Diabetes Technology &amp Therapeutics (DIABETES TECHNOL THE)

Publisher: Mary Ann Liebert

Journal description

This new peer-reviewed quarterly journal covers new technology and new products for the treatment, monitoring, diagnosis, and prevention of diabetes and its complications. Technologies include noninvasive glucose monitoring, implantable continuous glucose sensors, novel routes of insulin administration, genetic engineering, the artificial pancreas, measures of longterm control, computer applications for case management, telemedicine, the internet, and new medications.

Current impact factor: 2.29

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2015
2013 / 2014 Impact Factor 2.293
2012 Impact Factor 2.205
2011 Impact Factor 1.931
2010 Impact Factor 2.146
2009 Impact Factor 2.62
2008 Impact Factor 2.127

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 2.25
Cited half-life 3.80
Immediacy index 0.82
Eigenfactor 0.01
Article influence 0.60
Website Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics website
Other titles Diabetes technology & therapeutics (Online), Diabetes technology & therapeutics, Diabetes technology and therapeutics
ISSN 1557-8593
OCLC 43498340
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Mary Ann Liebert

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • On author's personal website
    • On institutional repository, pre-print server or research network after 12 months embargo
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Set statement to accompany deposit (see policy)
    • Publisher copyright and source must be acknowledged
    • NIH authors will have their final paper, (post peer review, copy-editing and proof-reading) deposited in PubMed Central on their behalf
    • Must link to publisher version with DOI
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a complex disease that is caused by an impairment in the secretion of β-cell insulin and by a peripheral resistance to insulin. Most patients suffering from T2DM and from obesity exhibit insulin resistance in the muscles, liver, and fat, resulting in a reduced response of these tissues to insulin. In healthy individuals, pancreatic islet β-cells secrete insulin to regulate the increase in blood glucose levels. Once these β-cells fail to function, T2DM develops. Despite the progress achieved in this field in recent years, the genetic causes for insulin resistance and for T2DM have not yet been fully discovered. The present study aims to characterize T2DM by comparing its gene expression with that of normal controls, as well as to identify biomarkers for early T2DM. Gene expression profiles were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus, and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified for type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, functional analyses were conducted for the gene ontology and for the pathway enrichment. In total, 781 DEGs were identified in the T2DM samples relative to healthy controls. These genes were found to be involved in several biological processes, including cell communication, cell proliferation, cell shape, and apoptosis. We constructed a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network, and the clusters in the PPI were analyzed by using ClusterONE. Six functional genes that may play important roles in the initiation of T2DM were identified within the network.
    Diabetes Technology &amp Therapeutics 04/2015; DOI:10.1089/dia.2014.0204
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    ABSTRACT: As continuous intraperitoneal insulin infusion (CIPII) results in a more physiologic action of insulin than subcutaneous (SC) insulin administration, we hypothesized that CIPII would result in less glycemic variability (GV) than SC insulin therapy among type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) patients. Data from 5-day blind continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) measurements performed during a 26-week, prospective, observational case-control study were analyzed. The coefficient of variation (CV) was the primary measure of GV. In addition, the SD of the mean glucose level, mean of daily differences, and mean amplitude of glycemic excursions were calculated. In total, 176 patients (36% male; mean age, 49 [SD 13] years; median diabetes duration, 24 [interquartile range, 17, 35] years; glycated hemoglobin level, 63 [10] mmol/mmol), of which 37 used CIPII and 139 SC insulin therapy, were analyzed. CGM data were available for 169 patients at baseline (CIPII, n=35; SC, n=134) and for 164 patients at 26 weeks (CIPII, n=35; SC, n=129). After adjustment for baseline differences, the CV was 4.9% (95% confidence interval, 1.0, 8.8) lower with CIPII- compared with SC-treated patients, irrespective of the use of multiple daily injections or continuous SC insulin infusion. There were no differences in other indices of GV between groups. Despite higher blood glucose, the CV was slightly lower with CIPII compared with SC insulin therapy in T1DM patients, and other measures of GV were identical. Future studies are needed to confirm these findings and investigate whether this results in prevention of hypoglycemia and even perhaps (less) microvascular complications.
    Diabetes Technology &amp Therapeutics 04/2015; DOI:10.1089/dia.2015.0001
  • Diabetes Technology &amp Therapeutics 04/2015; DOI:10.1089/dia.2015.0055
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    ABSTRACT: Liraglutide is a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor analog recently approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of liraglutide versus glimepiride, as adjunct treatments to metformin, in achieving glycemic control in Italian patients with T2DM uncontrolled by metformin alone. One hundred seventy-nine diabetes patients treated with metformin plus liraglutide (1.8 mg) or glimepiride (4 mg) were retrospectively assessed at baseline, during, and after 18 months of continuous therapy. Treatment with liraglutide resulted in mean decreases in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) of -1.4%, when compared with glimepiride (-0.4%) (P<0.001), and was followed by a significant reduction (P<0.001) in fasting plasma glucose. Variations in HbA1c occurred independently from weight loss, which was significantly reduced (P<0.001) in liraglutide-treated patients. The percentage of subjects reaching HbA1c levels below 7% or ≤6.5% was significantly different between the two treated groups (P<0.001). Treatment with liraglutide reduced waist circumference (WC) (P<0.001) and decreased both systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) (P<0.001). It is interesting that the study also showed the impact of female gender in predicting a better glycemic response to liraglutide (P=0.028). Liraglutide was more effective than glimepiride in reducing HbA1c levels in treated patients with T2DM. This was evident in both genders, but particularly in women. Furthermore, liraglutide reduced body weight, WC, and BP, which are critical risk factors for cardiovascular disease.
    Diabetes Technology &amp Therapeutics 04/2015; DOI:10.1089/dia.2014.0412
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    ABSTRACT: Dyslipidemia is commonly seen in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The current study sought to compare the effects of nateglinide and acarbose, two antihyperglycemic agents, on both fasting and postprandial lipid profiles in Chinese subjects with T2DM. For this multicenter, open-label, randomized, active-controlled, parallel-group study, 103 antihyperglycemic agent-naive patients with T2DM were recruited from four hospitals in China. In total, 85 subjects (44 in the nateglinide group, 41 in the acarbose group) with a known complete lipid profile underwent the entire clinical trial and were included in the final analysis. Serum was collected in the fasting state and 30 and 120 min after a standardized meal (postprandial states) to measure the baseline lipid profiles; the same testing was performed upon completion of a 2-week course of nateglinide (120 mg three times a day) or acarbose (50 mg three times a day). Fasting triglyceride (TG) levels were significantly reduced by both nateglinide and acarbose (P<0.001), with acarbose providing a significantly more robust improvement (vs. nateglinide, P=0.005). Additionally, the TG levels at both postprandial times were significantly reduced by acarbose (P<0.001 at 30 min and P=0.002 at 120 min), whereas nateglinide treatment only significantly reduced the 30-min postprandial TG (P=0.029). Neither nateglinide nor acarbose treatment had significant impact on total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, or non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Compared with nateglinide, acarbose has superior therapeutic efficacy for reducing fasting and postprandial TG levels in patients with T2DM.
    Diabetes Technology &amp Therapeutics 04/2015; 17(4):229-234. DOI:10.1089/dia.2014.0299
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    ABSTRACT: This systematic review aims to evaluate evidence for viability and impact of Web-based telemonitoring for managing type 2 diabetes mellitus. A review protocol included searching Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, AMED, the Cochrane Library, and PubMed using the following terms: telemonitoring, type 2 diabetes mellitus, self-management, and web-based Internet solutions. The technology used, trial design, quality of life measures, and the glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels were extracted. This review identified 426 publications; of these, 19 met preset inclusion criteria. Ten quasi-experimental research designs were found, of which seven were pre-posttest studies, two were cohort studies, and one was an interrupted time-series study; in addition, there were nine randomized controlled trials. Web-based remote monitoring from home to hospital is a viable approach for healthcare delivery and enhances patients' quality of life. Six of these studies were conducted in South Korea, five in the United States, three in the United Kingdom, two in Taiwan, and one each in Spain, Poland, and India. The duration of the studies varied from 4 weeks to 18 months, and the participants were all adults. Fifteen studies showed positive improvement in HbA1c levels. One study showed high acceptance of the technology among participants. It remains challenging to identify clear evidence of effectiveness in the rapidly changing area of remote monitoring in diabetes care. Both the technology and its implementations are complex. The optimal design of a telemedicine system is still uncertain, and the value of the real-time blood glucose transmissions is still controversial.
    Diabetes Technology &amp Therapeutics 04/2015; DOI:10.1089/dia.2014.0296
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate whether chemotherapy is indispensable in elderly patients with early estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer and diabetes mellitus (DM), the data on 112 patients, ≥70 years of age, with early, operable ER-negative breast cancer who were treated at the Cancer Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, China, between 2000 and 2010, were analyzed. The overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), and breast cancer-specific survival (BCS) were compared. Survival analysis was performed using the Kaplan-Meier method. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to evaluate the prognostic value of DM and chemotherapy for OS, DFS, and BCS. The univariate Cox regression analysis revealed that DM at diagnosis, the number of positive lymph nodes, and radiotherapy were associated with OS, the number of positive lymph nodes, human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2/neu) status, and radiotherapy were associated with DFS, and the number of positive lymph nodes, tumor size, HER2/neu status, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy were associated with BCS. The subsequent multivariate analysis identified DM at diagnosis (hazard ratio [HR]=3.797; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.515-9.520; P=0.004) as an independent prognostic factor for OS (with the addition of chemotherapy regimen). Chemotherapy was not an independent prognostic factor for either OS (HR=1.275; 95% CI, 0.614-2.646; P=0.515) or DFS (HR=0.849; 95% CI, 0.445-1.619; P=0.619) when other possible factors that may affect the results were adjusted. In conclusion, chemotherapy was not found to be indispensable for elderly (≥70 years of age) female patients with early ER-negative breast cancer with DM because, particularly in such patients, the treatment of DM may be more important compared with chemotherapy.
    Diabetes Technology &amp Therapeutics 04/2015; 17(4):248-254. DOI:10.1089/dia.2014.0226
  • Diabetes Technology &amp Therapeutics 04/2015; 17(4):225-228. DOI:10.1089/dia.2014.0283
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this preliminary study is to investigate contributions of basal glucose (BG) and postprandial glucose (PPG) increments to overall hyperglycemia in newly diagnosed patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We evaluated the relative contributions of BG and PPG to overall hyperglycemia in 59 newly diagnosed T2DM patients according to BG baseline value of 6.1 mmol/L and 24-h glucose profiles of normal glucose tolerance (NGT) subjects obtained by continuous glucose monitoring as baseline, respectively. When the baseline was 24-h glucose profiles of the NGT subjects, the relative contributions of PPG in the T2DM patients with hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels of ≤7.0%, 7.0-9.0%, and >9.0% were 57.58%, 44.69%, and 21.56%, respectively. When the baseline value was equal to 6.1 mmol/L, the relative contributions of PPG in the T2DM patients with HbA1c levels of ≤7.0%, 7.0-9.0%, and >9.0% were 77.23%, 53.43%, and 22.78%, respectively. Compared with the 24-h glucose profiles of the NGT subjects as the baseline, the relative contribution of PPG was overestimated by about 10-20% in the T2DM patients with HbA1c levels of ≤9.0% when 6.1 mmol/L was chosen as the baseline. In the newly diagnosed T2DM patients with mild hyperglycemia, PPG is a predominant contributor, whereas the relative contributions of BG gradually increase from mild to severe hyperglycemia and obviously exceed PPG in the T2DM patients with HbA1c levels of >9.0%. This finding implies that the initial pharmacotherapy may target PPG in those patients with mild hyperglycemia and target BG in those patients with severe hyperglycemia.
    Diabetes Technology &amp Therapeutics 03/2015; DOI:10.1089/dia.2014.0327
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    ABSTRACT: This report describes the performance of a wireless electronic diary (e-diary) system for data collection and enhanced patient-investigator interactions during intensive insulin management in diabetes clinical trials. We implemented a customized electronic communication system featuring an e-diary and a Web portal in three global, randomized, controlled Phase 3 clinical trials testing basal insulin peglispro compared with insulin glargine, both combined with prandial insulin lispro, in patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T1DM and T2DM, respectively). We collected data during 28 weeks of study e-diary use for the report. Patients (n=2,938) in 31 countries used e-diaries to transmit 2,439,087 blood glucose (BG) values, 96% of which were associated by the patient with a protocol time point during the 72-h response window. Of 208,192 hypoglycemia events captured, 96% had a BG value, and 95% had treatments and outcomes entered by patients within the 72-h window. Patients recorded administration of 1,964,477 insulin doses; 93% of basal insulin doses were adherent with the investigator prescription. Investigators adjusted 13 basal and 92 bolus insulin prescriptions per patient-year using the e-diary system. After 26 weeks of treatment and e-diary use in the combined study arms, hemoglobin A1c values decreased by 0.6% or 1.6% and fasting BG decreased by 7.8 or 28 mg/dL in patients with T1DM or T2DM, respectively. The e-diary system enabled comprehensive data collection and facilitated communication between investigators and patients for intensive insulin management in three global clinical trials testing basal insulins.
    Diabetes Technology &amp Therapeutics 03/2015; DOI:10.1089/dia.2014.0407
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    ABSTRACT: This study examines technology use for problem solving in diabetes and its relationship to hemoglobin A1C (A1C). A sample of 112 adolescents with type 1 diabetes completed measures assessing use of technologies for diabetes problem solving, including mobile applications, social technologies, and glucose software. Hierarchical regression was performed to identify the contribution of a new nine-item Technology Use for Problem Solving in Type 1 Diabetes (TUPS) scale to A1C, considering known clinical contributors to A1C. Mean age for the sample was 14.5 (SD 1.7) years, mean A1C was 8.9% (SD 1.8%), 50% were female, and diabetes duration was 5.5 (SD 3.5) years. Cronbach's α reliability for TUPS was 0.78. In regression analyses, variables significantly associated with A1C were the socioeconomic status (β=-0.26, P<0.01), Diabetes Adolescent Problem Solving Questionnaire (β=-0.26, P=0.01), and TUPS (β=0.26, P=0.01). Aside from the Diabetes Self-Care Inventory-Revised, each block added significantly to the model R(2). The final model R(2) was 0.22 for modeling A1C (P<0.001). Results indicate a counterintuitive relationship between higher use of technologies for problem solving and higher A1C. Adolescents with poorer glycemic control may use technology in a reactive, as opposed to preventive, manner. Better understanding of the nature of technology use for self-management over time is needed to guide the development of technology-mediated problem solving tools for youth with type 1 diabetes.
    Diabetes Technology &amp Therapeutics 03/2015; DOI:10.1089/dia.2014.0422
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    ABSTRACT: Noncommunicable diseases, including type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), cause 7.9 million deaths every year in South Asia. India has nearly 65.1 million cases of diabetes, and Pakistan and Bangladesh are at the 12(th) and 13(th) positions in the global list of high prevalence countries, respectively. The prevalence in India is continuously increasing and is recently reported to be nearly 14% and 8% in urban areas and rural areas, respectively. Diabetes in South Asians is, in some manner, different from that in other races; it occurs nearly a decade earlier, at lower body mass index and waist circumference levels, and with more postprandial hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, nephropathy, and CVD than in whites. Decision regarding prevention and management of diabetes should be taken in the background of heterogeneity of diet, attitudes, and cultural milieu in South Asia. A need for a low-cost, integrated, yet individualized approach specific for South Asian countries has been increasingly felt since escalating research has uncovered characteristic phenotype, dietary and socioeconomic patterns. Although most such guidelines formulated in developed countries such as the United States or the United Kingdom could be generally applied to developing South Asian countries, there are fundamental differences in applicability of lifestyle and diets (heterogeneous, different from western diets), availability and cost of drugs and insulins, monitoring methods and devices, and insulin pump. Moreover, the monitoring, education, care, and rehabilitation will differ according to different socioeconomic strata and levels of health care (primary, secondary, or tertiary). Some of the potential ethnic-specific modifications have been suggested in this review.
    Diabetes Technology &amp Therapeutics 03/2015; DOI:10.1089/dia.2014.0213
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    ABSTRACT: The goal of the present study was to explore the correlations of 1,5-anhydroglucitol (l,5-AG), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and glycated albumin (GA) with insulin sensitivity and secretion. In total, 302 patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (166 men, 136 women) were enrolled in this study. The homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and homeostasis model assessment for β-cell function (HOMA-β) were calculated to determine the basal insulin sensitivity and secretion. The insulinogenic index (IGI) was used to evaluate early-phase insulin secretion. 1,5-AG and GA were assayed via the enzymatic method, and HbA1c was detected by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Among all 302 subjects, the serum 1,5-AG level was 13.1±7.2 μg/mL, and the HbA1c and GA levels [median (interquartile range)] were 6.7% (6.2-7.3%) and 17.7% (16.0-19.5%), respectively. Increased 1,5-AG quartiles were accompanied by trends toward a decreased HOMA-IR and an increased HOMA-β and IGI (for all trends, P<0.001). 1,5-AG was negatively associated with HOMA-IR (r=-0.200, P<0.001) and positively associated with HOMA-β and IGI (r=0.210 and 0.413, respectively; both P<0.001). 1,5-AG was independently related to HOMA-IR and HOMA-β and exhibited an independent positive association with IGI (standardized β=0.242, P<0.001). Additionally, both HbA1c and GA were independently correlated with HOMA-IR and HOMA-β. 1,5-AG is not only correlated with basal insulin sensitivity and secretion, but also closely associated with early-phase insulin secretion in Chinese patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus.
    Diabetes Technology &amp Therapeutics 03/2015; DOI:10.1089/dia.2014.0346
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    ABSTRACT: Hypoglycemia remains an impediment to good glycemic control, with nocturnal hypoglycemia being particularly dangerous. Information on major contributors to nocturnal hypoglycemia remains critical for understanding and mitigating risk. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) data for 855 nights were studied, generated by 45 subjects 15-45 years of age with hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels of ≤8.0% who participated in a larger randomized study. Factors assessed for potential association with nocturnal hypoglycemia (CGM measurement of <60 mg/dL for ≥30 min) included bedtime blood glucose (BG), exercise intensity, bedtime snack, insulin on board, day of the week, previous daytime hypoglycemia, age, gender, HbA1c level, diabetes duration, daily basal insulin, and daily insulin dose. Hypoglycemia occurred during 221 of 885 (25%) nights and was more frequent with younger age (P<0.001), lower HbA1c levels (P=0.006), medium/high-intensity exercise during the preceding day (P=0.003), and the occurrence of antecedent daytime hypoglycemia (P=0.001). There was a trend for lower bedtime BG levels to be associated with more frequent nocturnal hypoglycemia (P=0.10). Bedtime snack, before bedtime insulin bolus, weekend versus weekday, gender, and daily basal and bolus insulin were not associated with nocturnal hypoglycemia. Awareness that HbA1c level, exercise, bedtime BG level, and daytime hypoglycemia are all modifiable factors associated with nocturnal hypoglycemia may help patients and providers decrease the risk of hypoglycemia at night. Risk for nocturnal hypoglycemia increased in a linear fashion across the range of variables, with no clear-cut thresholds to guide clinicians or patients for any particular night.
    Diabetes Technology &amp Therapeutics 03/2015; DOI:10.1089/dia.2014.0342
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    ABSTRACT: Vascular inflammation associated with mannose-binding lectin (MBL) may be implicated in the pathogenesis of vascular complications in diabetes. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the association of MBL expression with vascular complications in diabetes. Data from published case-control studies on MBL expression and vascular complications of diabetes were collected up to September 30, 2014. Medline, Embase, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) were searched using the key words "MBL or mannose-binding lectin or mannan-binding lectin," "diabetes or diabetic," and "vascular complication, vascular disease or angiopathy" to identify the articles published in English or Chinese. The combined odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for the cumulative rate of vascular complications in the cases of high-expression MBL versus that in cases of low-expression MBL were estimated using a fixed-effects model and a random-effects model. In total, 2,714 cases from 12 articles including 2,256 cases with high-expression MBL (≥400 μg/L) and 458 cases with low-expression MBL (<400 μg/L) were reviewed. The cumulative vascular complication rates were 52.9% (1,194/2,256) in the cases with high expression and 38.4% (176/458) in those with low expression. The combined ORs were 1.6, with a 95% CI ranging from 1.24 to 2.08, in the fixed-effects model and 1.94, with a 95% CI from 1.00 to 3.76, in the random-effects model. High expression of MBL may be correlated with a significantly increased risk of vascular complications in diabetes. Thus MBL detection in diabetes is an effective and feasible method to predict vascular complications.
    Diabetes Technology &amp Therapeutics 03/2015; DOI:10.1089/dia.2014.0372
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Computer simulation environments have been used in the development of many artificial pancreas systems. A glucose sensor model is an essential part of these environments, and different models have been proposed. However, not one of these models accounts for drop-outs of sensor readings, a well-known phenomenon caused by physical pressure on the sensor site. In this work, we have proposed an enhanced model that accounts for drop-outs and demonstrated its improvement over the existing one-compartment model. Materials and Methods: Potential drop-outs were augmented to the existing model, and their incidences and magnitudes were estimated simultaneously with the model parameters using the Bayesian approach. Drop-outs and model parameters were estimated from data collected from 15 subjects with type 1 diabetes who underwent an artificial pancreas study. Model fitting and parameter estimates were contrasted between the enhanced model and the existing one-compartment model. Results: Both models achieved similar parameter estimates (P=not significant) and were all physiologically plausible. The enhanced model further estimated 1.71 drop-outs per day, which improved model fit (weighted residual reduced from [minimum -4%, maximum 3%] to [-3%, 2%]) and reduced significantly the deviance information criteria from 2739.72 to 1456.00. Conclusions: The enhanced model improves fitting of glucose levels and should allow more realistic simulations that assesses artificial pancreas systems.
    Diabetes Technology &amp Therapeutics 03/2015; DOI:10.1089/dia.2014.0309
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Consistent continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) use is a challenge in youth with type 1 diabetes. This study aimed to investigate patient and family behavioral and clinical characteristics associated with interest in implementing CGM. Research Design and Methods: In a cross-sectional study, we compared 120 youth interested in starting CGM (the CGM group) with a general sample of 238 youth with type 1 diabetes (the Standard group). Youth and their parents completed validated surveys assessing adherence to diabetes management, diabetes-specific family conflict, parent involvement in diabetes management, and youth quality of life. Demographic and clinical data were obtained from chart review and interview. Results: Youth participants had a mean age of 13.0±2.8 years, diabetes duration of 6.3±3.4 years, and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level of 8.2±1.0% (66±11 mmol/mol). Youth in the CGM group performed more frequent blood glucose monitoring, had lower HbA1c levels, and were more likely to be treated by continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) and to be living in two-parent homes than youth in the Standard group. Compared with the Standard group, youth interested in wearing a CGM device and their parents reported greater adherence to diabetes management, less diabetes-specific family conflict, and higher youth quality of life. No differences were found between groups with respect to parent involvement in diabetes management by both youth and parent reports. Conclusions: In efforts to enhance CGM uptake, it is important to address factors such as blood glucose monitoring frequency, CSII use, adherence, and diabetes-specific family conflict when considering youth with type 1 diabetes for CGM implementation.
    Diabetes Technology &amp Therapeutics 03/2015; DOI:10.1089/dia.2014.0290
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Medication adherence is a major universal factor influencing patient health outcomes, particularly in chronic diseases such as diabetes. Poor adherence to antidiabetes medication can cause therapeutic failure, leading to manifestation of diabetes-related complications, such as retinopathy, neuropathy, nephropathy, etc., reduced quality of life, and increased healthcare costs. To forestall these, likely predictors of medication nonadherence should be assessed and addressed appropriately. The purpose of this work was therefore to assess medication adherence among type 2 diabetes patients and to identify patient characteristics and probable factors associated with nonadherence. Subjects and Methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional research design was used. The study was conducted on 360 ambulatory type 2 diabetes patients attending an endocrinology clinic between June 2012 and February 2013. The eight-item Modified Morisky Adherence Scale was used to assess medication adherence; sociodemographic information and respondents' opinion on the possible barrier(s) to medication adherence were also obtained. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 14.0 software (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL). Results: Of the 303 patients included in the final analysis, 19.8% of respondents were judged to be highly adherent. Medium and low adherers were 30.0% and 50.2%, respectively. The median adherence score was 5.75 (interquartile range, 4.5-7.0). Adherence to medication correlated with low literacy level (P=0.008), forgetfulness (P=0.009), high cost of medication (P=0.014), limited access to care (P=0.001), complexity of regimen (P=0.001), poor patient-provider communication (P=0.000), lack of trust in the provider (P=0.046), and depression (P=0.031). No statistically significant relationship was found between patients' characteristics and medication adherence. Conclusions: Medication adherence was generally poor among the cohorts studied.
    Diabetes Technology &amp Therapeutics 03/2015; DOI:10.1089/dia.2014.0279