Journal of ocular pharmacology and therapeutics: the official journal of the Association for Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics

Publisher: Society for Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Mary Ann Liebert

Description

  • Impact factor
    1.46
  • 5-year impact
    0.00
  • Cited half-life
    6.90
  • Immediacy index
    0.24
  • Eigenfactor
    0.00
  • Article influence
    0.35
  • Other titles
    Journal of ocular pharmacology and therapeutics (Online), Journal of ocular pharmacology and therapeutics
  • ISSN
    1557-7732
  • OCLC
    47295624
  • Material type
    Document, Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Mary Ann Liebert

  • Pre-print
    • Author cannot archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • Author's final version or publisher's version/PDF
    • Publisher's version/PDF may be used
    • On own website, institution's intranet, or institutional repository
    • Authors may deposit in funding agency designated repository after 12 months
    • Set statement to accompany deposit (see policy)
    • Publisher copyright and source must be acknowledged
    • NIH authors will have their final paper, (post peer review, copy-editing and proof-reading) deposited in PubMed Central on their behalf
  • Classification
    ​ blue

Publications in this journal

  • Journal of ocular pharmacology and therapeutics: the official journal of the Association for Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics 08/2014; 29(6):513-514.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Background and Objective: To evaluate the response to intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide for macular edema persisting or recurring despite multiple intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) treatments for central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO). Patients and Methods: Retrospective interventional case series of 21 eyes with CRVO from 21 patients who were diagnosed with persistent or recurrent macular edema secondary to CRVO and treated with 0.1mL (4mg) intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide (IVTA) after initial treatment with 3 or more IVB injections. Anatomic and visual responses were the study primary outcomes. Results: Mean logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution visual acuity was 1.19 (20/316) immediately before IVTA injection, and improved to 1.04 (20/219) 1 month after IVTA administration (P=0.003). The mean central macular thickness on optical coherence tomography decreased from 533.4 μm immediately before IVTA to 327.9 μm after IVTA injection (P<0.001). No cases of endophthalmitis, retinal detachment, or neovascularization were noted. Conclusions: Intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide appears to improve vision and reduce persistent or recurrent macular edema secondary to CRVO despite multiple bevacizumab injections.
    Journal of ocular pharmacology and therapeutics: the official journal of the Association for Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics 05/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Background: To evaluate the diameters and wall-to-lumen ratio (WLR) of retinal arterioles in patients with retinal vein occlusion (RVO) before and after a 0.7 mg dexamethasone (DEX) intravitreal implant and compare it with a matched control group of normal eyes. Methods: This was a single-site, multi-investigator, prospective, open-label, observational study in 15 patients with vision loss due to branch or central RVO treated with a single injection of DEX implant. An age-matched control group of 16 normal eyes was recruited. External and internal arteriolar diameters, WLR, and wall thickness were assessed in vivo using scanning-laser Doppler flowmetry. Visual acuity (VA) and central macular thickness (CMT) were evaluated. Results: Mean internal diameter showed a significant reduction in post-treatment RVO patients compared with pre-treatment RVO patients (56.0±18.0 μm vs. 67.9±16.9 μm, respectively; P=0.02). Mean WLR in pre-treatment RVO patients was 0.47±0.19, showing an increase to 0.63±0.23 3 months after treatment (P=0.037). No significant difference was found in arteriolar external diameter between normotensive, pre-treatment, and post-treatment subjects. Conclusion: Treatment with a DEX implant in RVO patients led to significant improvements in both VA and CMT. These changes were accompanied by reductions in arteriolar lumen diameter, which could contribute to decreased capillary leakage and macular swelling.
    Journal of ocular pharmacology and therapeutics: the official journal of the Association for Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics 05/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of balofloxacin for treatment of experimental Staphylococcus aureus keratitis. Methods: In vitro testing compared the cellular toxicity of and bacterial susceptibility to balofloxacin and levofloxacin in human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs). For in vivo testing, experimental bacterial keratitis was induced and treated with balofloxacin eye drops (0.5%) and levofloxacin eye drops (0.5%). Results: In vitro toxicity examinations showed that balofloxacin, as well as levofloxacin, had low cytotoxicity in HCECs. Balofloxacin eye drops (0.5%) also showed a similar relative cytotoxicity to levofloxacin eye drops (0.5%). In bacterial susceptibility examinations, both balofloxacin and levofloxacin significantly reduced S. aureus compared with the untreated control (P<0.001 for both balofloxacin and levofloxacin). Balofloxacin was more effective than levofloxacin in the treatment of S. aureus bacterial keratitis (P<0.05). In experimental bacterial keratitis treatment testing, balofloxacin was also more effective than levofloxacin with respect to the parameters of physiological score, histological observation, and bacterial quantitation (P<0.05). Conclusions: Balofloxacin was safe in the treatment of S. aureus bacterial keratitis, and more effective than levofloxacin. Therefore, balofloxacin was shown to have potential clinical value in ophthalmic local application.
    Journal of ocular pharmacology and therapeutics: the official journal of the Association for Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics 05/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Purpose: To investigate the long-term functional outcome and its predictive factors of treatment of acute submacular hemorrhage secondary to age-related macular degeneration with intravitreal application of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) and gas. Methods: Twenty-six patients were enrolled in the retrospective case series. A complete history and ocular examination, including fluorescein angiography, were performed. The best-corrected visual acuity was measured with a Snellen chart. Patients were followed up for 12 to 131 months (mean: 49 months). All patients underwent intravitreal injection of rt-PA (50 μg) and expansile gas. Primary outcome measures were best postoperative and final visual acuity and degree of blood displacement. Results: The size of the subretinal hemorrhage ranged from 0.5 to 28 disc diameters, and the degree of blood displacement was defined as complete (≥1 disc area from the center of the fovea), partial, or no displacement. Twenty-one (81%) patients showed partial or complete displacement of hemorrhage. Due to lack of displacement of hemorrhage in 5 patients (19%), submacular surgery was performed. In 13 of 21 (62%; P=0.0001) patients with displacement of hemorrhage, the best postoperative visual acuity improved ≥2 lines. The final visual acuity improved ≥2 lines in 42.9% (9 of 21), was stable in 23.8% (5 of 21), and worse ≥2 lines in 33.3% (7 of 21) of patients. The short duration of hemorrhage (≤4 days) and complete displacement of blood, independent of the hemorrhage size, were significantly associated with better postoperative visual acuity (P=0.0001, P=0.0001, respectively). Conclusion: Intravitreal injection of rt-PA and gas seem to be more effective when applied within the first 4 days of acute submacular hemorrhage. Preoperative visual acuity as well as displacement of hemorrhage might be useful to predict final visual acuity.
    Journal of ocular pharmacology and therapeutics: the official journal of the Association for Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics 05/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Purpose: To determine whether there were ocular surface changes in glaucomatous patients treated with preservatives beta-blockers who switched to preservative-free beta-blockers. Methods: This was a prospective, longitudinal, open-labeled study. One hundred thirty-two patients with primary open angle glaucoma treated with a preserved beta-blocker were enrolled. All the patients underwent perimetric and gonioscopic examination, complete ophthalmologic examination, intraocular pressure (IOP) measurements, evaluation of ocular surface, Schirmer's test, blood pressure and heart rate at baseline and 1-3 months after changing the medical treatment to a preservative-free timolol 0.1% (Timogel 0.1; Thea). At baseline, after 1 month and at the end of the study (3 months), all patients underwent a questionnaire on the visual quality and symptoms and on the quality of life (QoL). Data were analyzed by t-test when the distribution of the data was normal, by Mann-Whitney when the distribution was not normal. Results: No significant difference was found for IOP before switching from preserved beta-blockers to preservative-free ones. No significant difference was found in blood pressure and heart rate. However, a statistically significant difference was found for abnormal fluorescein staining of the cornea and conjunctiva, eyelid erythema, conjunctival hyperemia, and follicular hyperplasia. A significant difference was found for break-up time (from 9.38±4.7 s at baseline to 10.64±4.7 s after 3 months) and Schirmer's test (from 12.9±5.96 mm at baseline to 14.2±5.87 mm after 3 months). The questionnaire showed that the patient improved the dryness and foreign body sensation. Conclusion: In glaucomatous patients, preservative-free 0.1 timolol treatment improved their QoL. Similar dry eye signs or symptoms improved after 3 months of treatment reducing dryness, hyperemia, follicular hyperplasia, and foreign body sensation.
    Journal of ocular pharmacology and therapeutics: the official journal of the Association for Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics 04/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Purpose: To investigate the efficacy of hypotonic 0.18% sodium hyaluronate (SH) eyedrops in a mouse model of experimental dry eye (EDE). Methods: EDE was induced in C57BL/6 mice by a subcutaneous scopolamine injection and an air draft. The mice were divided into 4 groups according to topical treatment regimens: EDE control, isotonic 0.5% carboxymethycellulose (CMC), isotonic 0.1% SH, and hypotonic 0.18% SH. Tear volume, corneal smoothness, and corneal staining scores were measured at 5 and 10 days of EDE. Multiplex immunobead assay, immunohistochemistry, and flow cytometry for proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and inflammatory molecules were performed at 10 days of EDE. Results: The 0.18% SH group had a significantly lower corneal smoothness and staining scores than the 0.5% CMC and 0.1% SH groups at 10 days of EDE (P<0.05). The 0.18% SH group showed significantly low levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, monokine induced by interferon-γ, and interferon-γ-inducible protein 10 compared with the other groups (P<0.05). The mean percentages of CD4(+)CXCR3(+), CD40(+), and CD44(+) cells in the conjunctiva were significantly lower in the 0.18% SH group than in the other groups (P<0.05). In addition, the 0.1% SH group showed lower levels of TNF-α and IL-1β and percentages of CD40(+) and CD44(+) cells than the EDE and 0.5% CMC groups. Conclusions: Hypotonic 0.18% SH eyedrops are more effective in improving ocular surface irregularity and staining and decreasing inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and cells on the ocular surface compared with isotonic 0.5% CMC or 0.1% SH eyedrops in the treatment of EDE.
    Journal of ocular pharmacology and therapeutics: the official journal of the Association for Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics 04/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Purpose: To test the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of interferon alpha 2b for conjunctival intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and to evaluate the risk factors associated with its clinical outcome. A secondary goal is to identify predictors of duration of treatment to achieve good results. Methods: A prospective, noncomparative case series. Twenty-two patients with CIN were treated with interferon alpha 2b (1 million IU/mL) 4 times daily. Patients were evaluated by slit-lamp biomicroscopy, corneal histopathology, and impression cytology and the same physician carried out the diagnosis in all cases. Patients were monitored for relapses for 48 months after interferon therapy had ended. The following statistical tests were carried out: descriptive, bivariate correlation, and survival curves. Results: Topical therapy eliminated clinical signs of disease in 91% of the cases (20 of 22). The average time to CIN resolution was 3.5 months (range 1-9), with only 4 patients presenting adverse effects (1 irritative conjunctivitis and 3 punctate keratitis). None of the 4 cases experiencing adverse reactions required discontinuation of therapy. Patients living in areas with high ultraviolet radiation levels had a longer clinical resolution (4.2 months) than those living in areas with low UV levels (1.8 months, P=0.01). There was association with statistical significance between the size of the lesion at the third month and treatment duration (P=0.048). Conclusion: Topical interferon alpha 2b is an effective and safe treatment option for CIN. The place of residence can be a risk factor; areas like coast with higher UV levels result in a slower clinical resolution than inland areas. The size of the lesion after the third month of treatment with interferon can be a predictor of time to clinical resolution of CIN.
    Journal of ocular pharmacology and therapeutics: the official journal of the Association for Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics 04/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Purpose: Recent studies have shown that prostaglandin analogues can decrease the central corneal thickness (CCT), however, most of those studies followed the patient's CCT for only approximately 2 years. The purpose of this present study was to perform a long-term follow-up investigation of CCT in patients who underwent only topical prostaglandin monotherapy over 4 years, and then analyze the CCT changes and the correlation between intraocular pressure (IOP) changes and CCT changes. Methods: This retrospective study involved 52 eyes of 52 glaucoma patients who consulted with glaucoma specialists at the Glaucoma Clinic of Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan and underwent latanoprost eye drop monotherapy for more than 4 years in at least 1 eye between 2005 and 2011. In all patients, CCT was evaluated by the Pentacam(®) Scheimpflug system at pretreatment, midpoint, and final follow-up. The Student's t-test was used to analyze the CCT changes. Results: The mean CCT significantly decreased from 537±34 μm at pretreatment to 526±32 μm at the final follow-up (P<0.0001). Interestingly, no significant difference was found between the mean CCT at midpoint and that at final follow-up (P=0.17), yet the mean CCT significantly decreased to 529±32 μm in the first 2 years (P=0.0015). No correlation was found between IOP and CCT reduction. Conclusions: The findings of this study show that latanoprost eye drops significantly reduce CCT during the initial stage of use, however, CCT reduction does not clinically affect IOP values.
    Journal of ocular pharmacology and therapeutics: the official journal of the Association for Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics 04/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract The immune system protects the host from pathogenic microbes, but tight regulation of the evoked response is requisite to limit bystander damage. The interleukin (IL)-10 family of cytokines, composed of 9 members: IL-10, IL-19, IL-20, IL-22, IL-24, IL-26, and 3 distantly related members, IL-28A, IL-28B, and IL-29, plays a central role in this regulation. IL-10 family cytokines emerged before the adaptive immune response and elicit diverse host defense mechanisms, especially from epithelial cells during an infection. IL-10 family cytokines are also essential for maintenance and integrity of tissue epithelial layers. These cytokines promote innate immune responses from tissue epithelia that limit the damage caused by both viral and bacterial infections. They also facilitate tissue healing after infection/inflammation. In this regard, IL-10 suppresses pro-inflammatory responses, limiting tissue disruption resulting from an inflammatory response. Thus, a central functional theme of IL-10 family cytokines is their role in tissue protection. This review focuses on IL-10, the founding member of this family of cytokines, and integrates recent data on the function and regulation of IL-10 during bacterial infections. Emphasis is placed on the role of IL-10 in Pseudomonas aeruginosa keratitis and the subsequent infectious/inflammatory processes evoked.
    Journal of ocular pharmacology and therapeutics: the official journal of the Association for Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics 04/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Purpose: To compare efficacy, safety, and tolerability of the preservative-free fixed combination (FC) and non-fixed combination (NFC) of tafluprost 0.0015% and timolol 0.5% in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension. Methods: This 6-month, prospective, randomized, double-masked, active-controlled, parallel group, multicenter phase III study was performed in patients with ocular hypertension and open-angle glaucoma with untreated intraocular pressure (IOP) ≥23 and ≤36 mmHg at baseline. Results: Four hundred patients washed out from IOP-lowering medication were randomized, 201 received the FC, and 199 received the NFC. Mean time-wise IOP decreases from baseline ranged from -7.3 to -9.1 mmHg (29.6%-34.6%) in the FC and from -7.5 to -9.4 mmHg (30.7%-36.0%) in the NFC arm [per-protocol (PP) dataset, P<0.0001 compared with baseline for both groups]. At month 6, the estimated overall treatment difference (FC-NFC) was 0.308 mmHg (PP dataset, 95% confidence interval from -0.194 to 0.810 mmHg). An IOP decrease ≥30% was achieved in 58.3% and 66.9% of the patients in the FC and NFC groups, respectively (PP dataset; P=0.105); an IOP decrease ≥35% was achieved in 36.6% and 43.1% of patients in the FC and NFC groups, respectively (PP dataset; P=0.297). Patients with ocular adverse events were evenly distributed in both groups. The most common side effect, conjunctival/ocular hyperemia was found in 8% and 5% of patients in the FC and NFC arms, respectively. Conclusions: All measures of IOP reduction for FC of preservative-free tafluprost/timolol were statistically and clinically significant and non-inferior to those of the NFC, throughout the 6-month study period.
    Journal of ocular pharmacology and therapeutics: the official journal of the Association for Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics 04/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Purpose: To demonstrate that ultraviolet-A (UV-A) and voriconazole combination therapy is more effective than voriconazole single treatment for fungal keratitis. Methods: The in vitro UV-A (375 nm) fungicidal effect was evaluated on Fusarium solani solutions. Each fungal solution was irradiated with different UV-A irradiation doses. Also, a fungal solution containing voriconazole was also irradiated with UV-A. The in vivo therapeutic effect of UV-A and voriconazole treatment was studied in a rabbit keratitis model. Fungi were injected intrastromally into the cornea of 16 rabbits. Each treatment was initiated 3 days after fungal injection and continued up to 8 days for the following groups: Group 1, control; Group 2, treated with UV-A once a day; Group 3, treated with voriconazole 3 times a day; Group 4, treated with voriconazole 3 times a day and UV-A once a day. On the last day, the sclera-cornea buttons were extracted and microbiological and histological evaluations were performed. Results: The colony-forming units (CFUs) of fungal solutions in culture significantly decreased with UV-A irradiation. The CFUs of fungal solutions containing voriconazole also decreased with UV-A irradiation. In vivo, clinical scores of Group 3 (P=0.03) and Group 4 (P=0.02) 5 days after treatment were significantly lower compared to that of Group 1. The clinical score of Group 4 (P=0.03) 5 days after treatment was significantly lower compared to that of Group 3. The histopathological scores 5 days after treatment were significantly lower in Group 4 compared to those of Group 1 (P<0.01) and Group 3 (P=0.02). Based on our CFU analysis, only Group 4 showed significantly lower CFUs compared to Group 1 (P=0.04). Conclusions: UV-A and voriconazole combination treatment could be a safe and effective alternative to voriconazole single treatment for fungal keratitis.
    Journal of ocular pharmacology and therapeutics: the official journal of the Association for Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics 04/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Purpose: Taprenepag isopropyl is an EP2 receptor agonist that is in development for the treatment of glaucoma. Iritis, photophobia, and increased corneal thickness observed in a Phase 2 clinical trial with taprenepag isopropyl were not previously observed in topical ocular toxicity studies in rabbits and dogs. In vivo studies using cynomolgus monkeys and in vitro models were used to elucidate the mechanisms underlying these ocular events. Methods: Monkeys were dosed daily for 28 days in 1 eye with taprenepag and in the other with vehicle control. Complete ophthalmic examinations were performed at baseline and weekly thereafter. Serial sections of eyes were examined histopathologically at the end of the study. Recovery after the discontinuation of taprenepag was assessed for 28 days in the monkeys in the high-dose group. In vitro studies evaluated cell viability, paracellular permeability, and cytokine induction with human corneal epithelial or endothelial cell cultures. Results: Monkeys demonstrated a dose-related incidence of iritis and increased corneal thickness that resolved within 28 days of discontinuing taprenepag. There was no evidence in vivo of taprenepag toxicity to the corneal endothelium or epithelium. Cell viability of stratified epithelial cells was primarily affected by excipients and was similar to Xalatan(®). The viability of HCEC-12 cells was not affected by taprenepag at concentrations up to 100 μM. Conclusions: The lack of in vivo or in vitro endothelial cytotoxicity and the reversibility of the increase in corneal thickness and iritis in the monkey provide confidence to permit further clinical development of taprenepag.
    Journal of ocular pharmacology and therapeutics: the official journal of the Association for Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics 04/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Purpose: Retinal ischemic diseases primarily lead to damage of the inner retinal neurons. Electrophysiological studies also suggest impairment of the inner retinal neurons. Our recent studies with acute ocular hypertensive rats confirmed damage predominantly in the inner retinal layer along with the ganglion cell layer, changes that are ameliorated by the calpain inhibitor SNJ-1945. However, we do not know which specific neuronal cells in the inner retinal layer are damaged by calpains. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to identify specific calpain-damaged neuronal cells in the inner retina from acute ocular hypertensive rats. Methods: Intraocular pressure was elevated to 110 mm Hg for 40 min. One hour after ocular hypertension (OH), SNJ-1945 was administrated as a single oral dose of 50 mg/kg. Retinal function was assessed by scotopic electroretinography (ERG). Histological degeneration was evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP nick-end-labeling (TUNEL), and immunostaining in thin sections and flat mounts of the retina. Calpain activation was determined by proteolysis of the calpain substrate α-spectrin. Results: OH caused calpain activation, increased TUNEL-positive staining, decreased thickness of the inner nuclear layer (INL), and decreased amplitudes of the ERG a- and b-waves and oscillatory potentials (OPs). SNJ-1945 significantly inhibited calpain activation and the decrease in ERG values. Interestingly, the changes in the b-wave and OPs amplitudes were significantly correlated to changes in the thickness of the INL. In the inner retinal layer, the numbers of rod bipolar, cone-ON bipolar, and amacrine cells were decreased after OH. SNJ-1945 suppressed the loss of cone-ON bipolar and amacrine cells, but did not inhibit the loss of rod bipolar cells. We also observed increased glial fibrillary acid protein-positive staining in the Müller cells after OH and the treatment with SNJ-1945. Conclusions: Calpains may contribute to ischemic retinal dysfunction by causing the loss of cone-ON bipolar and amacrine cells and causing the activation of Müller cells. Calpain inhibitor SNJ-1945 may be a candidate compound for treatment of retinal ischemic disease.
    Journal of ocular pharmacology and therapeutics: the official journal of the Association for Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics 03/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the effects of benzalkonium chloride (BAK) on the blood-aqueous (BAB) and blood-retinal barriers (BRB) of pseudophakic eyes. Methods: Prospective, randomized, investigator-masked, comparative study. Patients were randomly assigned to preservative-free artificial tears or BAK-preserved artificial tears. One drop of artificial tears was instilled 4 times a day in the study eye, starting the day after randomization for 30 days. Anterior chamber flare was assessed by a laser flare meter (LFM) and macular thickness measurements were obtained with optical coherence tomography, before, 15, and 30 days after randomization. Results: A total of 44 healthy eyes of 44 pseudophakic volunteers were recruited. There were no significant differences regarding demographics (age, gender, and race distributions) and clinical characteristics (eye, mean intraocular pressure, and mean best-corrected visual acuity) between the 2 groups (P>0.05). No significant differences in baseline mean LFM values were observed (P=0.262). However, we detected a statistically significant increase in mean LFM measurements in the BAK-preserved group (11.4±5.1 ph/ms) (P=0.017) after 15 days. After 30 days, the BAK-preserved group maintained significantly higher flare values (11.9±5.9 ph/ms) compared with baseline (P=0.043). On the other hand, the preservative-free group showed mean flare values of 8.4±2.5 ph/ms, not significantly different from those obtained at baseline (P=1.00). We observed no statistically significant change in macular thickness measurements at days 15 and 30 in either group (P>0.05). Cystoid macular edema was not detected in this series. Conclusions: Our results suggest that a short-term exposure to BAK can cause disruption of the BAB, without altering the BRB in pseudophakic eyes.
    Journal of ocular pharmacology and therapeutics: the official journal of the Association for Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics 03/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Purpose: The purpose of this study was to distinguish differences in gene expression between cells cultured from the juxtacanalicular trabecular meshwork (JCTM) and those from Schlemm's canal (SC), to gain clues to differences between those cell types, and to add to our baseline knowledge of gene expression differences in these cell types for later comparison between cells from nonprimary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and POAG outflow tissues. Methods: A set of JCTM and SC cells was cultured from each of 2 donor eyes by an explant method, grown to passage 3, and frozen in liquid nitrogen. The cells were thawed, total RNA was extracted, and the probes made from total RNAs were hybridized to MICROMAX human cDNA microarray slides in 2 separate trials. Differentially expressed genes were analyzed using PubMed, Prosite, and IPA software, and the expression of several of the genes including intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), tenascin, and β-spectrin was assessed by immunofluorescence. Results: Schlemm's canal cells differentially expressed ICAM-1, spectrin, complement, fibulin-1, and several genes consistent with an endothelial origin in both arrays, while the JCTM cells more often overexpressed genes consistent with contractile, matrix function, and neural character. At the same time, many genes highly expressed in the first array were not highly overexpressed in the second. One highly overexpressed gene in the JCTM in both arrays, that for heparan sulfate 3-O-sulfotransferase-1 precursor, is thought to be somewhat unique, and could affect the glycosaminoglycan functionality in the extracellular matrix (ECM). Conclusions: We found generally good agreement between the 2 array trials, but some contradictions as well. Many of the genes overexpressed in each cell type had been described in earlier work, but several were new. Tables of genes, grouped by cellular function, and the complete datasets are provided for the development of new hypotheses.
    Journal of ocular pharmacology and therapeutics: the official journal of the Association for Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics 03/2014;