National vital statistics reports: from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System

Publisher: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.); National Center for Health Statistics (U.S.); National Vital Statistics System (U.S.)

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    ABSTRACT: Objectives-This report describes state-specific trends in primary cesarean delivery rates from 2006 through 2012 for reporting areas that implemented the 2003 U.S. Standard Certificate of Live Birth by January 1, 2006, and from 2009 through 2012 for reporting areas that implemented the 2003 revision by January 1, 2009. State-specific changes by gestational age are also explored. Methods-Data for 2006-2012 are based on 100% of singleton births to residents of the reporting areas that implemented the 2003 birth certificate revision by January 1 of each year. Results are not generalizable to the entire United States-the reporting areas do not represent a random sample of U.S. births. Results-The primary cesarean delivery rate for the 2006 reporting area (19 states) increased from 21.9% in 2006 to 22.4% in 2009, and then declined to 21.9% in 2012. For the 2009 reporting area (28 states and New York City), the primary cesarean rate declined from 22.1% to 21.5% during 2009-2012. Rates for 16 of 29 areas declined during 2009-2012; the remaining states were unchanged. By gestational age, state-specific primary cesarean delivery rates at 38 weeks declined for 18 of 29 areas from 2009 to 2012; few state-specific changes were observed at other gestational ages. The primary cesarean delivery rate for the 38 states, District of Columbia, and New York City that were using the revised certificate by January 1, 2012, was 21.5%. State-specific rates ranged from 12.5% (Utah) to 26.9% (Florida and Louisiana).
    National vital statistics reports: from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System 01/2014; 63(1):1-11.
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives-This report presents new data from birth certificates on the principal source of payment for the delivery in 2010 for the following groups: private insurance, Medicaid, self-pay (uninsured), and other payment sources. These data are for the 33 states and District of Columbia that adopted the 2003 U.S. Standard Certificate of Live Birth by January 2010, representing 76% of all 2010 U.S. births. Trend data for the United States for 1990-2010 are also presented from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Center for Health Statistics, National Hospital Discharge Survey (NHDS), to provide a national comparison and historical context. Methods-Tabular and graphical data on deliveries by the principal source of payment for 2010 from the birth certificate are compared with NHDS estimates. Trend data for 1990-2010 from NHDS are also presented. Detailed data from the birth certificate on maternal characteristics, prenatal care receipt, and cesarean delivery are provided. Results-Private insurance was the most frequent payment source for deliveries in the birth certificate-revised reporting area in 2010 (45.8% of births), followed closely by Medicaid (44.9%), ''other'' payment sources (5.0%), and self-pay (4.4%). Similarly, NHDS data show that private insurance was the most common payment source for deliveries nationally in 2010, followed by Medicaid. Privately insured deliveries declined over the last decade, while the use of Medicaid insurance increased. Medicaid insurance of deliveries was highest for births to teenagers and for non-Hispanic black and Hispanic mothers, according to the birth certificate data. Privately insured mothers were most likely of all payment groups to receive early prenatal care and to have cesarean deliveries.
    National vital statistics reports: from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System 12/2013; 62(5):1-20.
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives-This report is the first release of multistate data for selected items exclusive to the 2003 revision of the U.S. Standard Certificate of Live Birth. Included is information for prepregnancy body mass index, smoking and quitting smoking in the 3 months prior to pregnancy, receipt of food from the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) during pregnancy, pregnancy resulting from infertility treatment, source of payment for delivery, and maternal morbidities. Methods-Descriptive statistics are presented for 100% of 2011 births to residents of the 36 states, the District of Columbia (D.C.), and Puerto Rico that had implemented the revised birth certificate by January 1, 2011. This reporting area is not a random sample, and results are not generalizable to the United States as a whole. Results-The 3,267,934 births to residents of the 36-state and D.C. reporting area represented 83% of all 2011 U.S. births. Levels of prepregnancy obesity ranged from 18.0% in Utah to 28.6% in South Carolina. Hispanic women were the least likely to smoke in the 3 months prior to pregnancy and were the most likely to quit smoking prior to pregnancy. Women under age 20 were more than twice as likely to receive WIC food during pregnancy as women aged 35 and over in nearly all states and D.C. The percentage of births resulting from infertility treatment ranged from 0.3% in New Mexico to over 3.5% in Maryland and Utah. The percentage of deliveries covered by Medicaid ranged from 28.8% in North Dakota to 64.2% in Louisiana.
    National vital statistics reports: from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System 12/2013; 62(4):1-22.
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    ABSTRACT: Objective—This report presents national estimates of the use of family planning services and related medical services among women aged 15–44 in the United States in 2006–2010. Selected indicators are compared with similar measures for 2002 and 1995 to examine changes overtime. Methods—Data for this report come primarily from the 2006–2010 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG),which included12,279 interviews with women aged 15–44. The response rate for women in the 2006–2010 NSFG was 78%. Results—In 2006–2010, 43million women aged15–44 received a family planning or related medical service in the previous 12 months. A Pap test and a pelvic exam were the most common services received by women in the previous year, followed by receipt of a method of birth control. About 18% of women received a family planning or related medical service from a clinic in the past 12months and one-half of these women received it from a TitleX-funded clinic. In contrast, 53% of women received a family planning or related medical service in the past 12 months from a private doctor. Use of TitleX-funded clinics was more common among women in cohabiting unions, black and Hispanic women, those who lived in nonmetropolitan areas, those below the poverty level, and those without health insurance.
    National vital statistics reports: from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System 09/2013; 68.
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    ABSTRACT: This report presents detailed pregnancy rates for 1990-2008, updating a national series of rates extending since 1976. Tabular and graphical data on pregnancy rates by age, race, and Hispanic origin, and by marital status are presented and described. In 2008, an estimated 6,578,000 pregnancies resulted in 4,248,000 live births, 1,212,000 induced abortions, and 1,118,000 fetal losses. The 2008 pregnancy rate of 105.5 pregnancies per 1000 women aged 15-44 is 9 percent below the 1990 peak of 115.8. The teen pregnancy rate dropped 40 percent from 1990 to 2008, reaching a historic low of 69.8 per 1000 women aged 15-19. Pregnancy rates have declined significantly for non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Hispanic teenagers. Rates in 2008 for non-Hispanic black and Hispanic teenagers were two to three times higher than the rates for non-Hispanic white teenagers. Pregnancy rates for women in their early 20s declined to the lowest level in more than three decades, although the declines have been more modest than for teenagers. Pregnancy rates for women aged 25-29 have changed relatively little since 1990, while rates for women in their 30s and early 40s increased.
    National vital statistics reports: from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System 06/2012; 60(7):1-21.
  • National vital statistics reports: from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System 04/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: This report presents final 2008 data on U.S. deaths, death rates, life expectancy, infant mortality, and trends by selected characteristics such as age, sex, Hispanic origin, race, state of residence, and cause of death. Information reported on death certificates, which is completed by funeral directors, attending physicians, medical examiners, and coroners, is presented in descriptive tabulations. The original records are filed in state registration offices. Statistical information is compiled in a national database through the Vital Statistics Cooperative Program of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Center for Health Statistics. Causes of death are processed in accordance with the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision. In 2008, a total of 2,471,984 deaths were reported in the United States. The age-adjusted death rate was 758.3 deaths per 100,000 standard population, a decrease of 0.2 percent from the 2007 rate and a record low figure. Life expectancy at birth rose 0.2 years, from 77.9 years in 2007 to a record high 78.1 years in 2008. The age-specific death rate increased for age group 85 years and over. Age-specific death rates decreased for age groups: less than 1 year, 5-14, 15-24, 25-34, 35-44, and 65-74 years. The age-specific death rates remained unchanged for age groups: 1-4, 45-54, 55-64, and 75-84 years. The 15 leading causes of death in 2008 remained the same as in 2007, but Chronic lower respiratory diseases and suicide increased in the ranking while stroke and septicemia decreased in the ranking. Stroke is the fourth leading cause of death in 2008 after more than five decades at number three in the ranking. Chronic lower respiratory diseases is the third leading cause of death for 2008. The infant mortality rate decreased 2.1 percent to a historically low value of 6.61 deaths per 1000 live births in 2008. The decline of the age-adjusted death rate to a record low value for the United States and the increase in life expectancy to a record high value of 78.1 years are consistent with long-term trends in mortality.
    National vital statistics reports: from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System 12/2011; 59(10):1-126.
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    ABSTRACT: This report presents 2009 data on U.S. births according to a wide variety of characteristics. Data are presented for maternal characteristics including age, live-birth order, race and Hispanic origin, marital status, hypertension during pregnancy, attendant at birth, method of delivery, and infant characteristics (period of gestation, birthweight, and plurality). Birth and fertility rates by age, live-birth order, race and Hispanic origin, and marital status also are presented. Selected data by mother's state of residence are shown, as well as birth rates by age and race of father. Trends in fertility patterns and maternal and infant characteristics are described and interpreted. Descriptive tabulations of data reported on the birth certificates of the 4.13 million births that occurred in 2009 are presented. Denominators for population-based rates are postcensal estimates derived from the U.S. 2000 census. The number of births declined to 4,130,665 in 2009, 3 percent less than in 2008. The general fertility rate declined 3 percent to 66.7 per 1,000 women aged 15-44 years. The teenage birth rate fell 6 percent to 39.1 per 1,000. Birth rates for women in each 5-year age group from 20 through 39 years declined, but the rate for women 40-44 years continued to rise. The total fertility rate (estimated number of births over a woman's lifetime) was down 4 percent to 2,007.0 per 1,000 women. The number and rate of births to unmarried women declined, whereas the percentage of nonmarital births increased slightly to 41.0. The cesarean delivery rate rose again, to 32.9 percent. The preterm birth rate declined to 12.18 percent; the low birthweight rate was stable at 8.16 percent. The twin birth rate increased to 33.2 per 1,000; the triplet and higher-order multiple birth rate rose 4 percent to 153.5 per 100,000.
    National vital statistics reports: from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System 11/2011; 60(1):1-70.
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    ABSTRACT: This report presents complete period life tables by race, Hispanic origin, and sex for the United States based on age-specific death rates in 2007. Data used to prepare the 2007 life tables are 2007 final mortality statistics, July 1, 2007, population estimates based on the 2000 decennial census, and 2007 Medicare data for ages 66-100. The methods used to estimate the life tables for the total, white, and black populations were first used in annual life tables in 2005 and have been in use since that time (1). The methods used to estimate the life tables for the Hispanic, non-Hispanic white, and non-Hispanic black populations were first used to estimate U.S. life tables by Hispanic origin for data year 2006 (2). In 2007, the overall expectation of life at birth was 77.9 years, representing an increase of 0.2 years from life expectancy in 2006. From 2006 to 2007, life expectancy at birth increased for all groups considered. It increased for males (from 75.1 to 75.4) and females (from 80.2 to 80.4), the white (from 78.2 to 78.4) and black (from 73.2 to 73.6) populations, the Hispanic population (from 80.6 to 80.9), the non-Hispanic white population (from 78.1 to 78.2), and the non-Hispanic black population (from 72.9 to 73.2).
    National vital statistics reports: from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System 09/2011; 59(9):1-60.
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    ABSTRACT: This report presents data for selected items exclusive to the 2003 U.S. Standard Certificate of Live Birth as well as key items considered not comparable between the 1989 (unrevised) and 2003 (revised) versions for states and territories that implemented the 2003 revision as of January 1, 2008. Information is shown for educational attainment, tobacco use during pregnancy, month prenatal care began, and checkboxes in the following categories: "risk factors in this pregnancy," "obstetric procedures," "characteristics of labor and delivery," "method of delivery," "abnormal conditions of the newborn," and "congenital anomalies of the newborn." Descriptive statistics are presented on births occurring in 2008 to residents of the 27 states that implemented the revised birth certificate. There were 2,748,302 births to residents of the 27-state reporting area, representing 65 percent of 2008 U.S. births. About 78 percent of women had at least a high school diploma; 24.5 percent had an advanced education. One out of 10 women smoked during pregnancy (24-state reporting area) and one out of five smokers quit while pregnant. Almost three-quarters of women began prenatal care in the first trimester of pregnancy. The rate of prepregnancy diabetes was 6.5 per 1,000 and gestational diabetes was 40.6; risk of both types rose with maternal age. Nearly one out of four women had a primary cesarean delivery; less than 1 out of 10 women had a vaginal birth after cesarean delivery. About 27 percent of women attempted a trial of labor before a cesarean delivery. Seven percent of all infants were admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit.
    National vital statistics reports: from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System 07/2011; 59(7):1-28.
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    ABSTRACT: This report presents 2007 period infant mortality statistics from the linked birth/infant death data set (linked file) by a variety of maternal and infant characteristics. The linked file differs from the mortality file, which is based entirely on death certificate data. Descriptive tabulations of data are presented and interpreted. The U.S. infant mortality rate was 6.75 infant deaths per 1,000 live births in 2007, not significantly different than the rate of 6.68 in 2006. Infant mortality rates ranged from 4.57 per 1,000 live births for mothers of Central and South American origin to 13.31 for non-Hispanic black mothers. Infant mortality rates were higher for those infants who were born in multiple deliveries; for those whose mothers were born in the 50 states or the District of Columbia; and for mothers who were unmarried. Infant mortality was also higher for male infants and infants born preterm or at low birthweight. The neonatal mortality rate was essentially unchanged from 2006 (4.46) to 2007 (4.42). The postneonatal mortality rate increased 5 percent from 2.22 in 2006 to 2.33 in 2007, similar to the rate in 2005 (2.32). Infants born at the lowest gestational ages and birthweights have a large impact on overall U.S. infant mortality. For example, more than one-half of all infant deaths in the United States in 2007 (54 percent) occurred to the 2 percent of infants born very preterm (less than 32 weeks of gestation). Still, infant mortality rates for late preterm infants (34-36 weeks of gestation) were 3.6 times, and those for early term (37-38 weeks) infants were 1.5 times, those for infants born at 39-41 weeks of gestation, the gestational age with the lowest infant mortality rate. The three leading causes of infant death--congenital malformations, low birthweight, and sudden infant death syndrome--accounted for 45 percent of all infant deaths. The percentage of infant deaths that were "preterm-related" was 36.0 percent in 2007. The preterm-related infant mortality rate for non-Hispanic black mothers was 3.4 times higher, and the rate for Puerto Rican mothers was 71 percent higher than for non-Hispanic white mothers.
    National vital statistics reports: from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System 06/2011; 59(6):1-30.
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    ABSTRACT: This report presents 2008 data on receipt of epidural and spinal anesthesia as collected on the 2003 U.S. Standard Certificate of Live Birth. The purpose of this report is to describe the characteristics of women giving birth and the circumstances of births in which epidural or spinal anesthesia is used to relieve the pain of labor for vaginal deliveries. Descriptive statistics are presented on births occurring in 2008 to residents of 27 states that had implemented the 2003 U.S. Standard Certificate of Live Birth as of January 1, 2008. Analyses are limited to singleton births in vaginal deliveries that occurred in the 27-state reporting area only and are not generalizable to the United States as a whole. Overall, 61 percent of women who had a singleton birth in a vaginal delivery in the 27 states in 2008 received epidural or spinal anesthesia; non-Hispanic white women received epidural or spinal anesthesia more often (69 percent) than other racial groups. Among Hispanic origin groups, Puerto Rican women were most likely to receive epidural or spinal anesthesia (68 percent). Levels of treatment with epidural or spinal anesthesia decreased by advancing age of mother. Levels increased with increasing maternal educational attainment. Early initiation of prenatal care increased the likelihood of epidural or spinal anesthesia receipt, as did attendance at birth by a physician. Use of epidural or spinal anesthesia was more common in vaginal deliveries assisted by forceps (84 percent) or vacuum extraction (77 percent) than in spontaneous vaginal deliveries (60 percent). Use of epidural or spinal anesthesia was less likely when infants were born prior to 34 weeks of gestation or weighed less than 1,500 grams. Women with chronic and gestational diabetes were more likely to receive an epidural or spinal anesthesia than women with no pregnancy risk factors. Precipitous labor (less than 3 hours) was associated with decreased epidural or spinal anesthesia receipt. longer second stage of labor, and fetal distress (compared with women who receive opiates intravenously or by injection) (1,5,6). Severe headache, maternal hypotension, maternal fever, and urinary retention have also been associated with epidural/spinal anesthesia receipt (5). This report examines the relationship between epidural/spinal anesthesia receipt and selected characteristics of the mother and of labor among vaginal deliveries in the 27-state reporting area as reported on the 2003 U.S. Standard Certificate of Live Birth.
    National vital statistics reports: from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System 04/2011; 59(5):1-13, 16.
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    ABSTRACT: This report presents 2006 period infant mortality statistics from the linked birth/infant death data set (linked file) by a variety of maternal and infant characteristics. The linked file differs from the mortality file, which is based entirely on death certificate data. Descriptive tabulations of data are presented and interpreted. The U.S. infant mortality rate was 6.68 infant deaths per 1,000 live births in 2006, a 3 percent decline from 6.86 in 2005. Infant mortality rates ranged from 4.52 per 1,000 live births for Central and South American mothers to 13.35 for non-Hispanic black mothers. Infant mortality rates were higher for those infants whose mothers were born in the 50 states or the District of Columbia, were unmarried, or were born in multiple deliveries. Infant mortality was also higher for male infants and infants born preterm or at low birthweight. The neonatal mortality rate was essentially unchanged in 2006 (4.46) from 2005 (4.54). The postneonatal mortality rate decreased 4 percent, from 2.32 in 2005 to 2.22 in 2006. Infants born at the lowest gestational ages and birthweights have a large impact on overall U.S. infant mortality. For example, more than half of all infant deaths in the United States in 2006 (54 percent) occurred to the 2 percent of infants born very preterm (less than 32 weeks of gestation). Still, infant mortality rates for late preterm infants (34-36 weeks of gestation) were three times those for term infants (37-41 weeks). The three leading causes of infant death--congenital malformations, low birthweight, and sudden infant death syndrome--taken together accounted for 46 percent of all infant deaths. The percentage of infant deaths that were "preterm-related" was 36.1 percent in 2006. The preterm-related infant mortality rate for non-Hispanic black mothers was 3.4 times higher and the rate for Puerto Rican mothers was 84 percent higher than for non-Hispanic white mothers.
    National vital statistics reports: from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System 04/2010; 58(17):1-31.
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    ABSTRACT: This report examines trends and characteristics of out-of-hospital and home births in the United States. Descriptive tabulations of data are presented and interpreted. In 2006, there were 38,568 out-of-hospital births in the United States, including 24,970 home births and 10,781 births occurring in a freestanding birthing center. After a gradual decline from 1990 to 2004, the percentage of out-of-hospital births increased by 3% from 0.87% in 2004 to 0.90% in 2005 and 2006. A similar pattern was found for home births. After a gradual decline from 1990 to 2004, the percentage of home births increased by 5% to 0.59% in 2005 and remained steady in 2006. Compared with the U.S. average, home birth rates were higher for non-Hispanic white women, married women, women aged 25 and over, and women with several previous children. Home births were less likely than hospital births to be preterm, low birthweight, or multiple deliveries. The percentage of home births was 74% higher in rural counties of less than 100,000 population than in counties with a population size of 100,000 or more. The percentage of home births also varied widely by state; in Vermont and Montana more than 2% of births in 2005-2006 were home births, compared with less than 0.2% in Louisiana and Nebraska. About 61% of home births were delivered by midwives. Among midwife-delivered home births, one-fourth (27%) were delivered by certified nurse midwives, and nearly three-fourths (73%) were delivered by other midwives. Women may choose home birth for a variety of reasons, including a desire for a low-intervention birth in a familiar environment surrounded by family and friends and cultural or religious concerns. Lack of transportation in rural areas and cost factors may also play a role.
    National vital statistics reports: from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System 03/2010; 58(11):1-14, 16.
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    ABSTRACT: This report presents period life tables by age, race, and sex for the United States based on age-specific death rates in 2005. The tables presented are based on a newly revised methodology. For comparability, all life tables from the year 2000 forward have been re-estimated using the revised methodology and are presented in the "Technical Notes" section. Data used to prepare the 2005 life tables are 2005 final mortality statistics, July 1, 2005 population estimates based on the 2000 decennial census, and 2005 Medicare data for ages 66-100. The methods used to estimate mortality for ages 0-65 were the same as those used in annual life tables from 1997 through 2004 (1). The methodology to estimate mortality for the population aged 66 and over was revised in three ways: Medicare data were used to supplement vital statistics and census data starting at age 66 rather than 85, as was done from 1997 through 2004; probabilities of death based on current Medicare data rather than rates of change of probabilities of death based on noncurrent Medicare data were used; and the smoothing and extrapolation of the probabilities of death for ages 66 and over were performed using a nonlinear least squares model rather than a linear model of the rate of change of the probabilities of death for ages 85 and over (1-3). In 2005, the overall expectation of life at birth was 77.4 years, representing a decline of 0.1 years from life expectancy in 2004. From 2004 to 2005, life expectancy at birth remained the same for males (74.9), females (79.9), the white population (77.9), white males (75.4), white females (80.4), the black population (72.8), and black males (69.3). Life expectancy at birth increased for black females (from 76.0 to 76.1). Life expectancy estimates based on the revised methodology are slightly lower than those based on the previous methodology. For 2005, life expectancy at birth based on the revised methodology was lower by 0.4 years for the total population.
    National vital statistics reports: from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System 03/2010; 58(10):1-132.

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