Integrative and Comparative Biology (Integr Comp Biol)

Publisher: Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology, Oxford University Press (OUP)

Journal description

Integrative and Comparative Biology (ICB), formerly American Zoologist, is one of the most highly respected and cited journals in the field of biology. The journal's primary focus is to integrate the varying disciplines in this broad field, while maintaining the highest scientific quality. ICB's peer-reviewed symposia provide first class syntheses of the top research in a field, perfect for classes or a quick update. ICB also publishes book reviews, reports, and special bulletins.

Current impact factor: 2.97

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2015
2013 / 2014 Impact Factor 2.969
2012 Impact Factor 3.023
2011 Impact Factor 2.447
2010 Impact Factor 2.626
2009 Impact Factor 1.979
2008 Impact Factor 2.74
2007 Impact Factor 2.66
2006 Impact Factor 2.439
2005 Impact Factor 2.232
2004 Impact Factor 1.866
2003 Impact Factor 1.083

Impact factor over time

Impact factor
Year

Additional details

5-year impact 2.95
Cited half-life 6.90
Immediacy index 1.00
Eigenfactor 0.01
Article influence 1.10
Website Integrative and Comparative Biology website
Other titles Integrative and comparative biology (Online), Integrative and comparative biology
ISSN 1557-7023
OCLC 50649976
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Oxford University Press (OUP)

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author cannot archive a post-print version
  • Restrictions
    • 12 months embargo
  • Conditions
    • Pre-print can only be posted prior to acceptance
    • Pre-print must be accompanied by set statement (see link)
    • Pre-print must not be replaced with post-print, instead a link to published version with amended set statement should be made
    • Pre-print on author's personal website, employer website, free public server or pre-prints in subject area
    • Post-print in Institutional repositories or Central repositories
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Published source must be acknowledged
    • Must link to publisher version
    • Set phrase to accompany archived copy (see policy)
    • Eligible authors may deposit in OpenDepot
    • The publisher will deposit in PubMed Central on behalf of NIH authors
    • Publisher last contacted on 19/02/2015
    • This policy is an exception to the default policies of 'Oxford University Press (OUP)'
  • Classification
    ​ yellow

Publications in this journal

  • Aline J Cote, Paul W Webb
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The natural habitats of fishes are characterized by movements of water driven by a multitude of physical processes of either natural or human origin. The resultant unsteadiness is exacerbated when flow interacts with surfaces, such as the bottom and banks, and protruding objects, such as corals, boulders, and woody debris. There is growing interest in the impacts on performance and behavior of fishes swimming in "turbulent flows". The ability of fishes to stabilize their postures and their swimming trajectories is thought to be important in determining species' distributions and densities, and hence the resultant assemblages in various habitats. A theoretical framework is proposed to quantify the interactions of fish and flows. Dimensionless parameters are derived based on a physical description of the flow structures and different regimes are predicted describing fishes' responses to a wide range of physical perturbations. We found the ratio of eddy size to fish size, the "momentum ratio" (ratio between momentum of the eddy and the momentum of the fish), as well as the time of interaction between eddy and fish to be especially important in determining thresholds for the fish's posture and trajectory. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
    Integrative and Comparative Biology 07/2015; DOI:10.1093/icb/icv085
  • Ann M Cespedes, Simon P Lailvaux
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Maximal whole-organism performance traits measured in the laboratory and the levels of performance expressed in the field often exhibit a mismatch, complicating our understanding of the selection pressures influencing the evolution of performance traits. To better understand the evolution of locomotor performance, we built an individual-based simulation to test hypotheses about selection on locomotor performance. Starting with a population of individuals with two correlated but variable performance traits, we simulated these individuals surviving and reproducing in a complex environment, presenting each individual with successive ecological challenges requiring specific performance capabilities over their lifespan. While most challenges require sub-maximal speeds, intermittent bouts requiring increased performance, such as escape from predators, introduce strong, but infrequent, selection for maximal performance. By comparing the results of simulations run with individuals that only perform at their maximum levels versus those that adjust this effort, we show that intra-individual variation in speed confers a selective advantage, regardless of the extent of that variation. We also show that the direction and strength of the correlation between the two performance traits affects the evolutionary trajectory of phenotypic change. Ultimately, this model allows us to simulate the evolution of movement speeds over a range of selective contexts, offering insight into the factors affecting the evolutionary relationship between optimal and maximal performance. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
    Integrative and Comparative Biology 06/2015; DOI:10.1093/icb/icv082
  • Robert Roer, Shai Abehsera, Amir Sagi
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The exoskeletons of pancrustaceans, as typified by decapod crustaceans and insects, demonstrate a high degree of similarity with respect to histology, ultrastructure, function, and composition. The cuticular envelope in insects and the outer epicuticle in crustaceans both serve as the primary barrier to permeability of the exoskeleton, preventing loss of water and ions to the external medium. Prior to and following ecdysis, there is a sequence of expression and synthesis of different proteins by the cuticular epithelium for incorporation into the pre-exuvial and post-exuvial procuticle of insects and the exocuticle and endocuticle of crustaceans. Both exhibit regional differences in cuticular composition, e.g., the articular (intersegmental) membranes of insects and the arthrodial (joint) membranes of crustaceans. The primary difference between these cuticles is the ability to mineralize. Crustaceans' cuticles express a unique suite of proteins that provide for the nucleation and deposition of calcium carbonate. Orthologs of genes discussed in the present review were mined from a recently completed cuticular transcriptome of the crayfish, Cherax quadricarinatus, providing new insights into the nature of these proteins. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
    Integrative and Comparative Biology 06/2015; DOI:10.1093/icb/icv080
  • Thorsten Burmester
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Respiratory proteins enhance the capacity of the blood for oxygen transport and support intracellular storage and delivery of oxygen. Hemocyanin and hemoglobin are the respiratory proteins that occur in the Pancrustacea. The copper-containing hemocyanins evolved from phenoloxidases in the stem lineage of arthropods. For a long time, hemocyanins had only been known from the malacostracan crustaceans but recent studies identified hemocyanin also in Remipedia, Ostracoda, and Branchiura. Hemoglobins are common in the Branchiopoda but have also been sporadically found in other crustacean classes (Malacostraca, Copepoda, Thecostraca). Respiratory proteins had long been considered unnecessary in the hexapods because of the tracheal system. Only chironomids, some backswimmers, and the horse botfly, which all live under hypoxic conditions, were known exceptions and possess hemoglobins. However, recent data suggest that hemocyanins occur in most ametabolous and hemimetabolous insects. Phylogenetic analysis showed the hemocyanins of insects and Remipedia to be similar, suggesting a close relationship of these taxa. Hemocyanin has been lost in dragonflies, mayflies, and Eumetabola (Hemiptera + Holometabola). In cockroaches and grasshoppers, hemocyanin expression is restricted to the developing embryo while in adults oxygen is supplied solely by the tracheal system. This pattern suggests that hemocyanin was the oxygen-transport protein in the hemolymph of the last common ancestor of the pancrustaceans. The loss was probably associated with miniaturization, a period of restricted availability of oxygen, a change in life-style, or morphological changes. Once lost, hemocyanin was not regained. Some pancrustaceans also possess cellular globin genes with uncertain functions, which are expressed at low levels. When a respiratory protein was again required, hemoglobins evolved several times independently from cellular globins. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
    Integrative and Comparative Biology 06/2015; DOI:10.1093/icb/icv079
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Mixing in the ocean is opposed by the stratification of fluid, such that density of seawater increases with greater depth. The mechanisms by which mixing occurs have been attributed largely to physical processes that include atmospheric forcing, tides, and internal waves. Biogenic mixing, another potential source of mixing in the ocean, may generate significant transport of fluid during diel vertical migrations of organisms. Biogenic mixing is not limited to the near-surface or to regions of rough bottom topography, as are other physical mixing processes, and may contribute significantly to the energy budget of mixing in mid-ocean. "Fluid drift", a mechanism first described by Charles Galton Darwin, has been identified as a mechanism that allows for long-distance, vertical transport of fluid by the smallest of swimming organisms. However, little is known about how fluid drift varies with morphology and behavior of swimming organisms. We conducted numerical simulations of theoretical and experimentally measured flows of swimming medusae (Phyllorhiza sp.), and compared the volume of the drift induced by these flows. Our numerical simulations of fluid drift showed that morphology coupled with swimming behavior alters the transport of fluid both spatially and temporally. Given empirical velocity field data, the methods presented here allow us to systematically compare fluid transport across taxa, and enable us to deduce the potential of swimming organisms to influence fluid transport. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
    Integrative and Comparative Biology 06/2015; DOI:10.1093/icb/icv075
  • Integrative and Comparative Biology 06/2015; DOI:10.1093/icb/icv076
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Behavioral studies performed in natural habitats provide a context for the development of hypotheses and the design of experiments relevant both to biomechanics and to evolution. In particular, predator-prey interactions are a model system for integrative study because success or failure of predation has a direct effect on fitness and drives the evolution of specialized performance in both predator and prey. Although all predators share the goal of capturing prey, and all prey share the goal of survival, the behavior of predators and prey are diverse in nature. This article presents studies of some predator-prey interactions sharing common predation strategies that reveal general principles governing the behaviors of predator and prey, even in distantly related taxa. Studies of predator-prey interactions also reveal that maximal performance observed in a laboratory setting is not necessarily the performance that determines fitness. Thus, considering locomotion in the context of predation ecology can aid in evolutionarily relevant experimental design. Classification by strategy reveals that displaying unpredictable trajectories is a relevant anti-predator behavior in response to multiple predation strategies. A predator's perception and pursuit of prey can be affected indirectly by divergent locomotion of similar animals that share an ecosystem. Variation in speed and direction of locomotion that directly increases the unpredictability of a prey's trajectory can be increased through genetic mutation that affects locomotor patterns, musculoskeletal changes that affect maneuverability, and physical interactions between an animal and the environment. By considering the interconnectedness of ecology, physical constraints, and the evolutionary history of behavior, studies in biomechanics can be designed to inform each of these fields. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
    Integrative and Comparative Biology 06/2015; DOI:10.1093/icb/icv074
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The navigation strategies animals use to find sources of odor depend on the olfactory stimuli, the properties of flowing fluids, and the locomotory capabilities of the animal. In high Reynolds number environments, animals typically use odor-gated rheotaxis to find the source of turbulent odor plumes. This strategy succeeds because, although turbulence creates an intermittent chemical cue, the animal follows the (continuous) directional cue created by the flow that is transporting the chemical. However, in nature, animals may lose all contact with an odor plume as variations in the direction of bulk flow cause the plume to be rotated away before the animal reaches the source of the odor. Our goal was to use a mathematical model to test the hypothesis that strategies that augment odor-gated rheotaxis would be beneficial for finding the source of an odor plume in such variable flow. The model links a stochastic variable-direction odor plume with a turbulence-based intermittent chemical signal and four different movement strategies, including: odor-gated rheotaxis alone (as a control), odor-gated rheotaxis augmented by further rheotaxis in the absence of odor, odor-gated rheotaxis augmented by a random walk, and odor-gated rheotaxis augmented by movement actively guided by the heading of the flow when the odor was still present. We found that any of the three augmented strategies could improve on strict odor-gated rheotaxis. Moreover, variations in performance caused the best strategy to depend on the speed of movement of the animal and the magnitude of the variation in flow, and more subtly on the duration over which the augmented strategy was performed. For most combinations of parameters in the model, either augmenting with a random walk or following the last-known heading were the best-performing strategies. Overall, our results suggest that marine animals that rely on odor cues to navigate in turbulent environments may augment odor-gated rheotaxis with additional movements that will increase the probability of finding the sources of odors. Moreover, we believe our approach to modeling odor plumes in variable flows is a valuable step toward mathematically capturing the key conditions experienced by animals navigating on the basis of odors carried by flows. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
    Integrative and Comparative Biology 06/2015; DOI:10.1093/icb/icv073
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The North Atlantic right whale, Eubalaena glacialis (NARW), a critically endangered species that has been under intensive study for nearly four decades, provides an excellent case study for applying modern methods of conservation physiology to large whales. By combining long-term sighting histories of known individuals with physiological data from newer techniques (e.g., body condition estimated from photographs; endocrine status derived from fecal samples), physiological state and levels of stress can be estimated despite the lack of any method for nonlethal capture of large whales. Since traditional techniques for validating blood assays cannot be used in large whales, assays of fecal hormones have been validated using information on age, sex, and reproductive state derived from an extensive NARW photo-identification catalog. Using this approach, fecal glucocorticoids have been found to vary dramatically with reproductive state. It is therefore essential that glucocorticoid data be interpreted in conjunction with reproductive data. A case study correlating glucocorticoids with chronic noise is presented as an example. Keys to a successful research program for this uncatchable species have included: consistent population monitoring over decades, data-sharing across institutions, an extensive photo-identification catalog that documents individual histories, and consistent efforts at noninvasive collection of samples over years. Future research will require flexibility to adjust to changing distributions of populations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
    Integrative and Comparative Biology 06/2015; DOI:10.1093/icb/icv071
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cnidarians are considered "nerve net animals" even though their nervous systems include various forms of condensation and centralization. Yet, their broad, two-dimensional muscle sheets are innervated by diffuse nerve nets. Do the motor nerve nets represent a primitive organization of multicellular nervous systems, do they represent a consequence of radial symmetry, or do they offer an efficient way to innervate a broad, two-dimensional muscle sheet, in which excitation of the muscle sheet can come from multiple sites of initiation? Regarding the primitive nature of cnidarian nervous systems, distinct neuronal systems exhibit some adaptations that are well known in higher animals, such as the use of oversized neurons with increased speed of conduction, and condensation of neurites into nerve-like tracts. A comparison of neural control of two-dimensional muscle sheets in a mollusc and jellyfish suggests that a possible primitive feature of cnidarian neurons may be a lack of regional specialization into conducting and transmitting regions. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
    Integrative and Comparative Biology 06/2015; DOI:10.1093/icb/icv067
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Arthropods are the most successful group of animals, and are found in diverse habitats; they account for more than 80% of described animal species. A rigid exoskeleton is a common feature that is shared across the different groups of arthropods. The exoskeleton offers protection and is shed between developmental stages via a unique evolutionarily conserved process known as molting/ecdysis. Molting is triggered by steroid hormones, the ecdysteroids, and the regulation of their biosynthesis has long been proposed as a contributor to the success of arthropods during evolution. Nevertheless, how novelties arose that contributed to the diversifications of arthropods remain unclear. Juvenile hormones (JHs) are sequiterpenoids that were thought to be unique to insects, modulating the timing of metamorphosis in conjunction with the actions of ecdysteroids. Here, we revisit the old question of "the role that the sesquiterpenoids play in arthropod evolution" with a focus on the neglected non-insect arthropods. We hypothesize that the sesquiterpenoid, methyl farnesoate (MF), had already established regulatory functions in the last common ancestor of arthropods, and the difference in the regulation of biosynthesis and degradation of sesquiterpenoids, such as MF and JH, was another major driving force in the successful radiation of insects. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
    Integrative and Comparative Biology 06/2015; DOI:10.1093/icb/icv066
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Social behaviors are as diverse as the animals that employ them, with some behaviors, like affiliation and aggression, expressed in nearly all social species. Whether discussing a "family" of beavers or a "murder" of crows, the elaborate language we use to describe social animals immediately hints at patterns of behavior typical of each species. Neuroscience has now revealed a core network of regions of the brain that are essential for the production of social behavior. Like the behaviors themselves, neuromodulation and hormonal changes regulate the underlying neural circuits on timescales ranging from momentary events to an animal's lifetime. Dynamic and heavily interconnected social circuits provide a distinct challenge for developing a mechanistic understanding of social behavior. However, advances in neuroscience continue to generate an explanation of social behavior based on the electrical activity and synaptic connections of neurons embedded in defined neural circuits. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
    Integrative and Comparative Biology 06/2015; DOI:10.1093/icb/icv061
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In the context of global change the possible loss of biodiversity has been identified as a major concern. Biodiversity could be seriously threatened as a direct consequence of changes in availability of food, changing thermal conditions, and loss and fragmentation of habitat. Considering the magnitude of global change, an understanding of the mechanisms involved in coping with a changing environment is urgent. We explore the hypothesis that species and individuals experiencing highly variable environments are more likely to develop a wider range of responses to handle the different and unpredictable conditions imposed by global change. In the case of vertebrates, the responses to the challenges imposed by unpredictable perturbations ultimately are linked to cognitive abilities allowing the solving of problems, and the maximization of energy intake. Our models were hummingbirds, which offer a particularly compelling group in which to examine the functional and mechanistic links between behavioral and energetic strategies in individuals experiencing different degrees of social and environmental heterogeneity. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
    Integrative and Comparative Biology 06/2015; DOI:10.1093/icb/icv062
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Hypothalamic neuropeptides involved in vertebrate reproduction, gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH-I) and gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH), can vary in the abundance of immunoreactive cells as a function of the reproductive status and nest box occupation of European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris). While using the abundance of cells as an indicator of the activity of neurohormones is informative, incorporating information on cell size (readily observed using immunohistochemistry) can offer a more detailed understanding of environmentally-mediated changes in hormonal dynamics. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the size of cells' somas and the estimated concentration of peptides in cells immunoreactive (ir) for GnRH-I and GnIH would vary throughout the breeding season and as a function of nest-box status (resident or not). In the absence of a direct assay of protein, we estimated an index of the concentration of hypothalamic peptides via the relative optical density (i.e., the difference between the mean optical density and the optical density of background staining). In support of our hypothesis, we found that GnRH-I- and GnIH-ir soma size and peptide concentration changed both in males and females throughout the breeding season. Somas were largest and estimated peptide concentration was highest mid-season when compared with earlier in the season or to the non-breeding period. For nest-box residents, GnIH-ir soma size and peptide concentration were higher during the middle of the breeding season than earlier in the breeding season, although residence in the nest box was not related to GnRH-I-ir variables. Our results confirm that previously reported changes in cell abundance mimic changes we see in GnRH-I and GnIH-ir soma size and our proxy for peptide concentration. However, investigating changes in the soma of GnRH-I-ir cells revealed a peak in size during the middle of the breeding season, a change not evident when solely examining data on the abundance of cells. We also report that GnRH-I- and GnIH-ir soma size and our proxy for peptide concentration positively co-varied with each other and, in males, were positively correlated with testosterone. In summary, we offer a higher resolution of understanding of the function of GnRH-I and GnIH during the breeding period of European starlings. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
    Integrative and Comparative Biology 06/2015; DOI:10.1093/icb/icv063
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cognition and communication both can be essential for effectively navigating the social environment and thus, social dynamics could select for enhanced abilities for communication and superior cognition. Additionally, social experience can influence both the ability to communicate effectively and performance in cognitive tasks within an individual's lifetime, consistent with phenotypic plasticity in these traits. Historically, research in animal cognition and animal communication has often addressed these traits independently, despite potential commonalities in social function and underlying mechanisms of the brain. Integrating research on animal communication and cognition will provide a more comprehensive understanding of how the social environment may shape behavior and specializations of the brain for sociality through both evolutionary and developmental processes. This selective review of research on the impacts of social dynamics on cognition and communication in animals aims to highlight areas for future research at both the ultimate and proximate levels. In particular, additional work on the effects of the social environment on cognitive performance over an individual's lifetime, and comparative studies of specialized abilities for communication, should be pursued. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
    Integrative and Comparative Biology 06/2015; DOI:10.1093/icb/icv064
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Unsteady flows in the marine environment can affect the stability and locomotor costs of animals. For fish swimming at shallow depths, waves represent a form of unsteady flow. Waves consist of cyclic oscillations, during which the water moves in circular or elliptical orbits. Large gravity waves have the potential to displace fish both cyclically and in the direction of wave celerity for animals floating in the water column or holding station on the bottom. Displacement of a fish can exceed its stability control capability when the size of the wave orbit is equivalent to the size of the fish. Previous research into compensatory behaviors of fishes to waves has focused on pelagic osteichthyan fishes with laterally compressed bodies. However, dorsoventrally compressed batoid rays must also contend with waves. Examination of rays subjected to waves showed differing strategies for stability between pelagic and demersal species. Pelagic cownose rays (Rhinoptera bonasus) would glide through or be transported by waves, maintaining a positive dihedral of the wing-like pectoral fins. Demersal Atlantic stingrays (Dasyatis sabina) and freshwater rays (Potamotrygon motoro) maintained contact with the bottom and performed compensatory fin motions and body postures. The ability to limit displacement due to wave action by the demersal rays was also a function of the bottom texture. The ability of rays to maintain stability due to wave action suggests mechanisms to compensate for the velocity flux of the water impinging on the large projected area of the enlarged pectoral fins of rays. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
    Integrative and Comparative Biology 06/2015; DOI:10.1093/icb/icv059