Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B Applied Biomaterials (J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater)

Publisher: Society for Biomaterials; Nihon Baiomateriaru Gakkai; Australian Society for Biomaterials; Korean Society for Biomaterials, Wiley

Journal description

Applied Biomaterials is published as Part B of the Journal of Biomedical Materials Research, an official journal of the Society For Biomaterials, the Japanese Society for Biomaterials, the Australasian Society for Biomaterials, and the Korean Society for Biomaterials. It is a peer-reviewed journal serving the needs of biomaterials professionals who devise, promote, apply, regulate, produce, and market new biomaterials and medical devices. It is international and interdisciplinary in scope. Papers are published on device development, implant retrieval and analysis, manufacturing, regulation of devices, liability and legal issues, standards, reviews of different device areas, and clinical applications.

Current impact factor: 2.31

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2015
2011 Impact Factor 2.147

Additional details

5-year impact 2.52
Cited half-life 4.80
Immediacy index 0.26
Eigenfactor 0.02
Article influence 0.67
Website Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B: Applied Biomaterials website
Other titles Journal of biomedical materials research., Journal of biomedical materials research. Part B, Applied biomaterials, Applied biomaterials
ISSN 1552-4981
OCLC 51823311
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Wiley

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    • Publisher last contacted on 07/08/2014
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  • Classification
    ​ yellow

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Collagen vitrigel membranes are transparent biomaterials characterized by a densely organized, fibrillar nanostructure that show promise in the treatment of corneal injury and disease. In this study, the influence of different type I collagen sources and processing techniques, including acid-solubilized collagen from bovine dermis (Bov), pepsin-solubilized collagen from human fibroblast cell culture (HuCC), and ficin-solubilized collagen from recombinant human collagen expressed in tobacco leaves (rH), on the properties of the vitrigel membranes was evaluated. Postvitrification carbodiimide crosslinking (CX) was also carried out on the vitrigels from each collagen source, forming crosslinked counterparts BovXL, HuCCXL, and rHXL, respectively. Collagen membrane ultrastructure and biomaterial properties were found to rely heavily on both collagen source and crosslinking. Bov and HuCC samples showed a random fibrillar organization of collagen, whereas rH vitrigels showed remarkable regional fibril alignment. After CX, light transmission was enhanced in all groups. Denaturation temperatures after CX increased in all membranes, of which the highest increase was seen in rH (14.71°C), suggesting improved thermal stability of the collagen fibrils in the membranes. Noncrosslinked rH vitrigels may be reinforced through CX to reach levels of mechanical strength and thermal stability comparable to Bov. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B Applied Biomaterials 03/2015; DOI:10.1002/jbm.b.33381
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    ABSTRACT: The broad aim of this work was to investigate and optimize the properties of calcium phosphate bone cements (CPCs) for use in vertebroplasty to achieve effective primary fixation of spinal fractures. The incorporation of collagen, both bovine and from a marine sponge (Chondrosia reniformis), into a CPC was investigated. The biological properties of the CPC and collagen-CPC composites were assessed in vitro through the use of human bone marrow stromal cells. Cytotoxicity, proliferation, and osteoblastic differentiation were evaluated using lactate dehydrogenase, PicoGreen, and alkaline phosphatase activity assays, respectively. The addition of both types of collagen resulted in an increase in cytotoxicity, albeit not to a clinically relevant level. Cellular proliferation after 1, 7, and 14 days was unchanged. The osteogenic potential of the CPC was reduced through the addition of bovine collagen but remained unchanged in the case of the marine collagen. These findings, coupled with previous work showing that incorporation of marine collagen in this way can improve the physical properties of CPCs, suggest that such a composite may offer an alternative to CPCs in applications where low setting times and higher mechanical stability are important. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B: Applied Biomaterials Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc., 2015. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B: Applied Biomaterials Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B Applied Biomaterials 03/2015; DOI:10.1002/jbm.b.33370
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    ABSTRACT: The interaction between boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) layer and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is evaluated for the first time in this study. BNNTs layer supports the attachment and growth of MSCs and exhibits good biocompatibility with MSCs. BNNTs show high protein adsorption ability, promote the proliferation of MSCs and increase the secretion of total protein by MSCs. Especially, BNNTs enhance the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity as an early marker of osteoblasts, ALP/total protein and osteocalcin (OCN) as a late marker of osteogenic differentiation, which shows that BNNTs can enhance osteogenesis of MSCs. The release of trace boron and the stress on cells exerted by BNNTs with a fiber structure may account for the enhanced differentiation of MSCs into osteoblasts. Therefore BNNTs are potentially useful for bone regeneration in orthopedic applications. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B Applied Biomaterials 03/2015; DOI:10.1002/jbm.b.33391
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    ABSTRACT: Radiation crosslinked ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) have reduced the wear rate of the bearing surface in total joint arthroplasty and the incidence of peri-prosthetic bone loss due to wear particles. The oxidation potential afforded to the material by the trapped residual free radicals after irradiation was addressed in first generation crosslinked UHMWPEs by using thermal treatments such as annealing or melting after irradiation. Postirradiation melted crosslinked UHMWPE did not contain detectable free radicals at the time of implantation and was expected to be resistant against oxidation for the lifetime of the implants. Recent analyses of long-term retrievals showed it was possible for irradiated and melted UHMWPEs to oxidize in vivo but studies on the effects of oxidation on these materials have been limited. In this study, we determined the effects of in vitro aging on the wear and mechanical properties of irradiated and melted UHMWPE as a function of radiation dose and found that even small amount of oxidation (oxidation index of 0.1) can have detrimental effects on its mechanical properties. There was a gradual increase in the wear rate below an oxidation index of 1 and a drastic increase thereafter. Therefore, it was shown in a simulated environment that oxidation can have detrimental effects to the clinically relevant properties of irradiated and melted UHMWPEs. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B Applied Biomaterials 03/2015; DOI:10.1002/jbm.b.33368
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    ABSTRACT: In tissue engineering of cartilage, polymeric scaffolds are implanted in the damaged tissue and subjected to repeated compression loading cycles. The possibility of failure due to mechanical fatigue has not been properly addressed in these scaffolds. Nevertheless, the macroporous scaffold is susceptible to failure after repeated loading-unloading cycles. This is related to inherent discontinuities in the material due to the micropore structure of the macro-pore walls that act as stress concentration points. In this work, chondrogenic precursor cells have been seeded in poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) scaffolds with fibrin and some were submitted to free swelling culture and others to cyclic loading in a bioreactor. After cell culture, all the samples were analyzed for fatigue behavior under repeated loading-unloading cycles. Moreover, some components of the extracellular matrix (ECM) were identified. No differences were observed between samples undergoing free swelling or bioreactor loading conditions, neither respect to matrix components nor to mechanical performance to fatigue. The ECM did not achieve the desired preponderance of collagen type II over collagen type I which is considered the main characteristic of hyaline cartilage ECM. However, prediction in PCL with ECM constructs was possible up to 600 cycles, an enhanced performance when compared to previous works. PCL after cell culture presents an improved fatigue resistance, despite the fact that the measured elastic modulus at the first cycle was similar to PCL with poly(vinyl alcohol) samples. This finding suggests that fatigue analysis in tissue engineering constructs can provide additional information missed with traditional mechanical measurements. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B Applied Biomaterials 03/2015; DOI:10.1002/jbm.b.33386
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    ABSTRACT: Glutaraldehyde-fixed pericardium of animal origin is the elective material for the fabrication of bio-prosthetic valves for surgical replacement of insufficient/stenotic cardiac valves. However, the pericardial tissue employed to this aim undergoes severe calcification due to chronic inflammation resulting from a non-complete immunological compatibility of the animal-derived pericardial tissue resulting from failure to remove animal-derived xeno-antigens. In the mid/long-term, this leads to structural deterioration, mechanical failure, and prosthesis leaflets rupture, with consequent need for re-intervention. In the search for novel procedures to maximize biological compatibility of the pericardial tissue into immunocompetent background, we have recently devised a procedure to decellularize the human pericardium as an alternative to fixation with aldehydes. In the present contribution, we used this procedure to derive sheets of decellularized pig pericardium. The decellularized tissue was first tested for the presence of 1,3 α-galactose (αGal), one of the main xenoantigens involved in prosthetic valve rejection, as well as for mechanical tensile behavior and distensibility, and finally seeded with pig- and human-derived aortic valve interstitial cells. We demonstrate that the decellularization procedure removed the αGAL antigen, maintained the mechanical characteristics of the native pig pericardium, and ensured an efficient surface colonization of the tissue by animal- and human-derived aortic valve interstitial cells. This establishes, for the first time, the feasibility of fixative-free pericardial tissue seeding with valve competent cells for derivation of tissue engineered heart valve leaflets. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B Applied Biomaterials 03/2015; DOI:10.1002/jbm.b.33404
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    ABSTRACT: Percutaneous intramedullary fixation may provide an ideal method for stabilization of bone fractures, while avoiding the need for large tissue dissections. Tibiae in 18 sheep were treated with an intramedullary photodynamic bone stabilization system (PBSS) that comprised a polyethylene terephthalate (Dacron) balloon filled with a monomer, cured with visible light in situ, and then harvested at 30, 90, or 180 days. In additional 40 sheep, a midshaft tibial osteotomy was performed and stabilized with external fixators or external fixators combined with the PBSS and evaluated at 8, 12, and 26 weeks. Healing and biocompatibility were evaluated by radiographic analysis, micro-computed tomography, and histopathology. In nonfractured sheep tibiae, PBSS implants conformably filled the medullary canal, while active cortical bone remodeling and apposition of new periosteal and/or endosteal bone was observed with no significant macroscopic or microscopic observations. Fractured sheep tibiae exhibited increased bone formation inside the osteotomy gap, with no significant difference when fixation was augmented by PBSS implants. Periosteal callus size gradually decreased over time and was similar in both treatment groups. No inhibition of endosteal bone remodeling or vascularization was observed with PBSS implants. Intramedullary application of a light-curable PBSS is a biocompatible, feasible method for fracture fixation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B Applied Biomaterials 03/2015; DOI:10.1002/jbm.b.33380
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigated the corrosion of artificially aged T6 heat-treated Mg-9%Al-1%Zn (AZ91) for biomedical applications. Corrosion tests and surface analysis were completed both with and without a monolayer of mouse preosteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells cultured on the sample. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICPMS) were used to explore the corrosion processes after either 3 or 21 days of AZ91 incubation in cell culture medium (CCM). The EIS showed both the inner layer resistance (Rin ) and outer layer resistance (Rout ) were lower for samples without cells cultured on the surface at 3 days (Rin = 2.64 e4 Ω/cm(2) , Rout = 140 Ω/cm(2) ) compared to 21 days (Rin = 3.60 e4 Ω/cm(2) , Rout = 287 Ω/cm(2) ) due to precipitation of magnesium and calcium phosphates over time. Samples with preosteoblasts cultured on the surface had a slower initial corrosion (3 day, Rin = 1.88 e5 Ω/cm(2) , Rout = 1060 Ω/cm(2) ) which was observed to increase over time (21 day, Rin = 2.99 e4 Ω/cm(2) , Rout = 287 Ω/cm(2) ). Changes in the corrosion processes were thought to be related to changes in the coverage provided by the cell layer. Our results reveal that the presence of cells and biological processes are able to significantly influence the corrosion rate of AZ91. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B Applied Biomaterials 02/2015; DOI:10.1002/jbm.b.33378
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to investigate the healing process of wounded skin following the application of cyanoacrylate or a 4-(2-methacryloxyethyl) trimellitic anhydride/methyl methacrylate-tributylborane resin (4-META resin). Those materials were applied to skin wound areas in rats, and the regenerating tissues were biopsied and examined at days 1, 3, 5, 7, and 14. Paraffin-embedded specimens were sectioned and stained with hematoxylin and eosin or with Azan-Mallory stain. Sections were also immunohistochemically stained with Pan-cytokeratin and CD68 antibodies. In cyanoacrylate-treated wounds, CD68-positive cells were observed in the connective tissue and their number increased up to day 5. The wound surface was completely covered by epithelial tissue at day 14. In 4-META resin-treated wounds, CD68-positive cells appeared in the soft-tissue hybrid layer (STHL) and epithelial tissue had migrated under the STHL by day 5. The wound surface was completely covered by epithelial tissue at day 7. CD68-positive cells were distributed over the entire area of the cyanoacrylate-treated wounds, but accumulated under the STHL in the 4-META resin-treated wounds. In conclusion, the results suggest that covering skin defects with a 4-META resin is an effective strategy to promote wound healing compared to cyanoacrylate. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B Applied Biomaterials 02/2015; DOI:10.1002/jbm.b.33375
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    ABSTRACT: The biological responses of aluminum oxide (Al2 O3 ) nanoparticles (NPs) and nanowires (NWs) in cultured fibroblasts (L929) and macrophages (RAW264) were evaluated from their cytotoxicities and micromorphologic properties. Cultured cells were exposed to Al2 O3 NPs (13 nm diameter) and Al2 O3 NWs (2-6 × 200-400 nm). Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity were examined by immunostaining with fluorescence microscopy, and nanomaterial localization was studied by using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The NPs were cytotoxic and genotoxic, whereas the NWs were not. The scanning electron microscopy images showed that the NPs aggregate more on the cell surface than do the NWs. The transmission electron microscopy images showed that the NPs were internalized into the vesicle and nuclei, for both cell types. In contrast, numerous solid NWs were observed as large aggregates in vesicles, but not in nuclei. Nuclear damage was confirmed by measuring cell viability and by immunostaining for NPs. The chemical changes induced by the NPs in the vesicles or cells may cause cell damage because of their large surface area per volume. The extent of NW entrapment was not sufficient to lower the viability of either cell type. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B Applied Biomaterials 02/2015; DOI:10.1002/jbm.b.33377
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    ABSTRACT: Various synthetic bone substitutes have been developed to reconstruct bone defects. One of the most prevalent ceramics in bone treatment is hydroxyapatite (HA) that is a useful material as bone substitute, however, with a low rate of biodegradation. Its structure allows isomorphic cationic and anionic substitutions to be easily introduced, which can alter the crystallinity, morphology, biocompatibility, and osteoconductivity. The objective of this study was to investigate the in vitro and in vivo biological responses to strontium-containing nanostructured carbonated HA/sodium alginate (SrCHA) spheres (425<ϕ <600 μm) that were used for sinus lifts in rabbits using nanostructured carbonated HA/sodium alginate (CHA) as a reference. Cytocompatibility was determined using a multiparametric assay after exposing murine preosteoblasts to the extracts of these materials. Twelve male and female rabbits underwent bilateral sinus lift procedures and were divided into two groups (CHA or SrCHA) and in two experimental periods (4 and 12 weeks), for microscopic and histomorphometric analyses. The in vitro test revealed the overall viability of the cells exposed to the CHA and SrCHA extracts; thus, these extracts were considered cytocompatible, which was confirmed by three different parameters in the in vitro tests. The histological analysis showed chronic inflammation with a prevalence of macrophages around the CHA spheres after 4 weeks, and this inflammation decreased after 12 weeks. Bone formation was observed in both groups, and smaller quantities of SrCHA spheres were observed after 12 weeks, indicating greater bioresorption of SrCHA than CHA. SrCHA spheres are biocompatible and osteoconductive and undergo bioresorption earlier than CHA spheres. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B Applied Biomaterials 02/2015; DOI:10.1002/jbm.b.33392
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    ABSTRACT: The desorption electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry imaging (DESI-MSI) is known as a fast and convenient MS-based method for lipid imaging in various biological materials. Here, we applied this technique to visualize lipid distribution in a vascular graft removed from a patient's body. This is a good example of the DESI system capabilities toward imaging of interaction between artificial material and living tissues. Detailed analysis allowed for visualization of the spatial distribution of selected lipids in this implanted, artificial material. Not only DESI-MSI allowed visualization of lipid distribution in the investigated material but also enabled identification of the detected molecular species using MS/MS. Here, this technique was successfully used to evaluate the saturation and spatial distribution of endogenous lipids in the artificial vascular graft. Unambiguous identification of the lipids was done with the aid of fragmentation procedure. We also showed that various lipids localize preferably in graft material or internal plaque existing inside the graft. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B Applied Biomaterials 02/2015; DOI:10.1002/jbm.b.33385
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    ABSTRACT: Spinal fusion surgeries have a high failure rate for difficult-to-fuse patients. A piezoelectric spinal fusion implant was developed to overcome the issues with other adjunct therapies. Stacked generators were used to improve power generation at low electrical load resistances. The effects of the number of layers on average maximum power and the optimal electrical load resistance were characterized. The effects of mechanical preload, load frequency, and amplitude on maximum power and optimal electrical load resistance were also characterized. Increasing the number of layers from one to nine was found to lower the optimal electrical load resistance from 1.00 GΩ to 16.78 MΩ while maintaining maximum power generation. Mechanical preload did not have a significant effect on power output or optimal electrical load resistance. Increases in mechanical loading frequency increased average maximum power, while decreasing the optimal electrical load resistance. Increases in mechanical loading amplitude increased average maximum power output without affecting the optimal electrical load resistance. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B Applied Biomaterials 02/2015; DOI:10.1002/jbm.b.33365
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    ABSTRACT: With recent improvements to the properties of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) used in joint replacements, prosthetic knee and hip longevity may extend beyond two decades. However, it is difficult and costly to replicate such a long in vivo lifetime using clinically relevant in vitro wear testing approaches such as walking gait joint simulators. We advance a wear test intermediate in complexity between pin-on-disk and knee joint simulator tests. The test uses a surrogate contact pair, consisting of a surrogate femoral and tibial specimen that replicate the contact mechanics of any full-scale knee condyle contact pair. The method is implemented in a standard multi-directional pin-on-disk wear test machine, and we demonstrate its application via a two-million-cycle wear test of three different UHMWPE formulations. Further, we demonstrate the use of digital photography and image processing to accurately quantify fatigue damage based on the reduced transmission of light through a damage area in a UHMWPE specimen. The surrogate contact pairs replicate the knee condyle contact areas within -3% to +12%. The gravimetric wear test results reflect the dose of crosslinking radiation applied to the UHMWPE: 35 kGy yielded a wear rate of 7.4 mg/Mcycles, 55 kGy yielded 1.0 mg/Mcycles, and 75 kGy (applied to a 0.1% vitamin E stabilized UHMWPE) yielded 1.5 mg/Mcycles. A precursor to spalling fatigue is observed and precisely measured in the radiation-sterilized (35 kGy) and aged UHMWPE specimen. The presented techniques can be used to evaluate the high-cycle fatigue performance of arbitrary knee condyle contact pairs under design-specific contact stresses, using existing wear test machines. This makes the techniques more economical and well-suited to standardized comparative testing. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B Applied Biomaterials 02/2015; DOI:10.1002/jbm.b.33360
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    ABSTRACT: Ceramic-on-metal (CoM) total hip arthroplasty (THA) theoretically combines both the advantages of ceramic-on-ceramic (CoC) and metal-on-metal (MoM) bearings: negligible rupture risk of the liner with a limited ion release. As primary endpoint, we asked whether serum cobalt, chromium and molybdenum concentrations in 20 CoM-THA patients at an average of 3-years follow-up were higher than those measured in the pre-operative population and correlate with clinical/radiological parameters. As secondary endpoint, we wanted to verify whether ion levels in CoM-THA patients were different from those obtained in a similar cohort of 29 MoM-THA patients at the same average follow-up. Ion values were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry. Functional outcome was assessed with Harris Hip Score and UCLA scale. Presence of radiographic radiolucencies around the implant, and acetabular inclination angle were evaluated. Chromium and cobalt levels in CoM-THA patients were significantly higher (p < 0.001) at 3-years follow-up than before surgery. Molybdenum concentrations were not significantly different (p = 0.45). No signs of implant loosening were recorded. Functional outcome was excellent with HHS and UCLA scale rising from 50 and 3.6 pre-operatively to 90.8 and 6.3, respectively at 3-years follow-up (p < 0.001). Chromium serum levels were significantly lower in CoM-THA than in MoM-THA group (p = 0.02) while cobalt values, even if lower, did not reach statistically significance (p = 0.054). Our results show that CoM-THA patients achieve excellent clinical outcome with a limited chromium release at 3-years follow-up. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B Applied Biomaterials 02/2015; DOI:10.1002/jbm.b.33383
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    ABSTRACT: Bioresorbable implants may serve as an alternative option for the fixation of bone fractures. Because of their minor inherent mechanical properties and insufficient anchorage within bone bioresorbable implants have so far been limited to mechanically nondemanding fracture types. By briefly liquefying the surface of the biomaterial during insertion, bioresorbable implants can be ultrasonically fused with bone to improve their mechanical fixation. The objective of this study was to investigate the biomechanical fixation performance and in vivo biocompatibility of an ultrasonically fused bioresorbable polymeric pin (SonicPin). First, we biomechanically compared the fused pin with press fitted metallic and bioresorbable polymeric implants for quasi-static and fatigue strength under shear and tensile loading in a polyurethane foam model. Second, fused implants were inserted into cancellous bovine bone and tested biomechanically to verify the reproducibility of their fusion behavior. Finally, the fused pins were tested in a lapine model of femoral condyle osteotomies and were histologically examined by light and transmission electron microscopy. While comparable under static shear loads, fixation performance of ultrasonically fused pins was significantly (p = 0.001) stronger under tensile loading than press fit implants and showed no pull-out. Both bioresorbable implants withstood comparable fatigue shear strength, but less than the K-wire. In bovine bone the ultrasonic fusion process worked highly reproducible and provided consistent mechanical fixation. In vivo, the polymeric pin produced no notable foreign body reactions or resorption layers. Ultrasonic fusion of polymeric pins achieved adequate and consistent mechanical fixation with high reproducibility and exhibits good short-term resorption and biocompatibility. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B Applied Biomaterials 02/2015; DOI:10.1002/jbm.b.33382
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    ABSTRACT: Diacetyl chitin (DAC) is an acidylated chitin obtained using acetic anhydride mixed perchloric acid system. By wet spinning and weaving technique, DAC has been successfully developed into a novel absorbable surgical suture. Thanks to the unique properties of chitins, the potential application of this novel monocomponent multifilament DAC suture may break the monopoly of synthetic polymer sutures in wound closure area. In this study, DAC was synthesized and characterized by multiple approaches including elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). In addition, we performed the feasibility assessment of DAC suture (USP 2-0) as absorbable suture for wound healing. Several lines of evidences suggested that DAC suture had comparable mechanical properties as synthetic polymer sutures. Moreover, DAC suture retained approximately 63% of the original strength at 14 days and completely absorbed in 42 days with no remarkable tissue reaction in vivo. Most important of all, DAC suture significantly promoted skin regeneration with faster tissue reconstruction and higher wound breaking strength on a linear incisional wound model. All these results demonstrated the potential use of DAC suture in short- or middle-term wound healing, such as epithelial and connective tissue. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B Applied Biomaterials 02/2015; DOI:10.1002/jbm.b.33307
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    ABSTRACT: Blood serum fractions are hotly debated adjuvants in bone replacement therapies. In the present experiment, we coated demineralized bone matrices (DBM) with serum albumin and investigated stem cell attachment in vitro and bone formation in a rat calvaria defect model. In the in vitro experiments, we observed that significantly more cells adhere to the serum albumin coated DBMs at every time point. In vivo bone formation with albumin coated and uncoated DBM was monitored biweekly by computed tomography until 11 weeks postoperatively while empty defects served as controls. By the seventh week, the bone defect in the albumin group was almost completely closed (remaining defect 3.0 ± 2.3%), while uncoated DBM and unfilled control groups still had significant defects (uncoated: 40.2 ± 9.1%, control: 52.4 ± 8.9%). Higher density values were also observed in the albumin coated DBM group. In addition, the serum albumin enhanced group showed significantly higher volume of newly formed bone in the microCT analysis and produced significantly higher breaking force and stiffness compared to the uncoated grafts (peak breaking force: uncoated: 15.7 ± 4 N, albumin 46.1 ± 11 N). In conclusion, this investigation shows that implanting serum albumin coated DBM significantly reduces healing period in nonhealing defects and results in mechanically stronger bone. These results also support the idea that serum albumin coating provides a convenient milieu for stem cell function, and a much improved bone grafting success can be achieved without the use of exogenous stem cells. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B Applied Biomaterials 02/2015; DOI:10.1002/jbm.b.33359