Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B Applied Biomaterials (J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater )

Publisher: Society for Biomaterials; Nihon Baiomateriaru Gakkai; Australian Society for Biomaterials; Korean Society for Biomaterials, John Wiley & Sons

Description

Applied Biomaterials is published as Part B of the Journal of Biomedical Materials Research, an official journal of the Society For Biomaterials, the Japanese Society for Biomaterials, the Australasian Society for Biomaterials, and the Korean Society for Biomaterials. It is a peer-reviewed journal serving the needs of biomaterials professionals who devise, promote, apply, regulate, produce, and market new biomaterials and medical devices. It is international and interdisciplinary in scope. Papers are published on device development, implant retrieval and analysis, manufacturing, regulation of devices, liability and legal issues, standards, reviews of different device areas, and clinical applications.

  • Impact factor
    2.31
  • 5-year impact
    2.52
  • Cited half-life
    4.80
  • Immediacy index
    0.26
  • Eigenfactor
    0.02
  • Article influence
    0.67
  • Website
    Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B: Applied Biomaterials website
  • Other titles
    Journal of biomedical materials research., Journal of biomedical materials research. Part B, Applied biomaterials, Applied biomaterials
  • ISSN
    1552-4981
  • OCLC
    51823311
  • Material type
    Document, Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

John Wiley & Sons

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • See Wiley-Blackwell entry for articles after February 2007
    • On personal web site or secure external website at authors institution
    • Not allowed on institutional repository
    • JASIST authors may deposit in an institutional repository
    • Non-commercial
    • Pre-print must be accompanied with set phrase (see individual journal copyright transfer agreements)
    • Published source must be acknowledged with set phrase (see individual journal copyright transfer agreements)
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Articles in some journals can be made Open Access on payment of additional charge
    • 'John Wiley and Sons' is an imprint of 'Wiley-Blackwell'
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: New formulations of acrylic bone cements for bone defect reparation, based on self-hardening methyl methacrylate (MMA)/methacrylic acid (MAA), with a high capacity for protein delivery, have been developed. The self-curing formulations were prepared by partial substitution of solid phase PMMA microparticles by newly obtained PMAA microspheres. The PMAA microspheres were prepared by inverse suspension polymerization of their monomer and were cross-linked with N,N'-methylene-bis-acrylamide (MBA) (10-15 wt %) to produce stable systems in contact with aqueous media. PMAA microspheres were loaded with hydrolyzed collagen (HC) as a model protein to simulate bone morphogenetic protein delivery useful for hard tissue reconstruction. Solid phase PMMA microparticles in the formulation were partially substituted by new PMAA-HC microspheres and were characterized to determine viability as an acrylic bone cement in minimally invasive surgery. The incorporation of PMAA-HC microspheres decreased peak temperature by 20°C, which minimized thermal necrotic risk after implantation. Mechanical compression tests revealed a behavior, under dry conditions, close to ISO 5833 standard requirements. However, a drastic drop in mechanical strength, ∼64%, was obtained after 15 days of immersion in simulated physiological conditions (37°C and pH 7.4) and was attributed to water absorption and a subsequent plasticizing effect. The increase in water uptake and retention enhanced the capability for controlled protein delivery. Finally, the biocompatibility of the cements was determined; some toxicity of the material during the first hours of culture incubation was observed. Later, toxicity was observed to decrease due to nonreacted monomer leaching, which ensured the low toxicity of the already polymerized phase. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2014.
    Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B Applied Biomaterials 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to assess the ability of tissue engineered cartilage to adhere to and integrate with porous polyethylene (PPE) in vivo and to evaluate the biomechanical integrity of the bond formed at the interface. Porcine auricular, articular, and costal chondrocytes were suspended in fibrin gel polymer and placed between discs of PPE to form tri-layer constructs. Controls consisted of fibroblasts suspended in gel or gel alone between the discs. Constructs were implanted into nude mice for 6, 12, and 18 weeks. Upon harvest, specimens were evaluated for neocartilage formation and integration into the PPE, using histological, dimensional (mass, thickness, diameter), and biomechanical (adhesion strength, interfacial stiffness, failure energy and failure strain) analyses. Neotissue was formed in all experimental constructs, consisting mostly of neocartilage integrating with discs of PPE. Control samples contained only fibrous tissue. Biomechanical analyses demonstrated that adhesion strength, interfacial stiffness, and failure energy were all significantly higher in the chondrocyte-seeded samples than in fibroblast-seeded controls, with the exception of costal constructs at 12 weeks, which were not significantly greater than controls. In general, failure strains did not vary between groups. In conclusion, porous polyethylene supported the growth of neocartilage that formed mechanically functional bonds with the PPE. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2014.
    Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B Applied Biomaterials 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The “Workshop on Standards & Measurements for Tissue Engineering Scaffolds” was held on May 21, 2013 in Indianapolis, IN, and was sponsored by the ASTM International (ASTM). The purpose of the workshop was to identify the highest priority items for future standards work for scaffolds used in the development and manufacture of tissue engineered medical products (TEMPs). Eighteen speakers and 78 attendees met to assess current scaffold standards and to prioritize needs for future standards. A key finding was that the ASTM TEMPs subcommittees (F04.41-46) have many active “guide” documents for educational purposes, but few standard “test methods” or “practices.” Overwhelmingly, the most clearly identified need was standards for measuring the structure of scaffolds, followed by standards for biological characterization, including in vitro testing, animal models and cell-material interactions. The third most pressing need was to develop standards for assessing the mechanical properties of scaffolds. Additional needs included standards for assessing scaffold degradation, clinical outcomes with scaffolds, effects of sterilization on scaffolds, scaffold composition, and drug release from scaffolds. Discussions highlighted the need for additional scaffold reference materials and the need to use them for measurement traceability. Workshop participants emphasized the need to promote the use of standards in scaffold fabrication, characterization, and commercialization. Finally, participants noted that standards would be more broadly accepted if their impact in the TEMPs community could be quantified. Many scaffold standard needs have been identified and focus is turning to generating these standards to support the use of scaffolds in TEMPs. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2014.
    Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B Applied Biomaterials 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of chitosan-alginate membrane to accelerate wound healing in experimental cutaneous wounds. Two wounds were performed in Wistar rats by punching (1.5 cm diameter), treated with membranes moistened with saline solution (CAM group) or with saline only (SL group). After 2, 7, 14, and 21 days of surgery, five rats of each group were euthanized and reepithelialization was evaluated. The wounds/scars were harvested for histological, flow cytometry, neutrophil infiltrate, and hydroxyproline analysis. CAM group presented higher inflammatory cells recruitment as compared to SL group on 2nd day. On the 7th day, CAM group showed higher CD11b+ level and lower of neutrophils than SL group. The CAM group presented higher CD4+ cells influx than SL group on 2nd day, but it decreased during the follow up and became lower on 14th and 21st days. Higher fibroplasia was noticed on days 7 and 14 as well as higher collagenesis on 21st in the CAM group in comparison to SL group. CAM group showed faster reepithelialization on 7th day than SL group, although similar in other days. In conclusion, chitosan-alginate membrane modulated the inflammatory phase, stimulated fibroplasia and collagenesis, accelerating wound healing process in rats. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2014.
    Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B Applied Biomaterials 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: This study evaluates a modified 4-META/MMA-TBB resin (M4M) as a candidate material for filling screw-retained implant access hole. Its characteristics were compared with a conventional composite resin (CR) with or without a bonding agent (BA) or a ceramic primer (CP). Ceramic blocks were divided into five groups, including (A) CR, (B) CR with BA, (C) CR with CP and BA, (D) M4M, and (E) M4M with CP. Shear bond strengths were measured after 5000 times of thermocycling. Groups A, B, and D were excluded from further tests as they showed no adhesion. A cylindrical cavity (2.5 mm diameter, 3 mm depth) simulating access hole was prepared in a ceramic block and glazed to evaluate micro-leakage and wear test of groups C and E. The results were statistically analyzed with Mann–Whitney test (p < 0.05). Shear bond strength of groups C (7.6 ± 2.2 MPa) and E (8.6 ± 1.0 MPa) was not significantly different. In micro-leakage analysis, average wear depth and wear volume, group E (7.5 ± 3.3%, 59.3 ± 12.9 μm, 0.16 ± 0.04 mm3) showed significantly lower values than those of group C (45.6 ± 24.4%, 76.0 ± 16.4 μm, 0.28 ± 0.03 mm3). It is suggested that the combination of CP and M4M can be one of feasible systems to fill the ceramic access holes of the implant upper structure. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B: Applied Biomaterials Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2014.
    Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B Applied Biomaterials 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Human demineralized bone matrix derived from cortical bone is used by surgeons due to its ability to promote bone formation. There is also a need for shaped demineralized bone matrices made from cancellous bone, where the properties of the material allow its insertion into defects, therefore acting as a void filler and scaffold onto which new bone can form. In this study, we report that demineralized bone sponges were prepared by dissecting and cutting knee bone into cancellous bone cubes of 1 cm3. These cubes were then taken through a series of warm water washes, some with sonication, centrifugation, and two decontamination chemical washes. The cubes were optimally demineralized into sponges with 0.5N hydrochloric acid under vacuum with constant pH measurement. Demineralization was confirmed by quantitative measurement of calcium and qualitatively by compression. The sponges were freeze dried before terminal sterilisation with a target dose of 25 kGy gamma radiation whilst frozen. Samples of the sponges were histologically examined for calcium and collagen and also tested for osteoinductivity. Data showed well defined collagen staining in the sponges, with little residual calcium. Sponges from two out of three donors demonstrated osteoinductivity when implanted into the muscle of an athymic mouse. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2014.
    Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B Applied Biomaterials 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Human amniotic membrane allografts have proven effective at improving healing of cutaneous wounds. The mechanism of action for these therapeutic effects is poorly understood but is thought to involve the resident growth factors present in near term amniotic tissue. To determine the relative cytokine contribution of the amnion and chorion in amniotic allografts, the content of 18 cytokines involved in wound healing were measured in samples of PURION® Processed dehydrated amnion, chorion, and amnion/chorion membrane (dHACM) grafts by multiplex enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay array. Both amnion and chorion contained similar amounts of each factor when normalized per dry weight; however, when calculated per surface area of tissue applied to a wound, amnion contained on average only 25% as much of each factor as the chorion. Therefore, an allograft containing both amnion and chorion would contain four to five times more cytokine than a single layer amnion allograft alone. Both single layer amnion and multilayer allografts containing amnion and chorion are currently marketed for wound repair. To examine the role of tissue processing technique in cytokine retention, cytokine contents in representative dehydrated single layer wound care products were measured. The results demonstrated that cytokine content varied significantly among the allografts tested, and that PURION® Processed single layer amnion grafts contained more cytokines than other single layer products. These results suggest that PURION® Processed dHACM contains substantially more cytokines than single layer amnion products, and therefore dHACM may be more effective at delivering growth factors to a healing wound than amnion alone. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B: Applied Biomaterials Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2014.
    Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B Applied Biomaterials 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The capacity to induce a rapid and controlled healing of bone defects is critical for a bone substitute. Previous studies have reported hydrothermal transformation (HT) of aragonite from cuttlebone (CB) to cuttlebone hydroxyapatite (CBHA). However, the biocompatibility and in vivo characteristic of CBHA have not been fully investigated. We fabricated CBHA via the in situ HT of aragonite from CB. This CBHA exhibited a highly porous structure and nanoscaled surface morphology with a significantly higher protein adsorption rate than CB. Marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were seeded and cultured on the CBHA and CB to evaluate their influence on cell proliferation and differentiation. According to scanning electronic microscopy observation and MTT assay, the MSCs adhered and proliferated well on both the CBHA and CB. Compared with the cells on the CB, the MSCs on CBHA exhibited enhanced alkaline phosphatase activity and osteocalcin levels after 13 days of culture. In vivo testing revealed that CBHA could induce ectopic bone formation after implantation, while no bone formation being observed in the CB. These findings demonstrated that a nanoscaled and osteoinductive bone substitute could be produced by hydrothermally transforming an aragonite of CB into a hydroxyapatite. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2014.
    Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B Applied Biomaterials 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: This study evaluates the biological performance of salt-leached macro/microporous silk scaffolds (S16) and silk-nano calcium phosphate scaffolds (SC16), both deriving from a 16 wt % aqueous SF solution. Enzymatic degradation results showed that the silk-based scaffolds presented desirable biostability, and the incorporation of calcium phosphate further improved the scaffolds' biostability. Human adipose tissue derived stromal cells (hASCs) were cultured onto the scaffolds in vitro. The Alamar blue assay and DNA content revealed that both scaffolds were non-cytotoxic and can support the viability and proliferation of the hASCs. Scanning electron microscopy observation demonstrated that the microporous structure was beneficial for the cell adhesion while the macroporous structure favored the cell migration and proliferation. The histological analysis displayed abundant extracellular matrix formed inside the scaffolds, leading to the significant increase of scaffolds' modulus. These results revealed that S16 and SC16 could be promising alternatives for cartilage and bone tissue engineering scaffolding applications, respectively. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2014.
    Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B Applied Biomaterials 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Antibiotic-loaded bone cement is a primary option for treatment of orthopedic infections. Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) is a widely used cement that, when loaded with antibiotics in spacer or bead form, has been shown to reduce infection rates. However, PMMA is not resorbable and requires a second surgery for removal, while also acting as a potential foreign body for bacterial colonization. Alternatively, resorbable bone cements, such as calcium sulfate, have been proposed and present the advantage of being completely reabsorbed. It is unknown whether the antibiotic elution characteristics of absorbable bone cements are similar to PMMA. This study (1) characterized antibiotic elution from synthetic, highly purified calcium sulfate cement beads of varying sizes against pathogenic bacteria both in liquid culture and seeded on agar plates, (2) tested calcium sulfate beads against PMMA beads loaded with the same antibiotics, and (3) analyzed the structural differences between how PMMA and calcium sulfate bind to antibiotics. In every assay, the calcium sulfate beads performed as well as, or better than, the PMMA beads in inhibition of bacterial growth and elution of vancomycin in vitro with complete elution observed from calcium sulfate within three days. These data suggest that calcium sulfate, functions, as well as PMMA in the patient setting for infection control. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2014.
    Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B Applied Biomaterials 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The aim was to assess the nanohardness (H) and the reduced modulus of elasticity (Er) of 2.5% titanium tetrafluoride (TiF4) modified dentin, before and after an erosive challenge with 0.3% citric acid (CA). Exposed dentin surfaces were divided into two groups (n = 5): (1) Control—no dentin pretreatment with TiF4 prior to etching with CA, and (2) Experimental—dentin pretreatment with TiF4 + CA. The H and the Er of intertubular dentin were measured using a triboindenter at different time points: baseline for both groups, after using 2.5% TiF4 for the experimental group, and after using CA for both the experimental and the control groups. Scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis of the dentin surfaces were undertaken at the same time points for both groups. Two-way ANOVA for randomized block design was applied. There was significant interaction between the application of the TiF4 solution and different time points (p = 0.001 for H and p < 0.001 for Er), identified by Tukey's test. Erosive challenge provided a significant decrease in H and Er mean values. The TiF4 solution caused a significant increase in H and Er values, but no significant differences were found between post-TiF4 and post-CA application. TiF4 application produced a precipitate surface layer on intertubular and intratubular dentin. EDS analysis indicated the presence of titanium. The H and Er of the dentin surface were greatly increased after application of 2.5% TiF4. TiF4 may modify the micromorphology of the dentin surface and produces an erosive resistance surface. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2014.
    Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B Applied Biomaterials 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The influence of fluoride in poly(d,l-lactide)/apatite composites on ectopic bone formation was evaluated in sheep. Nano-apatite powders with different replacement levels of OH groups by fluoride (F) (0% (F0), 50% (F50), 100% (F100), and excessive (F200)) were co-extruded with poly (d,l-lactide) at a weight ratio of 1:1. Fluoride release from the composites (CF0, CF50, CF100, and CF200) was evaluated in vitro and bone formation was assessed after intramuscular implantation in sheep. After 24 weeks in simulated physiological solution, CF0 and CF50 showed negligible fluoride release, whereas it was considerable from the CF100 and CF200 composites. Histology showed that the incidence of de novo bone formation decreased in implants with increasing fluoride content indicating a negative influence of fluoride on ectopic bone formation. Furthermore, a significant decrease in resorption of the high fluoride-content composites and a reduction in the number of multinucleated giant cells were seen. These results show that instead of promoting, the presence of fluoride in poly(d,l-lactide)/apatite composites seemed to suppresses their resorption and osteoinductive potential in non-osseous sites. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater 00B, 2014.
    Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B Applied Biomaterials 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the mechanical properties and osteogenic potential of a silk fibroin scaffold prepared from a 70:30 blend of Eri (Philosamia ricini) and Tasar (Antheraea mylitta) silk, respectively (ET scaffolds). An electrospinning process was used to prepare uniformly blended, fibrous scaffolds of nanoscale dimensions, as confirmed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy (fiber diameter < 300 nm). Similarly prepared scaffolds derived from gelatin and Bombyx mori (BM) silk fibroin were used as controls. Mechanical testing and atomic force microscopy showed that the ET scaffolds had significantly higher tensile strength (1.83 ± 0.13 MPa) and surface roughness (0.44 μm) compared with BM (1.47 ± 0.10 MPa; 0.37 μm) and gelatin scaffolds (0.6 ± 0.07 MPa; 0.28 μm). All scaffolds were exposed to mesenchymal stem cells isolated to human chord blood (hMSCs) for up to 28 days in vitro. Alamar blue and alkaline phosphatase assay showed greater attachment and proliferation for both ET and BM scaffolds compared with gelatin. The ET scaffolds also promoted greater differentiation of the attached hMSCs as evidenced by higher expression of RunX2, osteocalcin, and CD29/CD44 expression. ET scaffolds also showed significantly higher mineralization, as evidenced by glycosaminoglycan assay, alizarin red staining, and elemental analysis of crystalline composites isolated from the scaffolds. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2014.
    Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B Applied Biomaterials 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: The aim of this study was to quantify the polymerization volumetric shrinkage of one regular and two low shrinkage bulk fill composites in class I cavities with or without an adhesive layer, using three-dimensional (3D) micro-computed tomography (μCT). Methods: Class I cavity preparations (2.5 mm depth × 4 mm length × 4 mm wide) were standardized in 36 extracted human third molars, which were randomly divided in six groups (n = 6 each) as follows: Group VIT (regular composite without bonding agent); Group SDR (low shrinkage flowable composite without bonding agent); Group TET (low shrinkage composite without bonding agent); Group VIT/P (regular composite with bonding agent); Group SDR/X (low shrinkage flowable composite with bonding agent); TET/T (low shrinkage composite with bonding agent). Each tooth was scanned via µCT at cavity preparation, immediately after cavity filling, and after light-curing. Acquired μCT data were imported into Amira software for analysis and volume values evaluated between steps from cavity preparation until light-curing. Results: Both low shrinkage composites showed a significantly less volumetric shrinkage than VIT. The use of dental adhesive significantly decreased the average volumetric contraction similarly for the three composites, by about 20%. Conclusion: Both low shrinkage composites showed less volumetric polymerization contraction than the regular composite. The use of dental adhesive decreased the total volumetric shrinkage for all evaluated composites. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2014.
    Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B Applied Biomaterials 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) was developed as an advanced form of platelet-rich plasma to eliminate xenofactors, such as bovine thrombin, and it is mainly used as a source of growth factor for tissue regeneration. Furthermore, although a minor application, PRF in a compressed membrane-like form has also been used as a substitute for commercially available barrier membranes in guided-tissue regeneration (GTR) treatment. However, the PRF membrane is resorbed within 2 weeks or less at implantation sites; therefore, it can barely maintain sufficient space for bone regeneration. In this study, we developed and optimized a heat-compression technique and tested the feasibility of the resulting PRF membrane. Freshly prepared human PRF was first compressed with dry gauze and subsequently with a hot iron. Biodegradability was microscopically examined in vitro by treatment with plasmin at 37°C or in vivo by subcutaneous implantation in nude mice. Compared with the control gauze-compressed PRF, the heat-compressed PRF appeared plasmin-resistant and remained stable for longer than 10 days in vitro. Additionally, in animal implantation studies, the heat-compressed PRF was observed at least for 3 weeks postimplantation in vivo whereas the control PRF was completely resorbed within 2 weeks. Therefore, these findings suggest that the heat-compression technique reduces the rate of biodegradation of the PRF membrane without sacrificing its biocompatibility and that the heat-compressed PRF membrane easily could be prepared at chair-side and applied as a barrier membrane in the GTR treatment. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2014.
    Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B Applied Biomaterials 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Carbon-coated iron nanoparticles (Fe@C CCINs) were synthesized by carbon arc discharge method and were studied via X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed that CCINs have good core–shell structure and are in size of 40–50 nm. Also, carbon-coated iron nanofluid (CCINs-nanofluid) was prepared via two-step method by dispersing as-prepared CCINs and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) into physiological saline. Its dispersion stability and thermal conductivity were detected by gravity sedimentation method and Hotdisk thermal constant analyzer respectively. The results indicated that CCINs-nanofluid possesses good dispersity and stability. Moreover, CCINs-nanofluid showed enhanced thermal conductivity compared with its base fluid physiological saline. The enhancement of thermal conductivity even reaches 41%. Additionally, CCINs-nanofluid injection aided radiofrequency ablation (RFA) was carried out. The relation between tissue temperature and ablation time revealed that by injecting CCINs-nanofluid into pork livers during RFA, target tissue temperatures were less than 100°C. Dissected pork livers showed that there was little or no tissue charring around the ablation probe. Results of ablation area calculation showed that the ablation area of CCINs-nanofluid injection aided RFA was 67% larger than that of saline injection aided RFA, indicating that a larger-volume tumor tissue necrosis at a single session can be achieved by CCINs-nanofluid injection aided RFA. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2014.
    Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B Applied Biomaterials 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Antioxidant stabilization of radiation cross-linked ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) has been introduced to improve the oxidative stability of total joint implant bearing surfaces. Blending of antioxidants (most commonly vitamin E) with UHMWPE resin powder followed by consolidation and uniform radiation cross-linking is currently available for use in both total hips and total knees. It was previously shown that the fatigue resistance of vitamin E-blended and irradiated UHMWPEs could be further improved by spatially manipulating the vitamin E concentration throughout the implant and limiting cross-linking to the surface of the implant where it is necessary for wear resistance. This was possible by designing a low concentration of vitamin E on the surface and higher concentration in the bulk of the implant because cross-linking is hindered in UHMWPE as a function of increasing vitamin E concentration. In this study, we hypothesized that such a surface cross-linked UHMWPE with low wear rate and high fatigue strength could be obtained by limiting the penetration of radiation into UHMWPE with uniform vitamin E concentration. Our hypothesis tested positive; we were able to obtain control of the surface cross-linked region by manipulating the energy of the irradiation, resulting in extremely low wear, and high impact strength. In addition, we discussed alternatives of improving the oxidation resistance of such a material by using additional vitamin E reservoirs. These results are significant because this material may allow increased use of antioxidant-stabilized, cross-linked UHMWPEs in high stress applications and in more active patients. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2014.
    Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B Applied Biomaterials 08/2014;

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