American journal of pharmaceutical education

Publisher: American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy

Journal description

Current impact factor: 1.21

Impact Factor Rankings

Additional details

5-year impact 1.30
Cited half-life 4.80
Immediacy index 0.29
Eigenfactor 0.00
Article influence 0.16
Other titles American journal of pharmaceutical education (Online), American journal of pharmaceutical education
ISSN 1553-6467
OCLC 56569398
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective. To develop and implement a capstone course that would allow students to reflect on their development as a professional, assess and share their achievement of the college's outcomes, complete a professional portfolio, establish a continuing professional development plan, and prepare to enter the pharmacy profession. Design. Students were required to complete a hybrid course built around 4 online and inclass projects during the final semester of the curriculum. Assessment. Faculty used direct measures of learning, such as reading student portfolios and program outcome reflections, evaluating professional development plans, and directly observing each student in a video presentation. All projects were evaluated using standardized rubrics. Since 2012, all graduating students met the course's minimum performance requirements. Conclusion. The course provided an opportunity for student-based summative evaluation, direct observation of student skills, and documentation of outcome completion as a means of evaluating readiness to enter the profession.
    American journal of pharmaceutical education 02/2015; 79(1):14. DOI:10.5688/ajpe79114
  • American journal of pharmaceutical education 02/2015; 79(1):01. DOI:10.5688/ajpe79101
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    ABSTRACT: Objective. To determine the quality of sleep among pharmacy students in the didactic portion of the curriculum at one school of pharmacy. Methods. The study consisted of an anonymous, voluntary survey that included the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), a self-rated instrument that measures sleep habits for a month. Results. The survey was completed by 253 students. Students in the lower grade point average (GPA) category had higher scores on 2 of 7 components of the PSQI and on the global score. Poor sleep quality, indicated by a global PSQI score of greater than 5, was reported by 140 students. The rate of poor sleeping was higher among students in the lower GPA category. Conclusion. Poor sleep quality was pervasive among surveyed pharmacy students in the didactic portion of the pharmacy school curriculum, especially among those with lower GPAs.
    American journal of pharmaceutical education 02/2015; 79(1):09. DOI:10.5688/ajpe79109
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    ABSTRACT: Objective. To explore what career advisors at secondary schools (high schools) in New Zealand know about the pharmacy profession, how they obtain that knowledge, and what their potential influence is on students' decisions to study pharmacy. Methods. This study employed a cross sectional questionnaire design. A postal questionnaire was sent to 250 randomly selected secondary schools in New Zealand. Results. The response rate was 112/248 (45%). Responding career advisors were familiar with many of the roles of pharmacists (mean knowledge score 11.5 out of 16). Over 90% of career advisors were familiar with the roles of pharmacists in the community setting; however, many had a poorer understanding of other pharmacist roles. One suggestion for improving the promotion of pharmacy within secondary schools was a greater involvement of pharmacists and pharmacy students in the promotion of pharmacy as a profession. Conclusion. Career advisors need a broader understanding of the potential roles of pharmacists. Increasing contact from practicing pharmacists and undergraduate pharmacy students are potential ways of increasing student interest in pharmacy.
    American journal of pharmaceutical education 02/2015; 79(1):07. DOI:10.5688/ajpe79107
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    ABSTRACT: Objective. To evaluate the implementation of an integrated medicinal chemistry/pharmacology course sequence and its alignment with a therapeutics series. Design. Each topic was divided into modules consisting of 2-hour blocks, and the content was integrated and aligned with the therapeutics series. Recitation sessions emphasizing application skills in an interactive environment followed each of three 2-hour blocks. To ensure that students achieved competency in each unit, students failing any unit examination were encouraged to undergo remediation. Assessment. Student feedback was collected by an independent researcher through social media and focus groups and relayed anonymously to course directors for midcourse improvements. Responses from surveys, interviews, and student ratings of faculty members and of courses were used to implement changes for future editions of the courses. Conclusion. The majority of students and faculty members felt the integration and alignment processes were beneficial changes to the curriculum. Elements of the new sequence, including remediation, were viewed positively by students and faculty members as well.
    American journal of pharmaceutical education 02/2015; 79(1):13. DOI:10.5688/ajpe79113
  • American journal of pharmaceutical education 02/2015; 79(1):03. DOI:10.5688/ajpe79103
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    ABSTRACT: Objective. To qualitatively analyze free-text responses gathered as part of a previously published survey in order to systematically identify common concerns facing pharmacy experiential education (EE) programs. Methods. In 2011, EE directors at all 118 accredited pharmacy schools in the US were asked in a survey to describe the most pressing issues facing their programs. Investigators performed qualitative, thematic analysis of responses and compared results against demographic data (institution type, class size, number of practice sites, number and type of EE faculty member/staff). Expert and novice investigators identified common themes via an iterative process. To check validity, additional expert and novice reviewers independently coded responses. The Cohen kappa coefficient was calculated and showed good agreement between investigators and reviewers. Results. Seventy-eight responses were received (66% response rate) representing 75% of publicly funded institutions and 71% of schools with class sizes 51-150. Themes identified as common concerns were site capacity, workload/financial support, quality assurance, preceptor development, preceptor stipends, assessment, onboarding, and support/recognition from administration. Good agreement (mean percent agreement 93%, ƙ range=0.59-0.92) was found between investigators and reviewers. Conclusion. Site capacity for student placements continues to be the foremost concern for many experiential education programs. New concerns about preceptor development and procedures for placing and orienting students at individual practice sites (ie, "onboarding") have emerged and must be addressed as new accreditation standards are implemented.
    American journal of pharmaceutical education 02/2015; 79(1):06. DOI:10.5688/ajpe79106
  • American journal of pharmaceutical education 02/2015; 79(1):02. DOI:10.5688/ajpe79102
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    ABSTRACT: Objective. To determine if the process-oriented guided inquiry learning (POGIL) teaching strategy improves student performance and engages higher-level thinking skills of first-year pharmacy students in an Introduction to Pharmaceutical Sciences course. Design. Overall examination scores and scores on questions categorized as requiring either higher-level or lower-level thinking skills were compared in the same course taught over 3 years using traditional lecture methods vs the POGIL strategy. Student perceptions of the latter teaching strategy were also evaluated. Assessment. Overall mean examination scores increased significantly when POGIL was implemented. Performance on questions requiring higher-level thinking skills was significantly higher, whereas performance on questions requiring lower-level thinking skills was unchanged when the POGIL strategy was used. Student feedback on use of this teaching strategy was positive. Conclusion. The use of the POGIL strategy increased student overall performance on examinations, improved higher-level thinking skills, and provided an interactive class setting.
    American journal of pharmaceutical education 02/2015; 79(1):11. DOI:10.5688/ajpe79111
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    ABSTRACT: Objective. To determine if a diabetes management exercise would change pharmacy students' fear and perceived pain associated with injection and fingertip lancing. Methods. Before and after a 1-week experiential exercise of living with diabetes, students completed questionnaires measuring fear of injection and self-testing and recorded the level of perceived pain associated with injection and fingertip lancing. Anticipated (baseline) and experienced (follow-up) scores were compared. Results. Forty students returned both baseline and follow-up survey instruments. Reported levels of fear decreased significantly for self-injection (p<0.0001) and self-testing (p=0.0089) after the exercise. Experienced pain was also significantly lower than anticipated pain for both injection (p<0.0001) and fingertip lancing (p=0.013). Experienced pain of injection was significantly lower than fingertip lancing (p=0.017). Conclusion. Participation in the exercise significantly reduced pharmacy students' fear and perceived pain associated with injection and fingertip lancing. Students can use information gained from their experiences when helping patients manage diabetes.
    American journal of pharmaceutical education 02/2015; 79(1):05. DOI:10.5688/ajpe79105
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    ABSTRACT: Scholarship has long been a basic expectation of faculty members at institutions of higher learning in the United States and elsewhere. This expectation is no less assumed in academic pharmacy. A number of organizations have verbalized and enforced this precept over the years.(1-3) For example, this expectation is spoken to directly in the American Council for Pharmacy Education's Accreditation Standards and Guidelines.(4) This expectation is further emphasized in the draft document of the accreditation standards to be implemented in 2016, in Standard 20. Specifically, Element 20.2 states: "The college or school must create an environment that both requires and promotes scholarship, and must also develop mechanisms to assess both the quantity and quality of faculty scholarly productivity."(5) The successful pursuit of scholarship by clinical faculty members (those engaged in both clinical practice and teaching, without regard to tenure or clinical track status) is challenging. (6-10) Thus, faculty member job descriptions or models should be designed so clinical faculty members can successfully meet all academic job expectations, including productive and meaningful scholarship. In 2012, an AACP Section of Teachers of Pharmacy Practice task force was charged with examining this issue and providing recommendations for models for clinical faculty members that would allow the successful pursuit of scholarship. The task force gathered information relating to the current state of affairs at a number of colleges and reviewed relevant literature. This information, along with personal experiences and much discussion and contemplation, led to some general observations as well as specific recommendations. This paper reiterates the task force's observations and recommendations and provides further detail regarding our interpretation of the findings and basis for the eventual recommendations to the section.
    American journal of pharmaceutical education 02/2015; 79(1):04. DOI:10.5688/ajpe79104
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    ABSTRACT: Objective. To determine whether national educational outcomes, course objectives, and classroom assessments for 2 therapeutics courses were aligned for curricular content and cognitive processes, and if they included higher-order thinking. Method. Document analysis and student focus groups were used. Outcomes, objectives, and assessment tasks were matched for specific therapeutics content and cognitive processes. Anderson and Krathwohl's Taxonomy was used to define higher-order thinking. Students discussed whether assessments tested objectives and described their thinking when responding to assessments. Results. There were 7 outcomes, 31 objectives, and 412 assessment tasks. The alignment for content and cognitive processes was not satisfactory. Twelve students participated in the focus groups. Students thought more short-answer questions than multiple choice questions matched the objectives for content and required higher-order thinking. Conclusion. The alignment analysis provided data that could be used to reveal and strengthen the enacted curriculum and improve student learning.
    American journal of pharmaceutical education 02/2015; 79(1):10. DOI:10.5688/ajpe79110
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    ABSTRACT: A review of the literature on the effectiveness of educational technologies to teach patient care skills to pharmacy students was conducted. Nineteen articles met inclusion criteria for the review. Seven of the articles included computer-aided instruction, 4 utilized human-patient simulation, 1 used both computer-aided instruction and human-patient simulation, and 7 utilized virtual patients. Educational technology was employed with more than 2700 students at 12 colleges and schools of pharmacy in courses including pharmacotherapeutics, skills and patient care laboratories, drug diversion, and advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) orientation. Students who learned by means of human-patient simulation and virtual patients reported enjoying the learning activity, whereas the results with computer-aided instruction were mixed. Moreover, the effect on learning was significant in the human-patient simulation and virtual patient studies, while conflicting data emerged on the effectiveness of computer-aided instruction.
    American journal of pharmaceutical education 01/2015; 79(1):Article 15. DOI:10.5688/ajpe79115
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    ABSTRACT: Objective. To design and assess a horizontally integrated biological sciences course sequence and to determine its effectiveness in imparting the foundational science knowledge necessary to successfully progress through the pharmacy school curriculum and produce competent pharmacy school graduates. Design. A two semester course sequence integrated principles from several basic science disciplines: biochemistry, molecular biology, cellular biology, anatomy, physiology, and pathophysiology. Each is a 5-credit course taught 5 days per week with 50-minute class periods. Assessment. Achievement of outcomes was determined by course examinations, student lecture, and an Annual Skills Mastery Assessment. The NAPLEX results were used as an indicator of competency to practice pharmacy. Conclusion. Students achieved course objectives and program level outcomes. The Biological Sciences Integrated course sequence was successful in imparting the foundational basic science knowledge required to progress through the pharmacy program and to pass the NAPLEX. The percentage of WUSOP students who passed the NAPLEX was not statistically different from the national percentage.
    American journal of pharmaceutical education 01/2015; ajpe4938R2(in process).
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    ABSTRACT: Objective. To design and implement a small-group assignment on current event, nonprescription drug therapy questions in a self-care course, and to evaluate student performance in predefined areas. Design. Students self-identified a current clinical question in nonprescription therapy, searched primary literature, and presented their findings to peers in class. Assessment. Students were evaluated using a grading rubric on communication skills, ability to retrieve and analyze biomedical literature, and ability to formulate and defend an evidence-based recommendation. Overall, students performed well in all competencies, with grades ranging from 84% to 100% (median=92%). Faculty members completing a postassignment survey gave positive feedback regarding the educational value of the assignment and the ease of use of the designed rubric. Conclusion. A course assignment that involved peer-to-peer presentations and dealt exclusively with applicable, relevant, clinical questions regarding nonprescription drug therapy gave students a novel opportunity to practice drug information skills.
    American journal of pharmaceutical education 12/2014; 78(10):193. DOI:10.5688/ajpe7810193
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    ABSTRACT: Objective. To design and evaluate a doctor of pharmacy course exploring disease states commonly encountered in ambulatory care, while applying literature to clinical practice and promoting a continual learning mindset. Design. This elective incorporated a learner-centered teaching approach. Each week, 2 groups of students were assigned a clinical trial to present to their peers. The focus was on clinical application and impact, rather than literature evaluation. A social networking group on Facebook was used to expose students to pharmacy information outside the classroom. Assessment. Student grades were determined by multiple activities: presentations, participation and moderation of the Facebook group, class participation, quiz scores, and quiz question development. Course evaluations served as a qualitative assessment of student learning and perceptions, quizzes were the most objective assessment of student learning, and presentation evaluations were the most directed assessment of course goals. Conclusion. This elective was an innovative approach to teaching ambulatory care that effectively filled a curricular void. Successful attainment of the primary course goals and objectives was demonstrated through course evaluations, surveys, and quiz and presentation scores.
    American journal of pharmaceutical education 12/2014; 78(10):183. DOI:10.5688/ajpe7810183
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    ABSTRACT: To examine relationships among students' Pre-NAPLEX scores and prepharmacy, pharmacy school, and demographic variables to better understand factors that may contribute to Pre-NAPLEX performance. A retrospective review of pharmacy students' Pre-NAPLEX scores, demographics, prepharmacy factors, and pharmacy school factors was performed. Bivariate (eg, ANOVA) and correlational analyses and stepwise linear regression were conducted to examine the significance of various factors and their relationship to Pre-NAPLEX score. 168 students were included, with the majority being female (60.7%) and White (72%). Mean Pre-NAPLEX score was 68.95 ± 14.5. Non-Hispanic White students had significantly higher Pre-NAPLEX scores compared to minority students (p<0.001). Pre-NAPLEX score was correlated (p<0.001) to race/ethnicity (r=-0.341), PCAT score (r=0.272), and pharmacy school GPA (r=0.346). The regression model (adjusted R(2)=0.216; p<0.001) included pharmacy school GPA, academic probation, academic remediation, and PCAT composite. This study highlighted that select demographic, prepharmacy, and pharmacy school factors were associated with Pre-NAPLEX outcomes. Such factors may assist colleges/schools of pharmacy in identifying students who may be at risk for poorer NAPLEX performance and may need greater preparation.
    American journal of pharmaceutical education 12/2014; 78(10):181. DOI:10.5688/ajpe7810181
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    ABSTRACT: Objective. To assess the impact on student performance of increased active learning strategies in a foundational pharmacokinetics course and a clinical pharmacokinetics course over an 8-year period. Design. A foundational pharmacokinetics course with a lecture-with-active-learning (LAL) format was redesigned to a recitation-format (REC) using smaller groups of students (ie, the class divided into thirds) and eventually to a team-based learning (TBL) format. The lecture-based clinical pharmacokinetics course was redesigned to a case-based learning (CBL) format to encourage preclass preparation with class time used for application; this course format underwent minor redesigns over an 8-year period. An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was performed on examination scores in the clinical course based on foundational course format changes. End-of-semester student evaluations of the course were used as a secondary measure of impact. Assessment. The highest grades in the clinical course were associated with the TBL format within the foundational course compared to LAL format (effect size 0.78). The REC format in the foundational course compared to LAL was associated with higher performance in the clinical course (effect size 0.50). Examination performance in the clinical course had a small increase when the foundational course was transitioned from the REC format to the TBL format (effect size 0.27). There was a trend within the foundational course that overall student ratings of the course decreased with enhanced self-directed learning; there was no change in overall ratings of the clinical course. Conclusion. Increasing the amount of active learning within the foundational pharmacokinetics course increases performance in the clinical course but this increase in performance may be associated with decreases in student evaluations of the foundational course.
    American journal of pharmaceutical education 12/2014; 78(10):190. DOI:10.5688/ajpe7810190