1DM patients. No significant difference was found between the metformin group and the placebo group in HbA1c level, FPG level, or triglycerides level. No significant difference was found between the metformin group and the placebo group in the risk of severe hypoglycemia or diabetic ketoacidosis. Conclusions: Metformin may decrease the daily insulin dosage, body weight, and lipid levels in T1DM. However, metformin does not increase the incidence of hypoglycemia and ketoacidosis. High-quality, large-sample, and long-term follow-up clinical trials are needed to confirm these conclusions.
    Diabetes Technology &amp Therapeutics 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Background: The aim of this study was to investigate if self-care is the pathway through which social determinants of health impact diabetes outcomes by analyzing the direct and indirect effects of socioeconomic and psychosocial factors on self-care and glycemic control. Subjects and Methods: Six hundred fifteen adults were recruited from two primary care clinics in the southeastern United States. A series of confirmatory factor analyses identified the latent factors underlying social status, psychosocial determinants (psychological distress, self-efficacy, and social support), and self-care (diet, exercise, foot care, glucose testing, and medication adherence). Structured equation modeling investigated the relationship among social determinants, self-care and glycemic control. Results: Latent variables were created for diabetes self-care, psychological distress, self-efficacy, social support, and social status. The final model [χ(2)(275)=450.07, P<0.001, R(2)=99, root mean square error of approximation=0.03, comparative fit index=0.98] showed lower psychological distress (r=-0.13, P=0.012), higher social support (r=0.14, P=0.01), and higher self-efficacy (r=0.47, P<0.001) were significantly related to diabetes self-care. Lower psychological distress (r=0.10, P=0.03), lower social support (r=0.10, P=0.02), and higher self-efficacy (r=-0.37, P<0.001) were significantly related to lower glycemic control. When social determinants of health variables were included in the model, self-care was no longer significantly associated with glycemic control (r=0.01, P=0.83). Conclusions: This study suggests a direct relationship between psychosocial determinants of health and glycemic control. Although associated with self-care, the relationship between social determinants of health and glycemic control is not mediated by self-care. Development of interventions should take psychosocial factors into account as independent influences on diabetes outcomes, rather than as indirect influences via self-care behavior.
    Diabetes Technology &amp Therapeutics 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Background: The Impact of Weight on Self-Perceptions Questionnaire (IW-SP) assesses an individual's self-perception related to his or her weight. The primary objective of this study was to provide evidence of the reliability, validity, and responsiveness of the IW-SP. Materials and Methods: Study participants were individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and obesity enrolled in clinical weight-loss programs in the United States. Data were obtained for clinical measures, IW-SP, and other patient-reported outcome measures. An intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Cronbach's α were calculated for test-retest reliability and internal consistency, respectively. For validity, correlations and t tests were performed. For responsiveness, baseline and 6-month data for a subgroup of patients were analyzed using the paired t test and calculation of effect size (ES). Results: Reliability data for 106 study participants (mean age, 52 years; 69% female; 31% white; mean body mass index, 38 kg/m(2)) yielded an ICC of 0.85 and Cronbach's α values of >0.89. IW-SP scores were associated with obesity-related quality of life, mental health, and vitality (r>0.50, P<0.001). In the subgroup (n=40) used to estimate responsiveness, weight was significantly less at end point than at baseline (mean, baseline=231.9 vs. end point=222.0 pounds; P<0.001; ES=0.23), and IW-SP scores were significantly better than at baseline (mean, baseline=61.0 vs. end point=72.1 [on a scale of 0-100]; P=0.01; ES=0.34). Mean IW-SP change scores significantly discriminated between those achieving >5% body weight loss and those who achieved <5% (mean change, 23.6 vs. 5.7; P=0.03). Conclusions: The IW-SP has demonstrated reliability, validity, and responsiveness in individuals with T2DM and obesity, thereby making it a potentially valuable tool in the evaluation of weight-loss interventions targeted toward patients with T2DM.
    Diabetes Technology &amp Therapeutics 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Background: Intramuscular (IM) injection can increase insulin absorption, causing hypoglycemia. Available needle lengths today are 4-12.7 mm for pens and 6-12.7 mm for syringes. We describe the distance (D) from skin surface to muscle fascia at injection sites for subcutaneous (SC) insulin therapy and recommend needle lengths to reduce IM injection risk. Materials and Methods: At two locations in the United States, skin and SC fat thicknesses were measured by ultrasound at the abdomen, arm, thigh, and buttock in diverse adults (body mass index [BMI] range, approximately 19-65 kg/m(2)) with diabetes (n=341 with one or more paired skin and SC measurement, permitting calculation of D). The natural log of D by body site, BMI, and gender were analyzed using a mixed model to estimate IM risk. Results: D varied significantly by body site, BMI, and gender (each P<0.001), increasing with higher BMI and in women. Median D ranged from 10.9 mm (95% confidence interval, 10.3, 11.6) at the thigh to 16.9 mm (15.9, 18.1) at the buttock. Minimum D was <3 mm at the thigh and <5 mm elsewhere. When inserted 90° without pinch-up, the most commonly used needle worldwide (8 mm) has estimated IM risks of 25% and 9.7%, respectively, in the thigh and abdomen, versus 1.6% and 0.1%, respectively, with a 4 mm needle. A 45° insertion reduces, but does not eliminate, IM risk with longer needles. Conclusions: Gender, BMI, and body site affect D; when combined with needle length and insertion angle, these factors permit detailed estimates of IM insulin injection risk. Such risk varies across sites, appears greatest at the thigh, is unnecessarily increased with 8 mm and 12.7 mm needles, and is greatly reduced with shorter-length needles and good injection technique.
    Diabetes Technology &amp Therapeutics 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Background: Hyperglycemia occurs in cancer patients receiving high-dose steroids with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and dexamethasone (hyper-CVAD) protocol. The purpose of our study was to determine insulin requirements in patients with hyperglycemia on hyper-CVAD therapy using a systematic algorithm. Subjects and Methods: We did a retrospective chart review of 23 leukemia inpatients with hyperglycemia (two glucose values >250 mg/dL) on hyper-CVAD chemotherapy managed by the Endocrine Diabetes Inpatient Team algorithm. We reviewed demographic and glycemic data, insulin dosages, and use of oral hypoglycemic agents. Using our algorithm, the dose of insulin for each patient was titrated daily and with each subsequent cycle of hyper-CVAD. Results: Ninety-one percent of patients had known diabetes. The median body mass index was 32.5 (range, 21.6-40.9) kg/m(2), and median age was 61 (range, 40-80) years. The overall trend in glucose values across cycles showed a statistically significant decrease with each subsequent cycle of hyper-CVAD. Hyperglycemia accounted for 81% of glucose measurements in the first cycle and 60% of glucose values in the last cycle. Patients received 1-1.3 units/kg of insulin per cycle, and insulin requirements were similar across cycles. The distribution of basal versus bolus insulin for each cycle was 63-77% prandial and 23-37% basal. Nine of the 23 patients had at least one glucose value <70 mg/dL, which accounted for 1.3% of all recorded glucose values. None of the patients had severe hypoglycemia. Conclusions: Multiple-dose insulin therapy initiated at 1-1.2 units/kg/day, distributed as 25% basal and 75% prandial, reduced hyperglycemia in patients who were receiving high-dose dexamethasone as part of hyper-CVAD.
    Diabetes Technology &amp Therapeutics 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective: Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) is an effective method of intensive therapy for patients with type 1 diabetes; however, most studies have not examined long-term glycemic control. We evaluated the long-term efficacy of CSII in a cohort of adult patients with type 1 diabetes. Subjects and Methods: This was a retrospective observational study of 200 patients with type 1 diabetes who initiated CSII at a single outpatient clinic in Kingston, ON, Canada between January 1998 and December 2012. Data were collected from 3 months prior to and up to 15 years after initiation of CSII and included glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level and demographic factors potentially associated with glycemic control. Results: Mean age and duration of diabetes at CSII initiation were 35.4 years and 22.4 years, respectively. Mean duration of CSII at the time of analysis was 6 years. Mean HbA1c at initiation of CSII was 8.7% and decreased to a nadir of 7.5% 6 months post-initiation (SD=1.0) (P<0.001). This increased over time (range, 7.8-8.2%) but remained lower than the pre-CSII HbA1c (P<0.001). Shorter duration of diabetes prior to CSII initiation, history of missed appointments, mental illness, and active smoking were predictors of higher HbA1c on CSII. Pre-CSII HbA1c predicted long-term HbA1c on CSII. Conclusions: The data demonstrate that in a clinic setting, patients on CSII maintain lower HbA1c values over a 1-10-year period compared with pre-CSII values. Poor pre-CSII HbA1c, history of missed appointments, mental illness, and active smoking are predictors of those less likely to achieve an HbA1c target of ≤7.0%.
    Diabetes Technology &amp Therapeutics 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Background: Diabetes is a systemic disease affecting many organs, including skin. Skin may reflect the condition of internal organs. The aim of our study was to measure skin pH in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) patients and in healthy controls and to evaluate the association between metabolic control of diabetes and skin acidity in T1DM patients. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 105 patients with T1DM and 53 age- and sex-matched healthy people. Skin surface pH was measured in three different areas of the body (cheek, forearm, and foot) in diabetes patients and healthy controls. The results were compared for patients' and controls' clinical characteristics and for patients' metabolic control and also evaluated according to the presence of complications of diabetes. Results: Patients with T1DM had lower skin pH compared with the control group in three measured areas: within the cheek (5.49±0.42 vs. 5.69±0.31; P=0.001), forearm (5.41±0.46 vs. 5.73±0.69; P=0.004), and foot (5.20±0.53 vs. 5.41±0.41; P=0.008). In the multiple linear regression skin pH was negatively correlated with fasting plasma glucose on the cheek (β=-0.34, P=0.0004), forearm (β=-0.30, P=0.0009), and foot (β=-0.18, P=0.04). Diabetes patients with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c)≥8% had significantly lower skin pH than patients with better glycemic control (HbA1c<8%). However, we observed a statistically significant difference only on the foot (5.09±0.50 vs. 5.34±0.55; P=0.019). Conclusions: Skin surface pH is lower in individuals with diabetes, and it is negatively related to actual and chronic hyperglycemia.
    Diabetes Technology &amp Therapeutics 10/2014;