International Journal of Fruit Science


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    International Journal of Fruit Science website
  • Other titles
    International journal of fruit science (Online), International journal of fruit science
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    Document, Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Trans-resveratrol, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and total phenolic compounds were assessed in Bolivian grape cultivars collected at high altitude valleys. The TAC of the grapes ranged from 0.8 to 22 μmol Trolox equivalents/g dry matter determined by 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid), and from 0.6 to 10 determined by the ferric reduction antioxidant power. In the present study, we observed that under certain conditions trans-resveratrol levels in Bolivian grapes are 10-fold higher than the reported data from the literature. Additionally, the temporal evolution in three different solar ultraviolet-B radiation levels was carried out to understand their effect on the oxidative processes.
    International Journal of Fruit Science 04/2014; 14(3):311-326.
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    ABSTRACT: Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae), an Asian pest of strawberries and other thin-skinned fruit, was first detected in the Americas in California in the fall of 2008, and its first discovery in Florida came on 4 August 2009 in Hillsborough Co. Although D. suzukii is now found throughout much of Florida, no commercially damaging larval infestations have been reported in fresh market strawberries. Although other drosophilids were present in surveys, only Drosophila melanogaster appears to be a formidable competitor for D. suzukii in strawberries and may prevent or even conceal economic damage in strawberries held for processing.
    International Journal of Fruit Science 01/2013; 13(1-2):67-75.
  • International Journal of Fruit Science 01/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Dr. Hollis Bowen of Texas A & M University initiated the first variety trials of rabbiteye blueberry, Vaccinium ashei Reade, at Buna and Magnolia Springs, Texas, in 1966 and 1968, respectively. Performance data by the mid-1970s led to commercial plantings and in the early 1980s the Texas Blueberry Growers Association was formed. Many of the early commercial plantings suffered from chlorosis and poor growth. Soil, leaf tissue, and water quality standards established by Stephen F. Austin State University (SFASU) provided the benchmark levels associated with good plant growth and production. The Texas Blueberry Marketing Association fractured in the 1990s and reorganized in southeast Texas with 22 growers. Several grower/packer/shipper groups exist today, as well as a viable pick-your-own, roadside, and local sales industry. Current constraints center on frost at bloom, various insect and disease issues, and market difficulties. SFA continues to evaluate new germplasm as part of the USDA's Southern Region Blueberry Germplasm Evaluation Program, and several advanced selections are under consideration for release.
    International Journal of Fruit Science 01/2012; 12:92-99.
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    ABSTRACT: Flowering and ripening times were recorded for the southern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) cultivars Emerald, O'Neal, and Star, along with the newer University of Georgia releases ‘Camellia’, ‘Rebel’, ‘Southern Splendour’, and ‘Suziblue’ over several years at three locations in Georgia. Nearby weather stations were utilized to record temperatures for calculating chill hours and heat units during each of the years. These data were used to calculate fruit development period for the different cultivars as a function of real time (days) and thermal time (heat units). Depending on cultivar and chill hours at a location, flowering time varied as much as 29 days from year to year. Overall, ‘Emerald’ was the earliest flowering, followed by ‘Rebel’. ‘Camellia’ was the latest to flower among the cultivars. Average fruit development period for the cultivars were: Southern Splendour, 56.2 days; Rebel, 65.3 days; Suziblue, 65.5 days; Star, 67.1 days; Camellia, 68.8 days; O'Neal, 71.9 days; and Emerald, 82.8 days. The shortened fruit development period of ‘Southern Splendour’ resulted in a ripening time similar to ‘Rebel’ and ‘Star’, even though flowering time of ‘Southern Splendour’ was often several days later. Using heat units instead of days did not greatly reduce the coefficient of variation associated with fruit development period. However, the mean absolute and maximum difference between observed and predicted time to ripening was improved for most cultivars when heat units were used. These data should be useful in estimating how these blueberry cultivars will perform under diverse environments.
    International Journal of Fruit Science 01/2012; 12:249-255.
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    ABSTRACT: Because of their recognized health benefits, there has been increased demand and consumption of blueberries in recent years. Great strides have been made in blueberry cultivar development since its domestication using traditional breeding approaches. However, genomic tools that could be used to hasten improvement are lacking. The aim of our Specialty Crop Research Initiative project, funded at the end of 2008, is to develop genomic tools for molecular breeding and assessing genetic diversity of blueberry. Marker-assisted breeding would be particularly useful for combining traits for climatic adaptation with those for improved fruit and nutritional quality in highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum). Genomic resources being developed include expressed sequence tag libraries, expressed sequence tag-based molecular markers, and genetic linkage maps. Transcriptome sequences have been generated from fruit at different stages of development, flower buds at different stages of cold acclimation, and leaves by 454 sequencing. About 600,000 sequences have been assembled into approximately 15,000 contigs. Markers derived from expressed sequence tags (simple sequence repeats and expressed sequence tag-polymerase chain reaction markers) are being used to identify quantitative trait loci associated with cold hardiness, chilling requirement, and fruit quality traits, in studies of genetic diversity, spatial genetic structure, and gene flow in the wild lowbush blueberry (V. angustifolium), and to construct a phylogenetic tree of Vaccinium species in the section Cyanococcus. Availability of these genomic tools will allow future advances, such as the development of a blueberry microarray to facilitate studying gene expression and the use of marker-assisted breeding.
    International Journal of Fruit Science 01/2012; 12:276-287.
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    ABSTRACT: The All About Blueberries Community of Practice (CoP) is being built to guide blueberry producers in the southeastern region of the United States in methods to maximize productivity, decrease production costs, and increase the marketability of their crops. A CoP is defined as blueberry producers—both backyard and commercial—distributors and consumers, both adult and youth. The CoP is incorporating the best existing extension publications and developing new research-based extension recommendations related to blueberry production and consumption. The primary goal is to increase blueberry production and consumption of blueberries. The general public is inundated with information via the World-Wide Web. According to a survey by, 132,469 websites were added each day in 2009. The number of active websites increased by more than 300% between 2005 and 2009. For this project, Google alerts are being used to notify the CoP of blueberry information as it is posted online. The information is then summarized and posted to a WordPress blog. Postings on the blog are automatically posted to the Facebook fan page and then to a Twitter feed. All of these resources are free to use and free to access. The consumer audience prefers to receive information via a variety of channels, and this allows for optimizing the reach of the project. After the launch of the All About Blueberries site on the website, the CoP will transition to sharing the websites posted online as the primary resource of information. The CoP's goal is to build credibility as expert sources of information via these social networking tools and increase traffic to the website when it is published.
    International Journal of Fruit Science 01/2012; 12:342-349.
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    ABSTRACT: Proximally growing individuals of wild, lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium Ait.) vary widely in yield despite being grown under conditions in which environmental heterogeneity is minimized by cultivation practices. We recently established that the relative self-fertility of the bearing plant is a significant predictor of its outcross yield. Further, although the species has historically been characterized as largely self-infertile, we, and others, have documented large variation in this trait among individuals within fields, and, thus, relative self-fertility stands as a partial explanation of yield variation in addition to other genetic factors, such as significant general and specific combining abilities. Here, we extend our scope by experimentally addressing whether pollen neighborhood affects yield. Lowbush blueberry is not sown, rather individuals have colonized fields by natural processes. Commercial fields of lowbush are generally pollinated by rented honey bees, which tend to pollinate nearby flowers. Our hypothesis is that clones may have become situated in differentially suitable pollen environments, at least partly explaining yield differences. We identified two high and two low natural yielders from each of two managed fields and collected pollen mixes from five donors surrounding each (n = 8). Under field conditions, each recipient received four pollination treatments including its' own neighborhood and the other three donor neighborhoods within the same field. Results showed that one of the low producers in each field had significantly higher yields when pollinated by any but their own neighborhood, thus substantiating our hypothesis that pollen neighborhood has an effect on yield.
    International Journal of Fruit Science 01/2012; 12:65-74.
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    ABSTRACT: Trunk infusion of peach with propiconazole has been suggested as a potential strategy to protect roots from colonization by Armillaria species. In the present study, we investigated the persistence of propiconazole in peach roots following fall infusions and its potential for Armillaria root rot control in a commercial peach orchard. Four 12-year-old trees were infused with either 2 liters of a propiconazole solution at 0.4 mg ml or water in September 2007. Bark tissue collected from primary roots of propiconazole-infused trees 48 hr and 6 and 12 months after infusion and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy contained 6.4, 1.4, and 0.9 μg propiconazole per gram fresh bark, respectively. Asymptomatic trees adjacent to trees that had died from Armillaria root rot (protective treatment) and symptomatic but alive trees (curative treatment) were infused with 1 liter of a propiconazole solution (0.4 mg ml) in spring and fall of 2008 and 2009 at a commercial peach orchard planted in 2005. Trees were rated for Armillaria root rot severity 6, 12, 24, and 36 months post-infusion. In the protective treatment, the survival rate in both non-infused and infused trees was 80% 36 months post-infusion. However, more (60%) of the propiconazole-infused trees remained asymptomatic compared to the control trees (30%). A significant difference was observed between the non-infused and propiconazole-infused trees following curative treatment. None of the control trees were alive after 36 months compared to 40% of propiconazole-infused trees. We conclude that fall infusion of peripheral trees of infection centers with propiconazole can slow the expansion of Armillaria root rot infection centers in commercial peach orchards.
    International Journal of Fruit Science 01/2012; 12(4):437-449.
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    ABSTRACT: The tetraploid species in Vaccinium section Cyanococcus and tetraploid V. uliginosum in section Vaccinium are autotetraploid. The same is probably true of the tetraploid species in other sections of the genus. Chromosome pairing at metaphase I in these species is normally regular and bivalent, but each gamete contains two homologous chromosomes for each of the 12 basic chromosome types (x = 12 in Vaccinium). Thus, F1 hybrids between tetraploid plants from different Vaccinium sections can have regular bivalent chromosome pairing during meiosis and high fertility, even though diploid hybrids involving the same sections are highly sterile. Such fertile tetraploid hybrids are called amphidiploids. Amphidiploidy can give rise to new species; several important crop species are domesticated amphidiploids. The conditions for amphidiploid formation are narrow. The two species that hybridize must be divergent enough to insure faithful homologous bivalent chromosome pairing in the hybrid, where each bivalent consists of chromosomes derived from the same parent species. However, the parent species must be closely enough related to permit formation of vigorous hybrids. The first indication that amphidiploidy could be useful in blueberry breeding was a report by Rousi in 1963 of vigorous, fertile hybrids between tetraploid V. uliginosum (section Vaccinium) and tetraploid V. corymbosum (section Cyanococcus). In Florida, crosses of colchicine-induced tetraploid V. arboreum (section Batodendron) with tetraploid highbush cultivars and with tetraploid Florida V. myrsinites (section Cyanococcus) indicate that Vaccinium sections Batodendron and Cyanococcus also have the right degree of divergence to produce vigorous, fertile tetraploid hybrids. The feasibility of producing other intersectional tetraploid combinations in Vaccinium, and the vigor and fertility of the hybrids, can best be determined by trial and error.
    International Journal of Fruit Science 01/2012; 12:269-275.
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    ABSTRACT: Four rates of gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) were compared at two commercial wild lowbush blueberry fields (Addison and Belfast, ME) to determine the most suitable rate for increasing blueberry nutrient uptake under Maine soil conditions. Gypsum treatments (1,121, 2,242, 3,363, or 4,484 kg·ha) were compared to diammonium phosphate (DAP; 448 kg·ha) and a control. Gypsum and diammonium phosphate were applied pre-emergent in May 2009 to 0.9 m × 15 m plots arranged in a randomized complete block design with six blocks in each field. Composite leaf and soil samples were collected in July 2009 and analyzed for nutrient concentrations. Within each treatment plot, stems from four randomly placed 0.023 m quadrats were collected in October 2009 for stem length, branching, and flower bud measurements. Soil Ca and S concentrations were increased by gypsum at both fields. Gypsum increased leaf N and P concentrations only at the field that was deficient in these nutrients (Addison). Diammonium phosphate increased leaf N and P concentrations compared to the controls at both fields. Gypsum at 2,242 kg·ha or higher corrected P deficiency; but only the 3,363 kg·ha and 4,484 kg·ha rates corrected leaf N deficiency. At Belfast, diammonium phosphate did not increase flower bud density or yield. At the deficient Addison field, a lower rate of gypsum (3,363 kg·ha) than that recommended for Canadian soils (4,000 kg/ha) was effective in correcting leaf N and P deficiency. Flower bud density and yield were raised by diammonium phosphate but not by any of the gypsum treatments.
    International Journal of Fruit Science 01/2012; 12:23-34.
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    ABSTRACT: Gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) was evaluated as a single pre-emergent application (4,482 kg/ha) or a split application (2,242 kg/ha pre-emergent and 2,242 kg/ha 2 weeks later) for its effect on soil nutrient release, nutrient uptake, and plant growth at two commercial lowbush blueberry fields (Clary Hill and Marshville, Maine). Gypsum applications were compared to diammonium phosphate (448 kg/ha) and a control using 0.9 m × 15 m plots arranged in a randomized complete block design with six blocks. Composite leaf and soil samples were collected within each treatment plot in July 2009 and analyzed for nutrient concentrations. Within each treatment plot, stems from four randomly placed 0.023 m quadrats were collected in October 2009 for stem length, branching, and flower bud measurements. Gypsum raised soil Ca and S concentrations at both fields compared to diammonium phosphate and the control. One of the fields (Marshville) was deficient in leaf N and P. Diammonium phosphate raised leaf N and P concentrations compared to the controls at both fields; but gypsum (single or split application) raised leaf N and P only at the deficient Marshville field. Diammonium phosphate increased stem branching, number of branches, length of branched stems, and average stem length at both fields. Gypsum treatments did not affect stem characteristics at either field except for stem branching, which was raised by the split application at the deficient Marshville field. Blueberry yield was increased by diammonium phosphate at Clary Hill and Marshville by 57 and 117%, respectively, compared to the control. Neither of the gypsum treatments increased yield. A split application of gypsum was not more effective than a single application.
    International Journal of Fruit Science 01/2012; 12:35-47.
  • International Journal of Fruit Science 01/2012; 12(4):437.
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    ABSTRACT: The influence of cluster exposure to sunlight on fruit composition of ‘Norton’ grapes was studied. Three exposure levels, such as fully exposed, partly exposed, and fully shaded, were established by canopy management practices, such as shoot positioning, shoot thinning, and leaf removal. Row orientation significantly impacted fruit composition with east west orientation and resulted in high total soluble solids, anthocyanin, and tannin content. Titratable acidity, total phenol, and juice potassium was highest in vines planted in north south row orientation. Fully shaded clusters had the lowest total soluble solids, lower glucose and fructose content, and highest juice potassium and malic acid content. Fully exposed clusters displayed lowest titratable acidity. Fully exposed clusters on the west and south side of the canopy received photosynthetically active radiation of more than 1,100 μ mole m sec, while partly exposed and fully shaded clusters received less than 10% of total photosynthetically active radiation at solar noon. Berries on fully exposed clusters exhibited a temperature that was about 10–15°F higher than air temperature, while fully shaded clusters were about 1–2°F higher than air temperature.
    International Journal of Fruit Science 01/2012; 12(4):410-426.