Behavior modification (Behav Modif )

Publisher: SAGE Publications


Behavior Modification describes (in detail for replication purposes) assessment and modification techniques for problems in psychiatric, clinical, educational and rehabilitation settings.

Impact factor 2.23

  • 5-year impact
  • Cited half-life
  • Immediacy index
  • Eigenfactor
  • Article influence
  • Website
    Behavior Modification website
  • Other titles
    Behavior modification (Online), Behavior modification
  • ISSN
  • OCLC
  • Material type
    Document, Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

SAGE Publications

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • Authors retain copyright
    • Pre-print on any website
    • Author's post-print on author's personal website, departmental website, institutional website or institutional repository
    • On other repositories including PubMed Central after 12 months embargo
    • Publisher copyright and source must be acknowledged
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Post-print version with changes from referees comments can be used
    • "as published" final version with layout and copy-editing changes cannot be archived but can be used on secure institutional intranet
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • Behavior modification 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Stereotypy is often characterized as repetitious, invariant behavior that generates its own reinforcing consequence. Stereotypy represents a unique treatment challenge, because the consequences produced by stereotypy cannot be directly controlled by the practitioner. Likewise, practitioners have relatively few options for identifying the function of repetitive behavior. Recently, several researchers have been conducting empirical studies to address these issues. This article introduces a special issue presenting some of these recent developments in the assessment and treatment of stereotypy and related behavior.
    Behavior modification 07/2014; 38(3):339-343.
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    ABSTRACT: Various reviews of the effects of sensory integration therapy (SIT) have concluded that such interventions fail to reduce stereotypy. However, a new, and as yet untested, SIT iteration, an inflatable wearable vest known as the Snug Vest purports to decrease such repetitive behavior. In the current study, three children who emitted different forms of stereotypy participated in an alternating treatments design in which each participant wore a fully inflated vest and either a fully deflated vest or no vest. The results of the study show that the Snug Vest failed to reduce any participants' stereotypy. We highlight our findings in the context of professional practice and discuss several potential limitations.
    Behavior modification 04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: This study examined therapeutic mechanisms of action at the single-participant level in a behavior therapy (BT) for youth depression. By controlling for non-specific early responses, identifying potential mechanisms of action a priori, taking frequent measures of hypothesized mechanisms and dependent variables, rigorously evaluating internal validity, and using a variety of analytic methods, a unique model for analysis of potential mediators was created. Eleven children (M age = 9.84) meeting criteria on the Children's Depression Rating Scale-Revised (M = 55.36) and Children's Depression Inventory (M = 23.45) received non-directive therapy (NDT), followed by BT for those still displaying significant symptoms. Four participants (36%) had a clinically significant response to NDT. For the remaining seven, statistically significant changes in depressive symptoms and family interactions during the BT interval were found at the group level. At the single-participant level, evidence suggesting that outcome was at least partially mediated by changes in treatment targets was obtained for four of seven (57%). As the field further embraces efforts to learn not only whether treatments work but also how they work, the single-participant approach to evaluating mediators provides a useful framework for evaluating theories of therapeutic change.
    Behavior modification 04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Stress is the contextual variable most commonly implicated in tic exacerbations. However, research examining associations between tics, stressors, and the biological stress response has yielded mixed results. This study examined whether tics occur at a greater frequency during discrete periods of heightened physiological arousal. Children with co-occurring tic and anxiety disorders (n = 8) completed two stress-induction tasks (discussion of family conflict, public speech). Observational (tic frequencies) and physiological (heart rate [HR]) data were synchronized using The Observer XT, and tic frequencies were compared across periods of high and low HR. Tic frequencies across the entire experiment did not increase during periods of higher HR. During the speech task, tic frequencies were significantly lower during periods of higher HR. Results suggest that tic exacerbations may not be associated with heightened physiological arousal and highlight the need for further tic research using integrated measurement of behavioral and biological processes.
    Behavior modification 03/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The current study investigated the effects of a Video Self-Modeling (VSM) intervention on the compliance and aggressive behavior of three children placed in a psychiatric hospital. Each participant viewed brief video clips of himself following simple adult instructions just prior to the school's morning session and the unit's afternoon free period. A multiple baseline design across settings was used to evaluate the effects of the VSM intervention on compliance with staff instructions and aggressive behavior on the hospital unit and in the hospital-based classroom. All three participants exhibited higher levels of compliance and fewer aggressive episodes during the intervention condition, and the effects were generally maintained when the intervention was withdrawn. Hospital staff reported at the conclusion of the study that the VSM intervention was easy to implement and beneficial for all participants. Taken altogether, the results suggest VSM is a promising, socially acceptable, and proactive intervention approach for improving the behavior of noncompliant children.
    Behavior modification 02/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Depression and social anxiety disorder (SAD) are highly comorbid, resulting in greater severity and functional impairment compared with each disorder alone. Although recently transdiagnostic treatments have been developed, no known treatments have addressed this comorbidity pattern specifically. Preliminary support exists for acceptance-based approaches for depression and SAD separately, and they may be more efficacious for comorbid depression and anxiety compared with traditional cognitive-behavioral approaches. The aim of the current study was to develop and pilot test an integrated acceptance-based behavioral treatment for depression and comorbid SAD. Participants included 38 patients seeking pharmacotherapy at an outpatient psychiatry practice, who received 16 individual sessions of the therapy. Results showed significant improvement in symptoms, functioning, and processes from pre- to post-treatment, as well as high satisfaction with the treatment. These results support the preliminary acceptability, feasibility, and effectiveness of this treatment in a typical outpatient psychiatry practice, and suggest that further research on this treatment in larger randomized trials is warranted.
    Behavior modification 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We evaluated the feasibility and acceptability of a 2-week-long ecological momentary intervention (EMI), delivered via personal digital assistants (PDAs), to improve treatment adherence in bipolar disorder. EMIs use mobile technology to deliver treatment as clients engage in their typical daily routines, in their usual settings. Overall, participants (N = 14) stated that EMI sessions were helpful, user-friendly, and engaging, and reported satisfaction with the timing and burden of sessions, as well as the method of delivery. All participants completed the study, and all PDAs were returned undamaged. On average, participants completed 92% of EMI sessions. Although this study was not designed to assess efficacy, depression scores decreased significantly over the study period and data suggest relatively high rates of treatment adherence; missed medication was reported 3% of the time and three participants reported missing a total of six mental health appointments. Negative feedback largely involved technical and logistical issues, many of which are easily addressable. These preliminary findings add to the growing body of literature indicating that mobile-technology-assisted interventions are feasible to implement and acceptable to patients with serious mental illnesses.
    Behavior modification 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the effects of noncontingent social interaction (SI) on immediate and subsequent engagement in vocal and motor stereotypy in three children with autism. During SI, a therapist delivered continuous interaction in the form of reading aloud from a Kindle™ e-reader. Results showed that when compared with a no-interaction baseline sequence, SI decreased immediate engagement vocal stereotypy for all three participants without increasing subsequent engagement for any participant. Furthermore, SI also increased immediate engagement in motor stereotypy for one participant, decreased immediate engagement in motor stereotypy for two participants, but did not increase subsequent engagement in motor stereotypy for any participant. Some clinical implications and limitations of the findings are discussed.
    Behavior modification 12/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: The concept of motivational operations exerts an increasing influence on the understanding and assessment of problem behavior in people with intellectual and developmental disability. In this systematic review of 59 methodologically robust studies of the influence of motivational operations in negative reinforcement paradigms in this population, we identify themes related to situational and biological variables that have implications for assessment, intervention, and further research. There is now good evidence that motivational operations of differing origins influence negatively reinforced problem behavior, and that these might be subject to manipulation to facilitate favorable outcomes. There is also good evidence that some biological variables warrant consideration in assessment procedures as they predispose the person's behavior to be influenced by specific motivational operations. The implications for assessment and intervention are made explicit with reference to variables that are open to manipulation or that require further research and conceptualization within causal models.
    Behavior modification 11/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Individuals with developmental disabilities may engage in automatically reinforced behaviors that may interfere with learning opportunities. Manipulation of motivating operations has been shown to reduce automatically maintained behavior in some individuals. Considering behavioral indicators of satiation may assist in identifying the point at which an abolishing operation has begun to effect behavior. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of pre-session satiation of automatic reinforcement on subsequent levels of stereotypy and activity engagement during group activities for three males ages 5 to 13 years with developmental disabilities. Following functional analyses with analogue conditions, an alternating treatment design compared a pre-session access to stereotypy condition with a no-pre-session access condition prior to group activity sessions. Results indicated that pre-session satiation of the putative reinforcer produced by stereotypy was effective in decreasing stereotypy and increasing activity engagement during subsequent group activities for all participants. These findings add to the literature supporting the effectiveness of abolishing operations to decrease automatically maintained stereotypy.
    Behavior modification 11/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: The number of individuals who meet diagnostic criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a small percentage of those exposed to trauma; many youth who do not meet criteria for PTSD continue to experience problematic posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptomology. Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) has shown preliminary effectiveness in the treatment of adult PTSD, but its effectiveness in treating PTS in youth is unknown. Using a multiple-baseline design, this study investigated the effectiveness of 10 weeks of ACT to treat PTS in youth. Four adolescents from a community sample and three adolescents from a residential sample participated. The Clinician Administered PTSD Scale for Children and Adolescents (CAPS-CA), Child PTSD Symptom Scale (CPSS), and Comprehensive Quality of Life Scale were completed at pretreatment, posttreatment, and 3-month follow-up. Individuals reported baseline data for 7 to 66 days. Symptom and process measures were completed at each session. Results revealed a decrease in PTS symptomology across both samples with mean reductions in self-reported PTS symptomology at posttreatment of 69% and 81% for the community and residential samples, respectively, and an overall 68% and 84% respective reduction at follow-up. Reductions in clinician rated measures of PTSD were observed for all participants with mean reductions of 57% and 61% in the community and residential samples at posttreatment, and 71% and 60% at follow-up, respectively. Results provide preliminary support for ACT as a treatment for adolescent PTS. Empirical and clinical implications as well as limitations and future directions are discussed.
    Behavior modification 11/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: A wide variety of effect sizes (ESs) has been used in the single-case design literature. Several researchers have "stress tested" these ESs by subjecting them to various degrees of problem data (e.g., autocorrelation, slope), resulting in the conditions by which different ESs can be considered valid. However, on the back end, few researchers have considered how prevalent and severe these problems are in extant data and as a result, how concerned applied researchers should be. The current study extracted and aggregated indicators of violations of normality and independence across four domains of educational study. Significant violations were found in total and across fields, including low levels of autocorrelation and moderate levels of absolute trend. These violations affect the selection and interpretation of ESs at the individual study level and for meta-analysis. Implications and recommendations are discussed.
    Behavior modification 11/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: The current project was an initial attempt to develop assessment procedures for distinguishing between obsessive-compulsive (OC) and stereotypic behavior and evaluate the impact of different treatments for these behaviors. Two individuals with autism, one with repetitive behavior characteristic of OC behavior and one with repetitive behavior not characteristic of OC behavior, participated in the study. In Experiment 1, given that individuals with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) report experiencing unpleasant urges that are relieved when they perform compulsive actions, an attempt was made to identify these experiences by measuring heart rate and affect when access to repetitive behavior was restricted and allowed. In Experiment 2, a multiple schedules treatment was conducted with each participant, and in Experiment 3, the participant with autism and OC behavior completed exposure and response prevention (ERP) treatment. The overall results across studies suggest that one potential way to discriminate between OC behavior and stereotypy in nonvocal children with autism is to consider the topography of repetitive behavior along with changes in physiology and affect. In addition, it may be worth considering the use of ERP, a traditional treatment for OCD, to treat repetitive behavior maintained by automatic reinforcement if treatments that provide access to repetitive behavior are not effective.
    Behavior modification 10/2013;