Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B Applied Biomaterials Impact Factor & Information

Publisher: Society for Biomaterials; Nihon Baiomateriaru Gakkai; Australian Society for Biomaterials; Korean Society for Biomaterials, Wiley

Journal description

Applied Biomaterials is published as Part B of the Journal of Biomedical Materials Research, an official journal of the Society For Biomaterials, the Japanese Society for Biomaterials, the Australasian Society for Biomaterials, and the Korean Society for Biomaterials. It is a peer-reviewed journal serving the needs of biomaterials professionals who devise, promote, apply, regulate, produce, and market new biomaterials and medical devices. It is international and interdisciplinary in scope. Papers are published on device development, implant retrieval and analysis, manufacturing, regulation of devices, liability and legal issues, standards, reviews of different device areas, and clinical applications.

Current impact factor: 2.76

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2016
2014 Impact Factor 2.759
2013 Impact Factor 2.328
2012 Impact Factor 2.308
2011 Impact Factor 2.147
2010 Impact Factor 2.22
2009 Impact Factor 2.185
2008 Impact Factor 2.03
2007 Impact Factor 1.933
2006 Impact Factor 1.778
2005 Impact Factor 1.621
2004 Impact Factor 1.105

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 2.90
Cited half-life 5.80
Immediacy index 0.60
Eigenfactor 0.01
Article influence 0.67
Website Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B: Applied Biomaterials website
Other titles Journal of biomedical materials research., Journal of biomedical materials research. Part B, Applied biomaterials, Applied biomaterials
ISSN 1552-4981
OCLC 51823311
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details


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    • Publisher last contacted on 07/08/2014
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  • Classification

Publications in this journal

  • John W Durham · Matthew J Allen · Afsaneh Rabiei ·
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    ABSTRACT: Polyether ether ketone (PEEK) is a highly heat-resistant thermoplastic with excellent strength and elastic modulus similar to human bone, making it an attractive material for orthopedic implants. However, the hydrophobic surface of PEEK implants induces fibrous encapsulation which is unfavorable for stable implant anchorage. In this study, PEEK was coated via ion-beam-assisted deposition (IBAD) using a two-layer design of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) as a heat-protection layer, and hydroxyapatite (HA) as a top layer to improve osseointegration. Microstructural analysis of the coatings showed a dense, uniform columnar grain structure in the YSZ layer and no delamination from the substrate. The HA layer was found to be amorphous and free of porosities in its as-deposited state. Subsequent heat treatment via microwave energy followed by autoclaving crystallized the HA layer, confirmed by SEM and XRD analysis. An in vitro study using MC3T3 preosteoblast cells showed improved bioactivity in heat-treated sample groups. Cell proliferation, differentiation, and mineralization were analyzed by MTT assay and DNA content, osteocalcin expression, and Alizarin Red S (AR-S) content, respectively. Initial cell growth was increased, and osteogenic maturation and mineralization were accelerated most on coatings that underwent a combined microwave and autoclave heat treatment process as compared to uncoated PEEK and amorphous HA surfaces. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2015.
    Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B Applied Biomaterials 11/2015; DOI:10.1002/jbm.b.33578
  • Alexandra Partenhauser · Kesinee Netsomboon · Irene Pereira de Sousa · Flavia Laffleur · Andreas Bernkop-Schnürch ·
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    ABSTRACT: Aim: Assessment of preactivated and thiolated silicone oils as potential long-term vitreous replacement. Methods: Thioglycolic acid (TGA) and 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) were covalently coupled to amino-modified silicone oil and subsequently preactivated with 2-mercaptonicotinic acid (2-MNA). Each silicone thiomer was evaluated in view of oxidation, reductive reliquefaction, emulsification, and cytotoxicity. Results: Both thiol ligands were coupled in almost quantitative yield to the silicone oils' backbone with a total amount of thiol groups of 223 ± 25 and 219 ± 11 µmol/g for silicone-TGA and silicone-MPA, respectively. A following preactivation with 2-MNA of around 50% of all thiol groups could be achieved. Preactivated silicones showed a protection against oxidation as the viscosity of silicone-TGA and silicone-MPA after iodine treatment were two- and fourfold higher than the preactivated counterparts, respectively. The percentage of emulsification was below 8% for both preactivated silicones in comparison to control with 100% emulsification. Silicone-TGA-MNA and silicone-MPA-MNA could be aspired via a 20 G needle within 35 s and showed a reversible sol-gel transition. Conclusion: Preactivated silicone oils tackle the shortcomings of currently available silicone oils as they unite suitable handling qualities with a resistance against emulsification, which renders them promising for long-term vitreous replacement. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2015.
    Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B Applied Biomaterials 11/2015; DOI:10.1002/jbm.b.33575
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Wound-dressing materials that promote wound healing while protecting wounds from infections are advantageous for clinical applications. Hence, we developed a cholesterol-bearing pullulan (CHP) nanogel that stimulated wound healing; however, it was mechanically weak and difficult to handle. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine precisely the effects of a mechanically reinforced nanogel-crosslinked (NanoClik) membrane on wound healing. Materials and methods: NanoClik was prepared by mixing a thiol-terminated polyethylene glycol solution and an acryloyl group-modified CHP nanogel solution. A thin silicone sheet membrane, which was combined with NanoClik, was prepared. The NanoClick membranes and both positive and negative control membranes (collagen combined with silicone membrane and silicone membrane alone, respectively) were tested in vivo using a dorsal skin defect rat model. The rate and extent of wound healing was compared between groups after 7 and 14 days of implantation. Results: In the NanoClik membrane group, the wound area was significantly reduced and neoepithelialization was promoted, compared with that observed in the other groups. In addition, extension and accumulation of collagen fibers were evident in the NanoClik membrane group. Conclusion: The NanoClik membrane is a strong candidate for use as an effective and safe wound-dressing material. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2015.
    Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B Applied Biomaterials 11/2015; DOI:10.1002/jbm.b.33571
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    ABSTRACT: To precondition mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) with mechanical stimulation may enhance cell survival and functions following implantation in load bearing environment such as nucleus pulposus (NP) in intervertebral disc (IVD). In this study, preconditioning of MSCs toward NP-like cells was achieved in previously developed poly (ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) microcryogels (PMs) within a syringe-based three-dimensional (3D) culture system which provided a facile and cost-effective pressure loading approach. PMs loaded with alginate and MSCs could be incubated in a sealable syringe which could be air-compressed to apply pressure loading through a programmable syringe pump. Expression levels of chondrogenic marker genes SOX9, COL II, and ACAN were significantly upregulated in MSCs when pressure loading of 0.2 MPa or 0.8 MPa was implemented. Expression levels of COL I and COL X were downregulated when pressure loading was applied. In a nude mouse model, MSCs loaded in PMs mechanically stimulated for three days were subcutaneously injected using the same culture syringe. Three weeks postinjection, more proteoglycans (PGs) were deposited and more SOX9 and COL II but less COL I and COL X were stained in 0.2 MPa group. Furthermore, injectable MSCs-loaded PMs were utilized in an ex vivo rabbit IVD organ culture model that demonstrated the leak-proof function and enhanced cell retention of PMs assisted cell delivery to a load bearing environment for potential NP regeneration. This microcryogels-based 3D cell culture and syringe-based pressure loading system represents a novel method for 3D cell culture with mechanical stimulation for better function. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2015.
    Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B Applied Biomaterials 11/2015; DOI:10.1002/jbm.b.33509
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    ABSTRACT: The use of novel antimicrobial molecules in bone cement can improve efficiency of recuperation after arthroplasty or joint replacement surgeries, avoiding the risks associated with antibiotic resistant antimicrobial agents. Nanomaterials particularly dendrimers are particularly useful for making broad spectrum killing agents owing to their large surface areas and functionalities. Therefore, we have synthesized generation 1 quaternary ammonium dendrimer of tripropylene glycol diacrylate (TPGDA) using octyl iodide (OI) [TPGDA G1.0 (=) quaternary octyl iodide (QOI)] and capitalized on their capabilities of contact killing based mechanism. We formulated different TPGDA G1.0 (=) QOI antimicrobial agent loaded liquid component composed of methyl methacrylate monomer and N,N-dimethyl-p-toluidine coinitiator. Different polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) based experimental bone cement formulations were made and dendrimer concentration was optimized. Mechanical strength and compressive modulus of modified bone cement decreased on increasing concentrations and 10% was optimized for further analysis. The mechanical strength of bone cement yield the similar trend in wet conditions bone cement immersed in artificially created stimulated body fluids. Ten percent TPGDA G1.0 (=) QOI in bone cement was sufficient to kill gram positive and negative bacteria and its property is retained even after a period of 30 days. Thus novel dendritic structures show promise for clinical antimicrobial activity while retaining mechanical properties of bone cements. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2015.
    Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B Applied Biomaterials 11/2015; DOI:10.1002/jbm.b.33553
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    ABSTRACT: Scaffolds prepared from cholecyst and jejunum have differential immunological potential, despite similar biocompatibility, when used as subcutaneous grafts. The reason for differential immunogenicity is probably due to differences in the nature of protein composition and biomolecules in the extracellular matrices (ECMs) of source organs that are used for preparation of the scaffolds. Against this background, the present study aims to identify the extractable proteins of ECMs derived from porcine cholecyst and jejunum. The proteins were extracted and identified through a conventional database search following sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel-electrophoresis separation and mass spectroscopy. The resultant protein profile was analyzed and at least 154 proteins in cholecyst-derived extracellular matrix (CDE) and 186 proteins in jejunum-derived extracellular matrix (JDE) were identified. Both the matrices contained several extracelluar proteins including fibronectin, nidogen, decorin, and lumican that are known to participate in wound healing responses. However, the CDE had fewer cellular proteins than JDE, especially the latter contained class-I and class-II histocompatibility antigens which are incriminated as potent immunogens responsible for graft rejection. The results of the study suggested that the ECMs used for the scaffold preparation need not be "acellular" and differences in the protein composition of the ECMs might have caused the differential wound healing responses. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2015.
    Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B Applied Biomaterials 11/2015; DOI:10.1002/jbm.b.33567
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    ABSTRACT: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a valuable tool in the cross-sectional observation/analysis of three-dimensional (3-D) biological tissues, and that histological observation is important clinically. However, the resolution of the technology is approximately 10-20 μm. In this study, optical coherence microscopy (OCM), a tomographic system combining OCT technology with a microscopic technique, was constructed for observing cells individually with a resolution at the submicrometer level. Cells and 3-D tissues fabricated by cell sheet technology were observed by OCM. Importantly, the cell nuclei and cytoplasm could be clearly distinguished, and the time-dependent dynamics of cell-sheet tissues could be observed in detail. Additionally, the 3-D migration of cells in the bioengineered tissue was also detected using OCM and metal-labeled cells. Bovine aortic endothelial cells, but not NIH3T3 murine embryonic skin fibroblasts, actively migrated within the 3-D tissues. This study showed that the OCM system would be a valuable tool in the fields of cell biology, tissue engineering, and regenerative medicine. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2015.
    Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B Applied Biomaterials 11/2015; DOI:10.1002/jbm.b.33566
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, we demonstrated a natural silk fibroin protein (SFP) that was blended with a Chinese herbal extract (baicalein, BAI) to obtain an effective combination for producing electrospun nonwoven mats with anti-inflammatory and antibacterial functions. A series of SFP-based electrospun nonwoven mats with additives of varying compositions were produced and investigated. Performance comparisons showed that the SFP/polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)/BAI nonwoven mat is the optimal one. In vitro, SFP/PVP/BAI nonwoven mat is effective in inhibiting the formation of nitrite in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitrite formation in Raw 264.7 macrophages model and the growth of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). Especially in the case of SFP/PVP/BAI nonwoven mat, Bai has been proved to reach their maximum amount of releases of approximately 64.8% within 24 h of contact with water-based environment as compared to the SFP/BAI nonwoven mat (only 30.1% of release within 24 h). For in vivo experiments, a 1.2 cm × 1.2 cm wound area was created on the back of mice and seeded with 1 × 10(7) CFU/mL of S. aureus to induce an infected wound model. The experimental results show significant acceleration of the wound closure process in mice treated with SFP/PVP/BAI nonwoven mat (4 days of reduction as compared to the untreated group), reduction in infiltration of neutrophils, nitrite formation, and inhibition of growth of wound bacteria. Histological images of the group treated with SFP/PVP/BAI nonwoven mat showed a compete repair of skin hierarchy, increasing production of collagen fibers, and enhancement of angiogenesis. This may bring a better recovery of skin appearance after treatment. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2015.
    Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B Applied Biomaterials 11/2015; DOI:10.1002/jbm.b.33560
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    ABSTRACT: Genipin is a natural low-toxic cross-linker for molecules with primary amino groups, and its use with collagen and gelatin has shown a great potential in tissue engineering applications. The fabrication of scaffolds with a well-organized micro and macro topology using additive manufacturing systems requires an accurate control of working parameters, such as reaction rate, gelling time, and diffusion constant. A polymeric system of 5% w/v gelatin in PBS with 2 mg/mL collagen solutions in a 1:1 weight ratio was used as template to perform measurements varying genipin concentration in a range of 0.1-1.5% w/w with respect to gelatin. In the first part of this work, the reaction rate of the polymeric system was estimated using a new colorimetric analysis of the reaction. Then its workability time, closely related to the gelling time, was evaluated thanks to rheological analysis: finally, the quantification of static and dynamic diffusion constants of genipin across nonreacting and reacting membranes, made respectively by agarose and gelatin, was performed. It was shown that the colorimetric analysis is a good indicator of the reaction progress. The gelling time depends on the genipin concentration, but a workability window of 40 min guaranteed up to 0.5% w/w genipin. The dynamic diffusion constant of genipin in the proposed polymeric system is in the order of magnitude of 10(-7) . The obtained results indicated the possibility to use the genipin, gelatin, and collagen, in the proposed concentrations, to build well-defined hydrogel scaffolds with both extrusion-based and 3D ink-jet system. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2015.
    Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B Applied Biomaterials 11/2015; DOI:10.1002/jbm.b.33569
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    ABSTRACT: In this work, we have investigated the effects of lithium (Li) dopant at different concentrations and sintering temperatures on the physical and mechanical properties of β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP). Our results showed that Li addition at concentrations of 0.65 and 1.0 wt % inhibits the β-TCP to α-TCP phase transformation. 0.15 wt % Li addition resulted in grain growth and extensive liquid phase was formed at higher concentrations. At 1150°C, compressive strength of β-TCP increased from 138.7 ± 19.9 MPa to 170.9 ± 29.8 MPa with the addition of 0.15 wt % Li. Addition of higher amounts of Li decreased the compressive strength and the lowest compressive strength of 99.8 ± 13.7 MPa was found in samples containing 1.0 wt % Li. After 3 days of culture, osteoblast cells grew to confluence on samples containing 0.65 and 1.0 wt % Li. Cells grew to confluence on all doped samples after 11 days of culture and optical cell density was 4-5 folds higher on 0.15 and 1.0 wt % Li-doped TCP samples. Our results show that both Li content and sintering temperature have significant influence toward physicochemical and mechanical properties of β-TCP which affects the osteoblast cell-materials interaction in Li-doped TCP scaffolds. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2015.
    Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B Applied Biomaterials 11/2015; DOI:10.1002/jbm.b.33485
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    ABSTRACT: Tissue calcification is a major cause of failure of bioprosthetic heart valves. Aim of this study was to examine whether surface heparin treatment of the decellularized porcine heart valve reduces tissue calcification. Fresh porcine aortic heart valves were dissected as tissue discs and divided into four groups. Group A: controls without treatment, Group B: decellularization only, Group C: decellularization and glutaraldehyde cross-linking, Group D: decellularization and glutaraldehyde cross-linking followed by surface heparin treatment. After implantation in New Zealand White rabbits for 60 days, the explanted heart valve discs from the different study groups underwent a series of histological examinations as well as determination of calcium content by the methyl thyme phenol blue colorimetric method. Results of the explanted heart valve discs for the Von Kossa staining demonstrated that in Group A the heart valve tissue was the most severely stained with black color, whereas in Group D there was hardly any area that was stained black after implantation indicating the least tissue calcification. Furthermore, the inflammatory cells identified by the Hematoxylin-eosin staining appeared to be the least in Group D. The average tissue calcium content was highest in Group A (0.197 ± 0.115 μmol mg(-1) ), modest in Group B (0.113 ± 0.041 μmol mg(-1) ), and Group C (0.089 ± 0.049 μmol mg(-1) ), and the lowest in Group D (0.019 ± 0.019 μmol mg(-1) , p < 0.05). These results suggest that surface heparin treatment tends to reduce tissue calcification of the dellellularized porcine heart valve in a rabbit intramuscular implantation model. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2015.
    Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B Applied Biomaterials 11/2015; DOI:10.1002/jbm.b.33490
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    ABSTRACT: Bone defects resulting from trauma or infection need timely and effective treatments to restore damaged bone. Using specialized three-dimensional (3D) printing technology we have created custom 3D scaffolds of hydroxyapatite (HA)/beta-tri-calcium phosphate (β-TCP) to promote bone repair. To further enhance bone regeneration we have coated the scaffolds with dipyridamole, an agent that increases local adenosine levels by blocking cellular uptake of adenosine. Nearly 15% HA:85% β-TCP scaffolds were designed using Robocad software, fabricated using a 3D Robocasting system, and sintered at 1100°C for 4 h. Scaffolds were coated with BMP-2 (200 ng mL(-1) ), dypiridamole 100 µM or saline and implanted in C57B6 and adenosine A2A receptor knockout (A2AKO) mice with 3 mm cranial critical bone defects for 2-8 weeks. Dipyridamole release from scaffold was assayed spectrophotometrically. MicroCT and histological analysis were performed. Micro-computed tomography (microCT) showed significant bone formation and remodeling in HA/β-TCP-dipyridamole and HA/β-TCP-BMP-2 scaffolds when compared to scaffolds immersed in vehicle at 2, 4, and 8 weeks (n = 5 per group; p ≤ 0.05, p ≤ 0.05, and p ≤ 0.01, respectively). Histological analysis showed increased bone formation and a trend toward increased remodeling in HA/β-TCP- dipyridamole and HA/β-TCP-BMP-2 scaffolds. Coating scaffolds with dipyridamole did not enhance bone regeneration in A2AKO mice. In conclusion, scaffolds printed with HA/β-TCP promote bone regeneration in critical bone defects and coating these scaffolds with agents that stimulate A2A receptors and growth factors can further enhance bone regeneration. These coated scaffolds may be very useful for treating critical bone defects due to trauma, infection or other causes. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2015.
    Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B Applied Biomaterials 10/2015; DOI:10.1002/jbm.b.33561
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    ABSTRACT: Drug-infusion balloons are one of the currently used local drug delivery devices for preventing restenosis after endovascular treatments. An antiproliferative drug (paclitaxel, PAT) is infused through the balloon using a cremophor-based formulation to control restenosis. However, the major limitations of this approach are poor in vivo drug uptake and a limit in the amount of PAT delivered because of cremophor toxicity. In this study, we have investigated the use of different excipients for effectively infusing PAT out of the balloon for improved drug uptake in the tissue. The excipients include nanoparticle albumin-bound PAT (nab-PAT, a nanobiomaterial used in cancer therapy), urea (a hydrophilic agent used for faster drug transfer), iodixanol (a contrast agent used for coronary angiography), and cremophor-PAT (the most commonly used PAT formulation). An in vitro drug release, smooth muscle cell (SMC) response, endothelial cell (EC) response, and in vivo drug uptake were investigated for all the different excipients of PAT infused through the balloon. The nab-PAT was as effective as cremophor in infusing out of the balloon and inhibiting SMC growth. Also, nab-PAT showed a significantly greater amount of in vivo PAT uptake than that of cremophor-PAT. Urea and iodixanol were not effective in delivering a clinically relevant dose of PAT due to the poor solubility of PAT in these excipients. Urea eradicated all the SMCs and ECs, suggesting a toxic effect, which impedes its use in balloon-based therapy. Thus, this study demonstrated that nab-PAT is an effective formulation to locally deliver PAT through infusion balloons. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2015.
    Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B Applied Biomaterials 10/2015; DOI:10.1002/jbm.b.33564
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    ABSTRACT: This article presents successful incorporation of ibuprofen in polylactic acid (PLA) nanofibers to create scaffolds for the treatment of both acute and chronic wounds. Nanofibrous PLA scaffolds containing 10, 20, or 30 wt % ibuprofen were created and ibuprofen release profiles quantified. In vitro cytotoxicity to human epidermal keratinocytes (HEK) and human dermal fibroblasts (HDF) of the three scaffolds with varying ibuprofen concentrations were evaluated and compared to pure PLA nanofibrous scaffolds. Thereafter, scaffolds loaded with ibuprofen at the concentration that promoted human skin cell viability and proliferation (20 wt %) were evaluated in vivo in nude mice using a full thickness skin incision model to determine the ability of these scaffolds to promote skin regeneration and/or assist with scarless healing. Both acellular and HEK and HDF cell-seeded 20 wt % ibuprofen loaded nanofibrous bandages reduced wound contraction compared with wounds treated with Tegaderm™ and sterile gauze. Newly regenerated skin on wounds treated with cell-seeded 20 wt % ibuprofen bandages exhibited significantly greater blood vessel formation relative to acellular ibuprofen bandages. We have found that degradable anti-inflammatory scaffolds containing 20 wt % ibuprofen promote human skin cell viability and proliferation in vitro, reduce wound contraction in vivo, and when seeded with skin cells, also enhance new blood vessel formation. The approaches and results reported here hold promise for multiple skin tissue engineering and wound healing applications. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2015.
    Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B Applied Biomaterials 10/2015; DOI:10.1002/jbm.b.33520
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    ABSTRACT: Hypothesis: Silver-plated microneedles can be used to confirm penetration of semi-permeable membranes such as the round window membrane (RWM) by detection of voltage change at the moment of perforation. Background: The introduction of microperforations in the RWM can significantly enhance intracochlear delivery of therapeutics. However, the moment of needle penetration through the RWM cannot be reliably detected by visualization or sensation alone. We explore the ability of electrochemical detection of penetration in defining the precise instant a microneedle enters the inner ear. Methods: 0.2 mm diameter stainless steel Minutien pins were electroplated with copper, then silver. Pins were then soaked in bleach for 24 h to complete Ag/AgCl plating. Experiments were performed using a 3 mL Franz cell diffusion system with 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, and 5% saline solution in the donor chamber and artificial perilymph solution in the receptor chamber separated by 5-μm pore synthetic membrane. Continuous voltage measurements were made throughout the process of membrane penetration by the microneedle (N = 6 for each saline concentration). Results: Silver-plated needles were able to detect an instantaneous change in voltage when traversing the membrane from saline solution into artificial perilymph. As calculated, the magnitude of the change in voltage upon penetration increased with increasing saline concentration and was stable across trials. Conclusion: Ag/AgCl coated microneedles are effective in detecting the moment of penetration across semi-permeable membranes. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2015.
    Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B Applied Biomaterials 10/2015; DOI:10.1002/jbm.b.33557
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    ABSTRACT: Aims: This study examines the intraperitoneal behavior of two cyanoacrylate tissue adhesives: Ifabond(®) and a new, non-marketed octyl cyanoacrylate adhesive (OCA) used for the intraperitoneal fixation of a laminar expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) mesh. Material and methods: In 36 New Zealand White rabbits, 3 × 3 cm (n = 24) or 1.5 × 3 cm (n = 12) fragments of ePTFE mesh (Preclude(®) , Gore, Flagstaff, USA) were fixed to the parietal peritoneum using OCA or Ifabond(®) . Peritoneal fluid was obtained at the time of implant and at 2 weeks postimplant for determination of the cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). At 14 or 90 days postsurgery, the animals were euthanized and the meshes excised to assess host tissue incorporation, the macrophage response, apoptosis and fixation strength (T-peel tensiometry). Results: Peritoneal fluid IL-6 and TNF-α concentrations were similar in the OCA and Ifabond(®) groups. Both adhesives gave rise to adequate mesothelialization of the laminar ePTFE. Macrophage counts were similar for the two study groups, but a significantly increase in macrophage response was observed from 14 to 90 days for Ifabond(®) . At 90 days postimplant, apoptotic cell counts was lower for the implants fixed with OCA and a fixation strength was significantly lower for OCA. Conclusions: Despite similar cytokine levels at 2 weeks and similar host tissue incorporation observed for the meshes fixed with the two adhesives, the use of Ifabond(®) gave rise to a greater apoptosis rate, although this adhesive provided a stronger fixation bond. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2015.
    Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B Applied Biomaterials 10/2015; DOI:10.1002/jbm.b.33558