Behavior Research Methods

Publisher: Psychonomic Society, Psychonomic Society

Description

  • Impact factor
    2.12
  • 5-year impact
    3.90
  • Cited half-life
    6.80
  • Immediacy index
    0.23
  • Eigenfactor
    0.02
  • Article influence
    1.71
  • Other titles
    Behavior research methods (Online), Behavior research methods
  • ISSN
    1554-3528
  • OCLC
    57493288
  • Material type
    Document, Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Psychonomic Society

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • On own website or institutional repository
    • Published source must be acknowledged
    • Must link to publisher version
    • Set statement to accompany deposit
    • Funder's designated repository after 12 months or as a result of legal obligation
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Knowledge of specific characteristics of verbal material is imperative in cognitive research, and this need calls for periodical updating of normative data. With this aim, and considering that the most recent Spanish-language category norms for adults date back to more than 30 years ago, and that they do not include some very common categories, a new normative study was conducted. In this study, production data for exemplars in the 56 categories of Battig and Montague (Journal of Experimental Psychology, 80, 1-46, 1969) were collected from a pool of 284 young adults who were native speakers of Spanish using an exemplar production task. With the goal of providing a useful tool for cognitive research to be conducted with Spanish-speaking samples, indices of frequency, rank, and lexical availability for the exemplars of each category are provided in a computerized database. The norms described are available for downloading as supplemental material with this article.
    Behavior Research Methods 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: A differential item functioning (DIF) decomposition model separates a testlet item DIF into two sources: item-specific differential functioning and testlet-specific differential functioning. This article provides an alternative model-building framework and estimation approach for a DIF decomposition model that was proposed by Beretvas and Walker (2012). Although their model is formulated under multilevel modeling with the restricted pseudolikelihood estimation method, our approach illustrates DIF decomposition modeling that is directly built upon the random-weights linear logistic test model framework with the marginal maximum likelihood estimation method. In addition to demonstrating our approach's performance, we provide detailed information on how to implement this new DIF decomposition model using an item response theory software program; using DIF decomposition may be challenging for practitioners, yet practical information on how to implement it has previously been unavailable in the measurement literature.
    Behavior Research Methods 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We provide a free noncommercial SPSS program that implements procedures for (a) obtaining the polychoric correlation matrix between a set of ordered categorical measures, so that it can be used as input for the SPSS factor analysis (FA) program; (b) testing the null hypothesis of zero population correlation for each element of the matrix by using appropriate simulation procedures; (c) obtaining valid and accurate confidence intervals via bootstrap resampling for those correlations found to be significant; and (d) performing, if necessary, a smoothing procedure that makes the matrix amenable to any FA estimation procedure. For the main purpose (a), the program uses a robust unified procedure that allows four different types of estimates to be obtained at the user's choice. Overall, we hope the program will be a very useful tool for the applied researcher, not only because it provides an appropriate input matrix for FA, but also because it allows the researcher to carefully check the appropriateness of the matrix for this purpose. The SPSS syntax, a short manual, and data files related to this article are available as Supplemental materials that are available for download with this article.
    Behavior Research Methods 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: For 84 unique topic-vehicle pairs (e.g., knowledge-power), participants produced associated properties for the topics (e.g., knowledge), vehicles (e.g., power), metaphors (knowledge is power), and similes (knowledge is like power). For these properties, we also obtained frequency, saliency, and connotativeness scores (i.e., how much the properties deviated from the denotative or literal meaning). In addition, we examined whether expression type (metaphor vs. simile) impacted the interpretations produced. We found that metaphors activated more salient properties than did similes, but the connotativeness levels for metaphor and simile salient properties were similar. Also, the two types of expressions did not differ across a wide range of measures collected: aptness, conventionality, familiarity, and interpretive diversity scores. Combined with the property lists, these interpretation norms constitute a thorough collection of data about metaphors and similes, employing the same topic-vehicle words, which can be used in psycholinguistic and cognitive neuroscience studies to investigate how the two types of expressions are represented and processed. These norms should be especially useful for studies that examine the online processing and interpretation of metaphors and similes, as well as for studies examining how properties related to metaphors and similes affect the interpretations produced.
    Behavior Research Methods 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Head orientation in face-to-face interactions between mothers and infants is an important component of their communicative processes. Manual coding, however, is laborious. Obtaining inter-observer reliability is difficult, with disagreements mostly being related to the on- and offsets of a limited number of orientation categories. We used a motion capture system and developed an automated method for the quantitative measurement of infant head orientation in mother--infant face-to-face-interactions. Automated motion capture systems have the potential to objectively document not only the on- and offset of behaviors, but also continuous changes. Infants wore a cap with three reflecting markers, and eight infrared cameras captured the positions of the markers. Analytic algorithms generated continuous three-dimensional descriptions of the infants' head movements. We report here on an initial feasibility study of four infants. To evaluate the effectiveness of the automated approach, we compared it to standard manual categorical coding of six infant head orientations. We found that the central reliability issue was disagreement at the boundaries of the coding categories identified by continuous automated coding versus manual coding. The automated method was both more feasible and more precise in capturing continuous small changes. The study provides evidence for the usefulness of automated measurement of infant head orientation when infants interact in relational space.
    Behavior Research Methods 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The present article introduces the multivariate Elo-type algorithm (META), which is inspired by the Elo rating system, a tool for the measurement of the performance of chess players. The META is intended for adaptive experiments with correlated traits. The relationship of the META to other existing procedures is explained, and useful variants and modifications are discussed. The META was investigated within three simulation studies. The gain in efficiency of the univariate Elo-type algorithm was compared to standard univariate procedures; the impact of using correlational information in the META was quantified; and the adaptability to learning and fatigue was investigated. Our results show that the META is a powerful tool to efficiently control task performance in a short time period and to assess correlated traits. The R code of the simulations, the implementation of the META in MATLAB, and an example of how to use the META in the context of neuroscience are provided in supplemental materials.
    Behavior Research Methods 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Research on emotional speech often requires valid stimuli for assessing perceived emotion through prosody and lexical content. To date, no comprehensive emotional speech database for Persian is officially available. The present article reports the process of designing, compiling, and evaluating a comprehensive emotional speech database for colloquial Persian. The database contains a set of 90 validated novel Persian sentences classified in five basic emotional categories (anger, disgust, fear, happiness, and sadness), as well as a neutral category. These sentences were validated in two experiments by a group of 1,126 native Persian speakers. The sentences were articulated by two native Persian speakers (one male, one female) in three conditions: (1) congruent (emotional lexical content articulated in a congruent emotional voice), (2) incongruent (neutral sentences articulated in an emotional voice), and (3) baseline (all emotional and neutral sentences articulated in neutral voice). The speech materials comprise about 470 sentences. The validity of the database was evaluated by a group of 34 native speakers in a perception test. Utterances recognized better than five times chance performance (71.4 %) were regarded as valid portrayals of the target emotions. Acoustic analysis of the valid emotional utterances revealed differences in pitch, intensity, and duration, attributes that may help listeners to correctly classify the intended emotion. The database is designed to be used as a reliable material source (for both text and speech) in future cross-cultural or cross-linguistic studies of emotional speech, and it is available for academic research purposes free of charge. To access the database, please contact the first author.
    Behavior Research Methods 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Confidence interval (CI) estimation for an effect size (ES) provides a range of possible population ESs supported by data. In this article, we investigated the noncentral t method, Bonett's method, and the bias-corrected and accelerated (BCa) bootstrap method for constructing CIs when a standardized linear contrast of means is defined as an ES. The noncentral t method assumes normality and equal variances, Bonett's method assumes only normality, and the BCa bootstrap method makes no assumptions. We simulated data for three and four groups from a variety of populations (one normal and five nonnormals) with varied variance ratios (1, 2.25, 4, 8), population ESs (0, 0.2, 0.5, 0.8), and sample size patterns (one equal and two unequal). Results showed that the noncentral method performed the best among the three methods under the joint condition of ES = 0 and equal variances. Performance of the noncentral method was comparable to that of the other two methods under (1) equal sample size, unequal weight for each group, and the last group sampled from a leptokurtic distribution, or (2) equal sample size and equal weight for all groups, when all are sampled from a normal population, or only the last group sampled from a nonnormal distribution. In the remaining conditions, Bonett's and the BCa bootstrap methods performed better than the noncentral method. The BCa bootstrap method is the method of choice when the sample size per group is 30 or more. Findings from this study have implications for simultaneous comparisons of means and of ranked means in between- and within-subjects designs.
    Behavior Research Methods 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Omnibus tests of significance in contingency tables use statistics of the chi-square type. When the null is rejected, residual analyses are conducted to identify cells in which observed frequencies differ significantly from expected frequencies. Residual analyses are thus conditioned on a significant omnibus test. Conditional approaches have been shown to substantially alter type I error rates in cases involving t tests conditional on the results of a test of equality of variances, or tests of regression coefficients conditional on the results of tests of heteroscedasticity. We show that residual analyses conditional on a significant omnibus test are also affected by this problem, yielding type I error rates that can be up to 6 times larger than nominal rates, depending on the size of the table and the form of the marginal distributions. We explored several unconditional approaches in search for a method that maintains the nominal type I error rate and found out that a bootstrap correction for multiple testing achieved this goal. The validity of this approach is documented for two-way contingency tables in the contexts of tests of independence, tests of homogeneity, and fitting psychometric functions. Computer code in MATLAB and R to conduct these analyses is provided as Supplementary Material.
    Behavior Research Methods 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Hoffman and Rovine (Behavior Research Methods, 39:101-117, 2007) have provided a very nice overview of how multilevel models can be useful to experimental psychologists. They included two illustrative examples and provided both SAS and SPSS commands for estimating the models they reported. However, upon examining the SPSS syntax for the models reported in their Table 3, we found no syntax for models 2B and 3B, both of which have heterogeneous error variances. Instead, there is syntax that estimates similar models with homogeneous error variances and a comment stating that SPSS does not allow heterogeneous errors. But that is not correct. We provide SPSS MIXED commands to estimate models 2B and 3B with heterogeneous error variances and obtain results nearly identical to those reported by Hoffman and Rovine in their Table 3. Therefore, contrary to the comment in Hoffman and Rovine's syntax file, SPSS MIXED can estimate models with heterogeneous error variances.
    Behavior Research Methods 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Working memory is an important predictor of academic performance, and of math performance in particular. Most working memory tasks depend on one-to-one administration by a testing assistant, which makes the use of such tasks in large-scale studies time-consuming and costly. Therefore, an online, self-reliant visual-spatial working memory task (the Lion game) was developed for primary school children (6-12 years of age). In two studies, the validity and reliability of the Lion game were investigated. The results from Study 1 (n = 442) indicated satisfactory six-week test-retest reliability, excellent internal consistency, and good concurrent and predictive validity. The results from Study 2 (n = 5,059) confirmed the results on the internal consistency and predictive validity of the Lion game. In addition, multilevel analysis revealed that classroom membership influenced Lion game scores. We concluded that the Lion game is a valid and reliable instrument for the online computerized and self-reliant measurement of visual-spatial working memory (i.e., updating).
    Behavior Research Methods 04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The accurate and early identification of individuals with pervasive conditions such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is crucial to ensuring that they receive appropriate and timely assistance and treatment. Heretofore, identification of such individuals has proven somewhat difficult, typically involving clinical decision making based on descriptions and observations of behavior, in conjunction with the administration of cognitive assessments. The present study reports on the use of a sensory motor battery in conjunction with a recursive partitioning computer algorithm, boosted trees, to develop a prediction heuristic for identifying individuals with ADHD. Results of the study demonstrate that this method is able to do so with accuracy rates of over 95 %, much higher than the popular logistic regression model against which it was compared. Implications of these results for practice are provided.
    Behavior Research Methods 04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We collected subjective frequency, age-of-acquisition, and imageability norms for 319 acronyms from French adults. Objective printed frequency, bigram frequency, and lengths in letters, phonemes, and syllables, as well as orthographic neighbors, were computed. The time taken to read acronyms aloud was also recorded. Correlational analyses indicated that the relations between the psycholinguistic variables were similar to those usually found for common words (e.g., highly imageable acronyms were more frequent and learned earlier in life than less imageable acronyms), but were generally weaker in the former than in the latter. Linear mixed-model analyses performed on the reading latencies revealed that the main determinants were the voicing feature of initial phonemes, the type of pronunciation of the acronyms (ambiguous vs. unambiguous, typical vs. atypical characteristics), length (number of letters and number of syllables), together with bigram frequency, printed frequency, and imageability. Both objective frequency and imageability interacted reliably with the ambiguous typical and ambiguous atypical properties. Accuracy was predicted by the number of letters and by imageability factors: More errors occurred on longer than on shorter acronyms, and also more errors on less imageable than on more imageable acronyms. The theoretical and methodological implications of the findings for the understanding of acronym reading are discussed. The entire set of norms and the acronym reading times (and accuracy scores), together with the acronym definitions, are provided as supplemental materials.
    Behavior Research Methods 04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The combination of highly controlled experimental testing and the voluntary participation of unrestrained animals has many advantages over traditional, laboratory-based learning environments in terms of animal welfare, learning speed, and resource economy. Such automatic learning environments have recently been developed for primates (Fagot & Bonté, 2010; Fagot & Paleressompoulle, 2009;) but, so far, has not been achieved with highly mobile creatures such as birds. Here, we present a novel testing environment for pigeons. Living together in small groups in outside aviaries, they can freely choose to participate in learning experiments by entering and leaving the automatic learning box at any time. At the single-access entry, they are individualized using radio frequency identification technology and then trained or tested in a stress-free and self-terminating manner. The voluntary nature of their participation according to their individual biorhythm guarantees high motivation levels and good learning and test performance. Around-the-clock access allows for massed-trials training, which in baboons has been proven to have facilitative effects on discrimination learning. The performance of 2 pigeons confirmed the advantages of the automatic learning device for birds box. The latter is the result of a development process of several years that required us to deal with and overcome a number of technical challenges: (1) mechanically controlled access to the box, (2) identification of the birds, (3) the release of a bird and, at the same time, prevention of others from entering the box, and (4) reliable functioning of the device despite long operation times and exposure to high dust loads and low temperatures.
    Behavior Research Methods 04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We describe WeaVR, a computer simulation system that takes virtual reality technology beyond specialized laboratories and research sites and makes it available in any open space, such as a gymnasium or a public park. Novel hardware and software systems enable HMD-based immersive virtual reality simulations to be conducted in any arbitrary location, with no external infrastructure and little-to-no setup or site preparation. The ability of the WeaVR system to provide realistic motion-tracked navigation for users, to improve the study of large-scale navigation, and to generate usable behavioral data is shown in three demonstrations. First, participants navigated through a full-scale virtual grocery store while physically situated in an open grass field. Trajectory data are presented for both normal tracking and for tracking during the use of redirected walking that constrained users to a predefined area. Second, users followed a straight path within a virtual world for distances of up to 2 km while walking naturally and being redirected to stay within the field, demonstrating the ability of the system to study large-scale navigation by simulating virtual worlds that are potentially unlimited in extent. Finally, the portability and pedagogical implications of this system were demonstrated by taking it to a regional high school for live use by a computer science class on their own school campus.
    Behavior Research Methods 04/2014;

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