Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management (Integrated Environ Assess Manag )

Publisher: SETAC (Society), Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry Press

Journal description

The second, peer-reviewed, international journal from SETAC. IEAM will be available online and in print and is devoted to bringing together scientifc research and the use of science in decision-making, regulation, and environmental management.

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Website Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management website
Other titles Integrated environmental assessment and management, IEAM
ISSN 1551-3793
OCLC 55964374
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry Press

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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Direct greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture accounted for around 10% of total European Union (EU) emissions in 2010. To reduce farming-related GHG emissions, appropriate policy measures and supporting tools for promoting low-carbon farming practices may be efficacious. This paper presents the methodology and testing results of a new EU-wide farm-level carbon footprint calculator. The Carbon Calculator quantifies GHG emissions based on international standards and technical specifications on Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and carbon footprinting. The tool delivers its results both at the farm level and as allocated to up to five main products of the farm. In addition to the quantification of GHG emissions, the calculator proposes mitigation options and sequestration actions that may be suitable for individual farms. The results obtained during a survey made on 54 farms from eight EU Member States are presented. These farms were selected in view of representing the diversity of farm types across different environmental zones in the EU. The results of the carbon footprint of products in the dataset show wide range of variation between minimum and maximum values. The results of the mitigation actions showed that the tool can help identify practices that can lead to substantial emission reductions. To avoid burden-shifting from climate change to other environmental issues, the future improvements of the tool should include incorporation of other environmental impact categories in place of solely focusing on GHG emissions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 02/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: This brief communication reports on the main findings and recommendations from the 2014 Science Forum organized by CropLife America. The aim of the Forum was to gain a better understanding of the current status of population models and how they could be used in ecological risk assessments for threatened and endangered species potentially exposed to pesticides in the United States. The Forum panelists' recommendations are intended to assist the relevant government agencies with implementation of population modeling in future endangered species risk assessments for pesticides. The Forum included keynote presentations that provided an overview of current practices, highlighted the findings of a recent National Academy of Sciences report and its implications, reviewed the main categories of existing population models and the types of risk expressions that can be produced as model outputs, and provided examples of how population models are currently being used in different legislative contexts. The panel concluded that models developed for listed species assessments should: provide quantitative risk estimates; incorporate realistic variability in environmental and demographic factors; integrate complex patterns of exposure and effects; and use baseline conditions that include present factors that have caused the species to be listed (e.g., habitat loss, invasive species) or have resulted in positive management action. Furthermore, the panel advocates for the formation of a multipartite advisory committee to provide best available knowledge and guidance related to model implementation and use, to address such needs as more systematic collection, digitization, and dissemination of data for listed species; consideration of the newest developments in Good Modeling Practice; comprehensive review of existing population models and their applicability for listed species assessments; and development of case studies using a few well-tested models for particular species to demonstrate proof of concept. To advance our common goals, the panel recommends as important areas for further research and development: quantitative analysis of the causes of species listings to guide model development; systematic assessment of the relative role of toxicity versus other factors in driving pesticide risk; additional study of how interactions between density dependence and pesticides influence risk; and development of pragmatic approaches to assessing indirect effects of pesticides on listed species. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 02/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: The complex, widely dispersed, and cumulative environmental challenges currently facing society require holistic, transdisciplinary approaches to resolve. The concept of ecosystem services (ES) has become more widely accepted as a framework that fosters a broader systems perspective of sustainability, and can make science more responsive to the needs of decision makers and the public. Successful transdisciplinary approaches require a common language and understanding of key concepts. Our primary objective is to encourage the ES research and policy communities to standardize terminology and definitions, to facilitate mutual understanding by multidisciplinary researchers and policy makers. As an important step toward standardization, we present a lexicon developed to inform ES research conducted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and its partners. We describe a straightforward conceptualization of the relationships among environmental decisions, their effects on ecological systems and the services they provide, and human well being. This provides a framework for common understanding and use of ES terminology. We encourage challenges to these definitions and attempts to advance standardization of a lexicon in ways that might be more meaningful to our ultimate objective: informing environmental decisions in ways that promote the sustainability of the environment upon which we all depend. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 02/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: Many coal-fired electric generating facilities in the US are discharging higher loads of Hg, Se, and other chemicals to receiving streams due to the installation of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) air pollution control units. There are regulatory concerns about the potential increased uptake of these bioaccumulative trace elements into food webs. We evaluated the concentrations of As, THg, MeHg, and Se in Ohio River fish collected proximal to coal-fired power plants, of which 75% operate FGD systems. Fillet samples (N = 50) from six fish species representing three trophic levels were analyzed. Geometric mean fillet concentrations of THg (wet wt.), MeHg (wet wt.), and Se (dry wt.) in three species were 0.136, 0.1181, and 3.19 mg/kg (sauger); 0.123, 0.1013, and 1.56 mg/kg (channel catfish); and 0.127, 0.0914, and 3.30 mg/kg (hybrid striped bass). For all species analyzed, only three fillet samples (6% of total) had MeHg concentrations that exceeded the USEPA human health criterion (0.3 mg/kg wet wt.); all of these were freshwater drum aged ≥19 years. None of the samples analyzed exceeded the USEPA proposed muscle and whole body Se thresholds for protection against reproductive effects in freshwater fish. All but eight fillet samples had a total As concentration less than 1.0 mg/kg dry wt. Mean Se health benefit values (HBVSe) for all species were ≥ 4, indicating that potential mercury-related health risks associated with consumption of Ohio River fish are likely to be offset by adequate Se concentrations. Overall, we observed no measurable evidence of enhanced trace element bioaccumulation associated with proximity to power plant FGD facilities, however some enhanced bioaccumulation could have occurred in the wastewater mixing zones. Furthermore, available evidence indicates that, due to hydraulic and physical factors, the main stem Ohio River appears to have low net Hg methylation potential. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
    Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: Process-based multimedia models are frequently utilized to simulate the long-term impacts of pollutants and to evaluate potential remediation actions that can be put in place to improve or manage polluted marine environments. Many such models are detailed enough to encapsulate the different scales and processes relevant for various contaminants, yet still are tractable enough for analysis through established methods for uncertainty assessment. Inclusion and quantification of the uncertainty associated with local efficacy of remediation actions is of importance when the desired outcome in terms of human health concerns or environmental classification shows a non-linear relationship with remediation effort. Here we present an updated fugacity based environmental fate model set up to simulate the historical fate of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzo-furans (PCDD/Fs) in the Grenland fjords, Norway. The model is parameterized using Bayesian inference and is then used to simulate the effect of capping parts of the polluted sediments with active carbon. Great care is taken in quantifying the uncertainty regarding the efficacy of the activated carbon cap to reduce the leaching of contaminants from the sediments. The model predicts that by capping selected parts of the fjord biota will be classified as Moderately polluted approximately a decade earlier than a natural remediation scenario. Our approach also illustrates the importance of incorporating uncertainty in local remediation efforts, as the biotic concentrations scale non-linearly with remediation effort. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
    Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: As a result of long-term metal mining and metallurgical activities, the sediment of Ross Lake (Flin Flin, MB, Canada) is highly contaminated with metals and other elements. Although it is likely that effluents were discharged into Ross Lake as early as the late 1920 s, lake biophysical data were not collected until 1973, more than four decades after the onset of mining and municipal activities. The early influence of these activities on the ecology of Ross Lake is unknown, as are the effects of improvements to metallurgical effluent quality and discontinuation of municipal wastewater discharge into the lake's north basin. To address this knowledge gap, analyses typical of paleolimnological investigations were applied to cores of sediment collected in 2009 from the south basin of Ross Lake. Stratigraphic analyses of physicochemical sediment characteristics (e.g., the concentrations metals and other elements, organic carbon organic nitrogen, δ13C and δ15N values) and subfossil remains (diatoms, Chironomidae, Chaoborus, and Cladocera) were used to infer historical biological and chemical changes in Ross Lake. With the onset of mining activities, concentrations of various elements (e.g., arsenic, chromium, copper, zinc, and selenium) increased dramatically in the sediment profile, eventually declining with improved tailings management. Nevertheless, concentrations of metals in recent sediments remain elevated compared to pre-industrial sediments. Constrained cluster analyses demonstrated distinct pre- and post-industrial communities for both the diatoms and chironomids. The biodiversity of the post-industrial diatom assemblages were much reduced compared to the pre-industrial assemblages. The post-industrial chironomid assemblage was dominated by Chironomus and to a lesser extent by Procladius, suggesting that Ross Lake became a degraded environment. Abundances of Cladocera and Chaoborus were severely reduced in the post-industrial era, likely due to metals toxicity. Overall, improvements to the management of both metallurgical and municipal effluent are reflected in the physicochemical sediment record; nevertheless, the ecology of Ross Lake remains impaired and shows minimal signs of returning to a pre-industrial state. Recommendations are made regarding possible future investigations at this site and the need for a framework to help assess causation using paleolimnological and other site data. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
    Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: Understanding what can be achieved and what should be avoided by environmental management decisions requires an understanding of values or what is cared about in a decision. Decision analysis provides tools and processes for constructing objectives that transparently reflect the values being considered in environmental management decisions. This article demonstrates parts of the initial decision analysis steps of identifying a decision context and constructing objectives for the recovery and long-term restoration of the Gulf of Mexico following the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill. From a review of multiple reports, including those developed by policy makers and non-governmental organizations, a preliminary structuring of concerns and considerations into objectives was derived to highlight features of importance in the recovery from the spill and long-term restoration. The fundamental objectives constructed for the long-term restoration context reflect broader concerns regarding well-being and quality of life. When developed through stakeholder engagement processes, clarifying objectives can potentially (1) lend insight into the values that can be affected (2) meaningfully include stakeholders in the decision making process (3) enhance transparency and communication and (4) develop high impact management strategies reflecting broad public interests. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: First-tier regulatory exposure assessments for pesticides assume that pesticide sorption is instantaneous and fully reversible. In EU regulatory guidance, an increase in sorption over time ('aged sorption') can be considered at the higher tier to refine predicted environmental concentrations in groundwater. Research commissioned by the UK Chemicals Regulation Directorate (CRD), funded by Defra, formed the basis of a draft regulatory guidance document proposing (i) a protocol on how to measure aged sorption of parent compounds in laboratory studies, (ii) procedures to fit kinetic models to the experimental data, (iii) criteria to test the reliability of the parameters, and (iv) procedures for use of the parameters in the groundwater exposure assessment. The draft guidance was revised after feedback from stakeholders and testing of the guidance was performed against real datasets by an independent consultancy. CRD submitted the revised document to the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) for scrutiny. This article gives an overview of the draft guidance and explains the reasoning behind the recommendations made. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: Many watersheds in the Central Valley region of California are listed as impaired due to pyrethroid-associated sediment toxicity. The Central Valley Regional Water Quality Control Board is developing numeric sediment quality criteria for pyrethroids, beginning with bifenthrin. Criteria are being developed using existing data, along with data from 10d and 28d toxicity tests with Hyalella azteca conducted as part of the current study. A single range-finder and two definitive tests were conducted for each test duration. Median lethal concentrations (LC50s), as well as LC20s and inhibition concentrations (IC20s) were calculated based on measured whole sediment bifenthrin concentrations and interstitial water concentrations. Sediment LC50s were also corrected for organic carbon content. Average LC50s were not significantly different in 10d versus 28d tests with H. azteca: 9.1 and 9.6 ng/g bifenthrin for 10d and 28d tests, respectively. Average LC20 values were also similar with concentrations at 7.1 and 7.0 for 10d and 28d tests, respectively. Bifenthrin inhibition concentrations (IC20s) based on amphipod growth were variable, particularly in the 28d tests, where a clear dose response relationship was observed in only one of the definitive experiments. Average amphipod growth IC20s were 3.9 and 9.0 ng/g for 10d and 28d tests, respectively. Amphipod growth calculated as biomass resulted in IC20s of 4.1 and 6.3 ng/g for the 10d and 28d tests, respectively. Lack of a clear growth effect in the longer term test may be related to the lack of food adjustment to account for amphipod mortality in whole sediment exposures. The average carbon-corrected LC50s were 1.03 and 1.09 μg/g OC for the 10d and 28d tests, respectively. Interstitial water LC50s were determined as the measured dissolved concentration of bifenthrin relative to interstitial water dissolved organic carbon. The average LC50s for dissolved interstitial water bifenthrin were 4.23 and 4.28 ng/L for the 10d and 28d tests, respectively. In addition, a set of 10d and 28d tests were conducted at 15°C to assess the relative toxicity of bifenthrin at a lower temperature than the standard 23°C test temperature. These results showed that bifenthrin was more toxic at the lower temperature, with LC50s of 5.1 and 3.4 ng/g bifenthrin in 10d and 28d tests, respectively. Amphipod growth at 15°C after a 28d exposure resulted in the lowest effect concentration of all experiments conducted (IC20 = 0.61 ng/g). This paper discusses how bifenthrin dose-response data from 10d and 28d exposures inform development of sediment quality criteria for this pesticide for California Central Valley watersheds. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
    Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: Contaminated sediments can pose serious threats to human health and the environment by acting as a source of toxic chemicals. The amendment of contaminated sediments with strong sorbents like activated carbon (AC) is a rapidly developing strategy to manage contaminated sediments. To date, a great deal of attention has been paid to the technical and ecological features and implications of sediment remediation with AC, although science in this field still is rapidly evolving. The present paper aims to provide an update on the recent literature on these features, and for the first time provides a comparison of sediment remediation with AC to other sediment management options, emphasising their full-scale application. First, a qualitative overview of (dis)advantages of current alternatives to remediate contaminated sediments is presented. Subsequently, AC treatment technology is critically reviewed, including current understanding of the effectiveness and ecological safety for the use of AC in natural systems. Finally, this information is used to provide a novel framework for supporting decisions concerning sediment remediation and beneficial re-use. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 01/2015;
  • Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 01/2015; 11(1).
  • Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 01/2015; 11(1).
  • Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 01/2015; 11(1):171-3.
  • Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 01/2015; 11(1).
  • Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 01/2015; 11(1):176-7.
  • Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 01/2015; 11(1).
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    ABSTRACT: In the context of circular economy, sustainable consumption is often seen as the antithesis of current consumption patterns, which have led to the definition of the so-called “throwaway society”. Reuse may provide a preferred alternative to other waste management options, because it promotes resource efficiency and may significantly reduce environmental impacts. In order to appraise the environmental benefits related to reuse of goods, a methodology adopting life cycle assessment (LCA) has been developed. A standardized procedure has been developed, identifying reference products within product category subject to reuse, and collecting reliable inventory data as basis for calculating environmental impact through LCA. A case study on a second hand shop is presented and the avoided impacts quantified. Inventory data were taken both from literature, and directly from sales and survey submitted to customers. The results are presented highlighting: i) for each product category, the average avoided impacts for one unit of reused product considered and ii) for the overall activities of the second hand shop, the cumulative avoided impacts in one year. In the case study, the higher contribution to avoided impacts comes from the apparel sector, due to the high amount of items sold, and followed by the furniture sector, due to the high amount of environmental impacts avoided by the reuse of each single item. Editor's Note: This paper represents 1 of 10 papers in the special series “LCA Case Study Symposium 2013,” which was generated from the 19th SETAC LCA Case Study Symposium “LCA in market research and policy: Harmonisation beyond standardization,” held in November 2013, in Rome, Italy. This collection of invited papers reflect the purpose of the symposium and focus on how LCA can support the decision-making process at all levels, i.e., industry and policy contexts, and how LCA results can be efficiently communicated and be used to support market strategies. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
    Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: A site-specific ecological risk assessment (ERA) was conducted to examine the simultaneous use of genetically modified corn (Bt corn) with a neonicotinoid seed coating, clothianidin, and use of a granular insecticide, tefluthrin, to protect crops from pest damage. A field study was conducted on-site and exposure data from the literature was summarized to determine the matrices and exposure concentrations non-target species could typically experience within an agricultural ecosystem. To determine ecological effects to non-target species, acute toxicity bioassays were conducted on earthworms (Eisenia fetida), amphipods (Hyalella azteca), and Elmid riffle beetle larvae (Ancyronyx spp.) in which the test species were exposed to single insecticides as well as the mixture of the three insecticides. In the risk characterization section of the ERA, stressor-response profiles for each species tested were compared to field distributions of the insecticides and a margin of safety at the 10th percentile (MOS10) was calculated to estimate risk. No acute toxicity was observed in any of the three non-target species when exposed to senescent Bt corn leaf tissue. Large MOS10 values were calculated for clothianidin to the non-target species. When bioassays were compared to tefluthrin field distributions, very low MOS10 values were calculated for earthworms (0.06) and H. azteca (0.08) due to the environmental concentrations often exceeding the stressor-response profile. There was no increased toxicity observed when non-target species were exposed to a mixture of the three insecticides. In summary, the genetically modified corn insecticidal proteins and clothianidin were not found at environmental concentrations exceeding benchmark values for ecological effects, but tefluthrin was consistently detected in the environment at levels that could be causing toxicity to non-target species, especially if it is able to travel off-site. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
    Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: For sediment contaminated with bioaccumulative pollutants (e.g., PCBs and organochorine pesticides), human consumption of seafood that have bioaccumulated sediment-derived contaminants is a well-established exposure pathway. Historically, regulation and management of this bioaccumulation pathway has focused on site-specific risk assessment. The state of California (USA) is supporting the development of a consistent and quantitative sediment assessment framework to aid in interpreting a narrative objective protecting human health. The conceptual basis of this framework focuses on two key questions: 1. Do observed pollutant concentrations in seafood from a given site pose unacceptable health risks to human consumers? 2. Is sediment contamination at a site a significant contributor to seafood contamination? The first question is evaluated by interpreting seafood tissue concentrations at the site, based on health risk calculations. The second question is evaluated by interpreting site-specific sediment chemistry data using a food web bioaccumulation model. The assessment framework includes three tiers (screening assessment, site assessment, and refined site assessment), which enables the assessment to match variations in data availability, site complexity, and study objectives. The second and third tiers use a stochastic simulation approach, incorporating information on variability and uncertainty of key parameters, such as seafood contaminant concentration and consumption rate by humans. The framework incorporates site-specific values for sensitive parameters and statewide values for difficult to obtain or less sensitive parameters. The proposed approach advances risk assessment policy by incorporating local data into a consistent region-wide problem formulation, applying best available science in a streamlined fashion. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
    Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 12/2014;