Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B Applied Biomaterials Impact Factor & Information

Publisher: Society for Biomaterials; Nihon Baiomateriaru Gakkai; Australian Society for Biomaterials; Korean Society for Biomaterials, Wiley

Journal description

Applied Biomaterials is published as Part B of the Journal of Biomedical Materials Research, an official journal of the Society For Biomaterials, the Japanese Society for Biomaterials, the Australasian Society for Biomaterials, and the Korean Society for Biomaterials. It is a peer-reviewed journal serving the needs of biomaterials professionals who devise, promote, apply, regulate, produce, and market new biomaterials and medical devices. It is international and interdisciplinary in scope. Papers are published on device development, implant retrieval and analysis, manufacturing, regulation of devices, liability and legal issues, standards, reviews of different device areas, and clinical applications.

Current impact factor: 2.33

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2015
2013 / 2014 Impact Factor 2.328
2012 Impact Factor 2.308
2011 Impact Factor 2.147
2010 Impact Factor 2.22
2009 Impact Factor 2.185
2008 Impact Factor 2.03
2007 Impact Factor 1.933
2006 Impact Factor 1.778
2005 Impact Factor 1.621
2004 Impact Factor 1.105

Impact factor over time

Impact factor
Year

Additional details

5-year impact 2.52
Cited half-life 4.80
Immediacy index 0.26
Eigenfactor 0.02
Article influence 0.67
Website Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B: Applied Biomaterials website
Other titles Journal of biomedical materials research., Journal of biomedical materials research. Part B, Applied biomaterials, Applied biomaterials
ISSN 1552-4981
OCLC 51823311
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Wiley

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
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  • Restrictions
    • 12 months embargo
  • Conditions
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    • On author's personal website, institutional repositories, arXiv, AgEcon, PhilPapers, PubMed Central, RePEc or Social Science Research Network
    • Author's pre-print may not be updated with Publisher's Version/PDF
    • Author's pre-print must acknowledge acceptance for publication
    • Non-Commercial
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    • Publisher source must be acknowledged with citation
    • Must link to publisher version with set statement (see policy)
    • If OnlineOpen is available, BBSRC, EPSRC, MRC, NERC and STFC authors, may self-archive after 12 months
    • If OnlineOpen is available, AHRC and ESRC authors, may self-archive after 24 months
    • Publisher last contacted on 07/08/2014
    • This policy is an exception to the default policies of 'Wiley'
  • Classification
    ​ yellow

Publications in this journal

  • Sara Kaabi Falahieh Asl · Sandor Nemeth · Ming Jen Tan
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    ABSTRACT: Ceramic type coatings on metallic implants, such as calcium phosphate (Ca-P), are generally stiff and brittle, potentially leading to the early failure of the bone–implant interface. To reduce material brittleness, polyacrylic acid and carboxymethyl cellulose were used in this study to deposit two types of novel Ca-P/polymer composite coatings on AZ31 magnesium alloy using a one-step hydrothermal process. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy showed that the deposited Ca-P crystal phase and morphology could be controlled by the type and concentration of polymer used. Incorporation of polymer in the Ca-P coatings reduced the coating elastic modulus bringing it close to that of magnesium and that of human bone. Nanoindentation test results revealed significantly decreased cracking tendency with the incorporation of polymer in the Ca-P coating. Apart from mechanical improvements, the protective composite layers had also enhanced the corrosion resistance of the substrate by a factor of 1000 which is sufficient for implant application. Cell proliferation studies indicated that the composite coatings induced better cell attachment compared with the purely inorganic Ca-P coating, confirming that the obtained composite materials could be promising candidates for surface protection of magnesium for implant application with the multiple functions of corrosion protection, interfacial stress reduction, and cell attachment/cell growth promotion. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2015.
    Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B Applied Biomaterials 09/2015; DOI:10.1002/jbm.b.33505
  • Jeremy J Glynn · Casey M Jones · Deirdre E J Anderson · Dusan Pavcnik · Monica T Hinds
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic deep venous insufficiency is a debilitating disease with limited therapeutic interventions. A bioprosthetic venous valve could not only replace a diseased valve, but has the potential to fully integrate into the patient with a minimally invasive procedure. Previous work with valves constructed from small intestinal submucosa (SIS) showed improvements in patients' symptoms in clinical studies; however, substantial thickening of the implanted valve leaflets also occurred. As endothelial cells are key regulators of vascular homeostasis, their presence on the SIS valves may reduce the observed thickening. This work tested an off-the-shelf approach to capture circulating endothelial cells in vivo using biotinylated antikinase insert domain receptor antibodies in a suspended leaflet ovine model. The antibodies on SIS were oriented to promote cell capture and showed positive binding to endothelial cells in vitro; however, no differences were observed in leaflet thickness in vivo between antibody-modified and unmodified SIS. In an alternative approach, valves were pre-seeded with autologous endothelial cells and tested in vivo. Nearly all the implanted pre-seeded valves were patent and functioning; however, no statistical difference was observed in valve thickness with cell pre-seeding. Additional cell capture schemes or surface modifications should be examined to find an optimal method for encouraging SIS valve endothelialization to improve long-term valve function in vivo. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B Applied Biomaterials 08/2015; DOI:10.1002/jbm.b.33507
  • Kristan S Worthington · Luke A Wiley · Robert F Mullins · Budd A Tucker · Eric Nuxoll
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    ABSTRACT: Recent advances in drug delivery and sensing devices for in situ applications are limited by the diffusion-limiting foreign body response of fibrous encapsulation. In this study, we fabricated prevascularized synthetic device ports to help mitigate this limitation. Membranes with rectilinear arrays of square pores with widths ranging from 40 to 200 μm were created using materials (50 μm thick double-sided polished silicon) and processes (photolithography and directed reactive ion etching) common in the manufacturing of microfabricated sensors. Vascular endothelial cells responded to membrane geometry by either forming vascular tubes that extended through the pore or completely filling membrane pores after 4 days in culture. Although tube formation began to predominate overgrowth around 75 μm and continued to increase at even larger pore sizes, tubes formed at these large pore sizes were not completely round and had relatively thin walls. Thus, the optimum range of pore size for prevascularization of these membranes was estimated to be 75-100 μm. This study lays the foundation for creating a prevascularized port that can be used to reduce fibrous encapsulation and thus enhance diffusion to implanted medical devices and sensors. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B Applied Biomaterials 08/2015; DOI:10.1002/jbm.b.33506
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    ABSTRACT: Although fewer in number, M-cells are considered antigen sampling cells, acting as a gateway for antigens from the gut lumen and presenting an impressive aptitude for particle transcytosis. These features make M-cells attractive targets for oral drug delivery studies, but this has been poorly explored. New and reproducible tissue-like in vitro models for studying intestinal sampling and permeability mechanisms are needed. The combination of different cell players in such models offers improved microenvironments with higher physiologic relevance. Here, a tissue-engineered model was established, by co-culturing Caco-2 absorptive cells, HT29-MTX mucus-producing cells and Raji B lymphocytes. After 3 weeks of cell co-culture, the presence of M-like cells was evidenced by the loss of brush-border organization, detected by the lack of microvilli. The triple-culture model showed to be efficient for insulin transport, a process that was influenced by the tightness of junctions between epithelial cells and the presence of mucus and M-like cells. Ultimately, the proposed tissue-engineered model provides a more complete and reliable tool to perform drug permeability tests, as compared to traditional models, and may also find applicability as an in vitro system to study transdifferentiation mechanisms of M cells. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B Applied Biomaterials 08/2015; DOI:10.1002/jbm.b.33508
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    ABSTRACT: Bone tissue engineering using biomaterial scaffolds and culture-expanded osteoprogenitor cells has been demonstrated in several studies; however, it is not yet a clinical reality. One challenge is the optimal design of scaffolds for cell delivery and the identification of scaffold parameters that can delineate success and failure in vivo. Motivated by a previous experiment in which a batch of lyophilized collagen-hydroxyapatite (HA) scaffolds displayed modest bone formation in vivo, despite having large pores and high porosity, we began to investigate the effect of scaffold permeability on bone formation. Herein, we fabricated scaffolds with a permeability of 2.17 ± 1.63 × 10(-9) m(4) /(N s) and fourfold higher using a sacrificial gelatin porogen. Scaffolds were seeded with mouse bone marrow stromal cells carrying a fluorescent reporter for osteoblast differentiation and implanted into critical-size calvarial defects in immunodeficient mice. The porogen scaffold group containing a 1:1 ratio of solids to beads was significantly more radiopaque than the scaffold group without the bead porogen 3 weeks after implantation. Quantitative histomorphometry uncovered the same trend between the 1:1 group and scaffolds without porogen found in the radiographic data; however, this was not statistically significant here. Taken together, the X-ray and histology suggest that the 1:1 ratio of porogen to scaffold solids, resulting in a fourfold increase in permeability, may enhance bone formation when compared to scaffolds without porogen. Scaffold permeability can be a useful quality control measure before implantation and this practice should improve the consistency and efficacy of cell-based bone tissue engineering. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B Applied Biomaterials 08/2015; DOI:10.1002/jbm.b.33387
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    ABSTRACT: Chitosan-thermosensitive hydrogels present interesting features for the embolization of blood vessels, but need to be better characterized and optimized. Chitosan polymer (degree of deacetylation (DDA) of 94%) was purified and combined with Visipaque (VIS), a nonionic isotonic contrast agent composed of iodixanol. A beta-glycerolphosphate (βGP) solution was then added to induce gelation at body temperature. The gelation process was monitored by rheometry, measuring the evolution of the sample storage (G') and loss (G″) moduli as a function of VIS and βGP concentration. Adding VIS significantly slowed down gelation kinetics, but a 12% and higher βGP concentration provided a radiopaque solution, which at 37°C, gels immediately. A custom-made in vitro embolization bench test was developed to assess the gel's occlusive properties, and its injectability through a small diameter catheter was verified. Results show that the short-term occlusive properties of the gel were insufficient when using a βGP concentration of 12% w/v (about 0.4M), but that increasing the βGP to 20% (0.6M) allowed an acceleration of the gelation and the immediate blocking of flow above physiological pressure. The contrast agent was rapidly released in solution, such that it would not interfere with future follow-up imaging. In accordance with the literature data, the cytotoxicity of gel extracts increased with βGP concentration and to a lesser extent with VIS concentration. Preliminary in vivo testing showed easy injection by catheter and good visibility under fluoroscopy. These results suggest that radiopaque CH/βGP20%/VIS hydrogels present significant potential as embolizing agents for blood vessels and aneurysms. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B Applied Biomaterials 08/2015; DOI:10.1002/jbm.b.33500
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    ABSTRACT: Combinations of angiogenic growth factors have been shown to have synergistic effects on angiogenesis and natural wound healing in various animal models. Each growth factor has unique roles during angiogenesis; vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a key role during the initial step of angiogenesis, whereas PDGF functions in the maturation of blood vessels. We used a combination of three angiogenic growth factors to increase angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. We chose VEGF as a basic factor and added platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) to induce angiogenesis in three in vitro and in vivo models: 3D angiogenesis assay, 3D co-culture, and matrigel plug implantation assay. Cell proliferation was significantly higher in co-cultured cells treated with PDGF + VEGF + FGF than in the control, single, or dual combination groups. mRNA expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), von Willebrand factor (vWF), and CD105 was higher in the triple group (PDGF + VEGF + FGF) than in control, single, or dual combination groups. In the PDGF + VEGF + FGF group, the length and number of branches of spheroids was also significantly higher than in the control, single, or dual combination groups. Furthermore, in a nude mouse model, α-SMA expression was significantly higher in the PDGF + VEGF + FGF group than in other groups. In conclusion, the addition of PDGF and FGF to VEGF showed synergistic effects on angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B Applied Biomaterials 08/2015; DOI:10.1002/jbm.b.33498
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    ABSTRACT: Suture retention strength (SRS) is commonly used as a measure the ability of sutures to adhere implants to surrounding tissue. While SRS is widely employed, surprisingly its effects on graft microstructure have not been characterized. This is particularly germane to the broad utilization of electrospun implants in tissue engineering. These implants need to retain their initial nanoscale topography while simultaneously preserving clinically critical mechanical properties. We examined the suture-driven microstructural deformation of polycaprolactone electrospun to form both square and tubular SRS samples. The impact of fiber orientation (generally parallel or random orientation, orthogonally aligned) on the SRS of these vascular tissue equivalents was analyzed and compared to native and decellularized porcine vasculature. The initial state of the fiber clearly dictates the overall efficiency of scaffold utilization. SRS values for as-spun fibers at a thickness of 300 μm were found to be in the range of 1.59-4.78 N for the three orientations. Unexpectedly, random fibers provided the optimal SRS values based on both resistance to suture motion and the percentage of scaffold involvement. A "V-shaped" failure morphology is observed for both electrospun scaffolds and native tissue during SRS testing. Post-test fiber alignment in the tensile direction was visible in all initial fiber orientations similar to that of native tissue. These findings are significant as they allow us to employ new, counterintuitive biomimetic design criteria for nanofiber-based scaffolds in which reliable mechanical integration with the surrounding tissues via suture-based methods is important. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B Applied Biomaterials 08/2015; DOI:10.1002/jbm.b.33493
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    ABSTRACT: Urinary catheters expose patients to a high risk of acquiring nosocomial infections. To prevent this risk of infection, cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH), an antimicrobial enzyme able to use various oligosaccharides as electron donors to produce hydrogen peroxide using oxygen as an electron acceptor, was covalently grafted onto plasma-activated urinary polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) catheter surfaces. Successful immobilization of CDH on PDMS was confirmed by Fourier transformed-infrared spectrometry and production of H2 O2 . The CDH functionalized PDMS surfaces reduced the amount of viable Staphylococcus aureus by 60%, total biomass deposited on the surface by 30% and 70% of biofilm formation. The immobilized CDH was relatively stable in artificial urine over 16 days, retaining 20% of its initial activity. The CDH coated PDMS surface did not affect the growth and physiology of HEK 239 and RAW 264,7 mammalian cells. Therefore this new CDH functionalized catheter system shows great potential for solving the current problems associated with urinary catheters. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B Applied Biomaterials 08/2015; DOI:10.1002/jbm.b.33491
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    ABSTRACT: Cancer and the inflammatory system share a complex intertwined relationship. For instance, in response to an injury or stress, vascular endothelial cells will express cell adhesion molecules as a means of recruiting leukocytes. However, circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have been shown to highjack this expression for the adhesion and invasion during the metastatic cascade. As such, the initiation of endothelial cell inflammation, either by surgical procedures (cancer resection) or chemotherapy can inadvertently increase the metastatic potential of CTCs. Yet, systemic delivery of anti-inflammatories, which weaken the entire immune system, may not be preferred in some treatment settings. In this work, we demonstrate that a long-term releasing flavone-based polymer and subsequent nanoparticle delivery system can inhibit tumor cell adhesion, through the suppression of endothelial cell adhesion molecule expression. The degradation of a this anti-inflammatory polymer provides longer term, localized release profile of active therapeutic drug in nanoparticle form as compared with that of the free drug, permitting more targeted anti-metastatic therapies. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B Applied Biomaterials 08/2015; DOI:10.1002/jbm.b.33486
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    ABSTRACT: The population in developed countries is ageing and the number of people experiencing joint-related conditions, such as osteoarthritis, is expected to increase. Joint replacements are currently the most effective treatment for severe joint conditions and although many of these procedures are successful, infection developing after the procedure is still an issue, requiring complex and expensive revisions. Whilst incorporating a powdered antibiotic within the bone cement can reduce infection rates, the powder frequently agglomerates, resulting in poor antibiotic release characteristics and compromised mechanical performance of the cement. To overcome these issues, a novel delivery system consisting of antibiotic-loaded nano-sized liposomes was developed for inclusion into polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) bone cement. This system was tested in a commercial cement (Palacos R) and consistently delivered a higher percentage (22%) of the incorporated antibiotic when compared to the powdered antibiotic cement (9%), meaning less antibiotic needs to be incorporated than with conventional cement. The novel system resulted in a controlled and gradual release of antibiotic over a longer, 30-day period and enhanced the toughness, bending strength and Vickers hardness of the cement, without altering its polymerization or molecular structure. This new material has the potential to significantly reduce infections in cemented joint replacements leading to enhanced patient quality of life and reduced healthcare costs. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2015. © 2015 The Authors Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B: Applied Biomaterials Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B Applied Biomaterials 08/2015; DOI:10.1002/jbm.b.33488
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    ABSTRACT: Small intestine submucosa (SIS) is used as an attractive biomaterial in the field of regenerative medicine because it possesses numerous bioactive factors such as cell adhesion proteins, growth factors, and glycosaminoglycans. In most cases, SIS has been used as sheet and sponge-like forms. The goal of present study was to prepare an injectable SIS hydrogel and to examine the feasibility as an in vivo stem cell carrier of injectable SIS hydrogel form. The rat muscle-derived stem cells (rMDSCs) were simply incorporated into SIS hydrogel by mixing. The SIS hydrogel showed a porous microstructure. In vitro cytotoxicity test, attachment, and proliferation of rMDSCs on the SIS hydrogel were higher than those on tissue culture dishes. Then rMDSCs-loaded SIS hydrogel was subcutaneously injected into rats. The in vivo formed rMDSCs-loaded SIS hydrogel implant induced the ingrowth of new vessels and cell proliferation. In addition, SIS and rMDSCs suppressed macrophage-mediated inflammation. In conclusion, we confirmed that injectable SIS hydrogel could serve as a minimally invasive stem cell carrier. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B Applied Biomaterials 08/2015; DOI:10.1002/jbm.b.33504
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    ABSTRACT: AimThe present in vitro study was designed to evaluate the surface characteristics, biocompatibilities and antimicrobial effects of experimental titanium implant surfaces, coated by nanocrystalline silver, copper, and bismuth. Biocompatible and antimicrobial implant modifications could result in reduced biofilm formation on implant surfaces and therefore in less periimplant inflammation.FindingsTitanium discs (thickness 1 and 12 mm in diameter) were coated by pulsed magnetron-sputtering of nanocrystalline metals (bismuth, copper, and silver). Bismuth coatings revealed higher surface roughness values in comparison to silver and copper coatings via atomic force microscopy. Ion release after 168 h in culture medium was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and showed significant different amounts of released copper (>120 000 µg/L), silver (550 µg/L) or bismuth (80 µg/L). No cytotoxic effect on HaCaT cell proliferation was detected on the uncoated Ti/TiO2 reference surfaces, the bismuth coatings and silver coatings. In contrast, Cu-coated discs showed a strong cytotoxic effect. All three coatings exhibited antimicrobial effects by trend in the fluorometric Resazurin testing and significant localized antibacterial effects in live/dead microscopy after incubation of the specimens for 150 min in bacterial solution of S. epidermidis.Conclusions The tested metallic implant coatings (silver and bismuth) allowed surface modifications that may improve therapeutic approaches to biofilm prevention on dental implants. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2015.
    Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B Applied Biomaterials 08/2015; DOI:10.1002/jbm.b.33376
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    ABSTRACT: This study explored how periodic cathodic polarization of commercially pure titanium (cpTi) alters its electrochemical properties and biocompatibility. MC3T3-E1 preosteoblast cells were cultured directly on cpTi samples and maintained at open circuit potential (OCP) for 24 h followed by an additional 24-h sequence of periodic cathodic polarization to -1000 or -750 mV (vs. Ag/AgCl) for 1 s followed by a 5-s recovery at OCP. Control experiments were performed where the samples were maintained at OCP throughout the entire test. Subsequent electrochemical impedance spectroscopy revealed both of the periodic cathodic polarization conditions significantly reduced the polarization resistance (Rp ), while only the -1000 mV condition significantly increased the capacitance (C) as compared to the controls. Scanning electron micrographs showed that the cells were fragmented and balled up on the samples periodically shifted to -1000 mV as compared to the cells that were well spread on the controls and samples periodically shifted to -750 mV. Additionally, live/dead fluorescence microscopy revealed that periodic polarizations to -1000 mV reduced cell viability to around 12% as compared to the greater than 95% cell viability observed on the controls and samples periodically polarized to -750 mV. This work showed that periodic cathodic potential shifts can notably alter the electrochemical behavior of cpTi and the viability and morphology of cells seeded directly onto its surface. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B Applied Biomaterials 08/2015; DOI:10.1002/jbm.b.33499
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    ABSTRACT: Due to a lack of proper drug carriers to deliver treatments for mucositis, many cancer patients suffer from oral mucositis caused by chemotherapy and radiotherapy. We prepared a double-layered electrospun nanofibrous sheets composed of Eudragit and chitosan to accelerate the healing rate of oral mucous ulcer. Human growth hormone (hGH) and Eudragit in a mixture of dimethylacetamide and ethanol were co-electrospun to nanofibrous sheets. The electrospun fibrous mat was subsequently layered with chitosan by a dip-coating method. Chitosan-layered sheets showed attenuated mass erosion while uncoated sheets were instantly melted at the physiological condition. The released hGH was trapped on the chitosan layer by the ionic interaction between positively charged chitosan and negatively charged hGH, and a large number of entrapped proteins remained on the SIS membrane due to the muco-adhesive properties of chitosan. hGH-incorporated sheets significantly increased proliferation of human dermal fibroblasts. In vivo study employing oral ulcers in dogs, the ulcers dressed with chitosan-layered sheets showed enhanced wound recovery and the chitosan layers on the sheet greatly assisted prolonged recovery. Therefore, chitosan-layered Eudragit nanofibrous sheets can be potentially applied to developing muco-adhesive wound dressing materials with pH-dependent drug release by adjusting the thickness of chitosan sheath on the sheets. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B Applied Biomaterials 07/2015; DOI:10.1002/jbm.b.33487