Journal of clinical sleep medicine: JCSM: official publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine

Publisher: American Academy of Sleep Medicine, American Academy of Sleep Medicine


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American Academy of Sleep Medicine

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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To review systematically medical-legal cases of sleep-related violence (SRV) and sexual behavior in sleep (SBS).
    Journal of clinical sleep medicine: JCSM: official publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine 08/2014; 10(8):927-935.
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    ABSTRACT: STUDY OBJECTIVE: Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) and speech difficulties are common problems in children with craniofacial malformations (CFM). The present study was designed to investigate whether resonance issues identified during speech assessment are associated with parental report of SDB symptoms in children with CFM. METHODS: Children aged 2-18 years with congenital CFM attending at the Craniofacial Anomalies Program from March 2007 to April 2011 were screened for SDB symptoms using the Sleep-Related Breathing Disturbance Scale of the Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire. Speech evaluation, based on the Pittsburgh Weighted Speech Scale score, was the tool used to investigate velopharyngeal dysfunction (VPD) based on speech perceptual assessment. RESULTS: A total of 488 children with congenital CFM were included. Overall 81% were Caucasian and 24% were overweight/obese. Twenty-four percent of children screened positive for SDB and 35% had VPD. Children with VPD were no more likely to screen positive for SDB than children without VPD (26% vs. 23%, p = 0.38). However, children with previous sphincter pharyngoplasty (SP) were more likely to have hyponasality (51% vs. 12%, p = 0.0001) and reduced or absent nasal emission (33% vs. 16%, p = 0.008). In a logistic regression, the adjusted odds ratio for SDB for those with hyponasality was 2.10 (95%CI 1.21-3.61, p = 0.008) and for those with reduced or absent nasal emission was 1.75 (95%CI 1.06-2.88, p = 0.028). CONCLUSION: Symptoms of sleep disordered breathing are common in children with craniofacial malformations especially if they have undergone sphincter pharyngoplasty; many of these children can be identified by measures of resonance on routine speech evaluation. KEYWORDS: craniofacial malformations; sleep-disordered breathing; speech; velopharyngeal dysfunction
    Journal of clinical sleep medicine: JCSM: official publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine 06/2014; J Clin Sleep Med(10(6)):671-6.
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    ABSTRACT: Fear of sleep may play a significant role in sleep disturbances in individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This report describes a psychometric study of the Fear of Sleep Inventory (FoSI), which was developed to measure this construct. The psychometric properties of the FoSI were examined in a non-clinical sample of 292 college students (Study I) and in a clinical sample of 67 trauma-exposed adults experiencing chronic nightmares (Study II). Data on the 23 items of the FoSI were subjected to exploratory factor analyses (EFA) to identify items uniquely assessing fear of sleep. Next, reliability and validity of a 13-item version of the FoSI was examined in both samples. A 13-item Short-Form version (FoSI-SF) was identified as having a clear 2-factor structure with high internal consistency in both the non-clinical (α = 0.76-0.94) and clinical (α = 0.88-0.91) samples. Both studies demonstrated good convergent validity with measures of PTSD (0.48-0.61) and insomnia (0.39-0.48) and discriminant validity with a measure of sleep hygiene (0.19-0.27). The total score on the FoSI-SF was significantly higher in the clinical sample (mean = 17.90, SD = 12.56) than in the non-clinical sample (mean = 4.80, SD = 7.72); t 357 = 8.85 p < 0.001. Although all items are recommended for clinical purposes, the data support the use of the 13-item FoSI-SF for research purposes. Replication of the factor structure in clinical samples is needed. Results are discussed in terms of limitations of this study and directions for further research. Pruiksma KE, Taylor DJ, Ruggero C, Boals A, Davis JL, Cranston C, DeViva JC, Zayfert C. A psychometric study of the Fear of Sleep Inventory-short form (FoSI-SF). J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(5):551-558.
    Journal of clinical sleep medicine: JCSM: official publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine 05/2014; 10(5):551-8.
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    ABSTRACT: To survey Advanced Practice Registered Nurse (APRN) and Physician Assistant (PA) utilization, roles and educational background within the field of sleep medicine. Electronic surveys distributed to American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) member centers and APRNs and PAs working within sleep centers and clinics. Approximately 40% of responding AASM sleep centers reported utilizing APRNs or PAs in predominantly clinical roles. Of the APRNs and PAs surveyed, 95% reported responsibilities in sleep disordered breathing and more than 50% in insomnia and movement disorders. Most APRNs and PAs were prepared at the graduate level (89%), with sleep-specific education primarily through "on the job" training (86%). All APRNs surveyed were Nurse Practitioners (NPs), with approximately double the number of NPs compared to PAs. APRNs and PAs were reported in sleep centers at proportions similar to national estimates of NPs and PAs in physicians' offices. They report predominantly clinical roles, involving common sleep disorders. Given current predictions that the outpatient healthcare structure will change and the number of APRNs and PAs will increase, understanding the role and utilization of these professionals is necessary to plan for the future care of patients with sleep disorders. Surveyed APRNs and PAs reported a significant deficiency in formal and standardized sleep-specific education. Efforts to provide formal and standardized educational opportunities for APRNs and PAs that focus on their clinical roles within sleep centers could help fill a current educational gap. Colvin L, Cartwright Ann, Collop N, Freedman N, McLeod D, Weaver TE, Rogers AE. Advanced practice registered nurses and physician assistants in sleep centers and clinics: a survey of current roles and educational background. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(5):581-587.
    Journal of clinical sleep medicine: JCSM: official publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine 05/2014; 10(5):581-7.
  • Journal of clinical sleep medicine: JCSM: official publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine 05/2014; 10(5):595-8.
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    ABSTRACT: Long-term use of hypnotics runs the risk of dependency, and subjects usually experience difficulties in withdrawal. The objective of this study was to investigate the success of withdrawal using pregabalin and its efficacy on sleep in patients with hypnotic-dependent insomnia. We enrolled patients with hypnotic-dependent insomnia who were 18 years or older. The starting dosage of pregabalin was 75 mg/day and was increased up to as much as 300 mg/day, depending on the individual patient's condition, while tapering off hypnotics. After 4 weeks of titration, the final dosage amount was maintained for at least another 4 weeks. Sleep and clinical variables were evaluated at baseline and after treatment, using the Korean versions of various sleep questionnaires as well as polysomnography. Forty subjects were enrolled, with a mean age of 52.0 ± 8.5 years, of whom 28 (70.0%) were women. Twenty-one (52.5%) subjects successfully withdrew from hypnotics. The duration of withdrawal was 42.1 ± 16.0 days (range: 27.0∼84.0). The mean pregabalin dose was 121.4 ± 69.0 mg/day (range: 75.0∼300.0). After pregabalin treatment, there was a significant improvement in the total score of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (15.0 ± 2.1, 8.9 ± 3.0, p < 0.001), and insomnia severity index (20.9 ± 4.3, 9.6 ± 4.4, p < 0.001); however, most of the sleep variables of the PSG showed no differences. The main adverse effects of pregabalin were nausea and dizziness. Our results showed pregabalin may be a promising candidate for withdrawal from hypnotics and improved sleep in patients with hypnotic-dependent insomnia. Cho YW, Song ML. Effects of pregabalin in patients with hypnotic-dependent insomnia. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(5):545-550.
    Journal of clinical sleep medicine: JCSM: official publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine 05/2014; 10(5):545-50.
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    ABSTRACT: The American Association of Sleep Technologists (AAST) Board of Directors hosted a Sleep Technology Summit on September 21, 2013 with the goals of identifying changes in the delivery of diagnostic and treatment services to sleep disorders patients, predicting the impact on sleep technologists, identifying new roles for sleep technologists, and determining appropriate education to prepare technologists for the future. A carefully chosen panel of speakers focused on the business skills necessary to provide care cost effectively and the clinical skills that will be essential for the technologist of the future to help care for patients with sleep disorders. A group of selected leaders, educators, and industry professionals reviewed the current state of affairs and examined opportunities to sustain the profession and define the role of the sleep technologist of the future. Facilitated group discussions of these critical topics followed each session. There was a clear consensus that regulatory and economic pressures are changing the way sleep disorders patients are diagnosed and treated. Private insurers are requiring pre-authorization for laboratory sleep studies and are incentivizing home sleep testing for most patients suspected of obstructive sleep apnea. Reimbursement for home testing will be lower than for laboratory testing, and further reductions in overall reimbursement are anticipated. These factors will almost certainly reduce the need for technologists to perform laboratory diagnostic studies and pressure sleep centers to reduce payrolls. Remaining laboratory patients will have more complicated sleep disorders, have more comorbidity, and require a higher level of care than most of the patients currently tested in sleep centers. Testing these patients will require technologists with a higher level of training, experience, and sophistication. A second area of consensus was that the focus in medicine is changing from diagnosis to outcomes. New models of integrated care will include an increased focus on patient education, monitoring, and follow-up. The most effective treatments will require an individualized, patient-centered approach. A workforce analysis shows that the number of trained physician specialists will be inadequate to provide this care. Well-trained sleep medicine practitioners at many levels will be needed to meet treatment goals, including some roles appropriate for sleep technologists. These factors provide challenges and opportunities for sleep technologists. In order to maintain viability as an allied health profession, the majority of sleep technologists will need to be better educated and demonstrate competency in more roles than overnight monitoring and record scoring. Models for this transition already exist, with several programs moving technologists from night work to days and from diagnosis to patient education, provision of treatment, and monitoring of adherence. The challenge for the professional association is to define new roles for sleep technologists and provide the education that the membership will require to flourish in those new roles. Brooks R, Trimble M. The future of sleep technology: report from an American Association of Sleep Technologists summit meeting. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(5):589-593.
    Journal of clinical sleep medicine: JCSM: official publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine 05/2014; 10(5):589-93.
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    ABSTRACT: Complex sleep apnea syndrome (CompSAS) is characterized by predominant obstructive sleep disordered breathing with evolution of central disordered breathing following exposure to nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients. We report a case of CompSAS associated with use of a nasal expiratory positive airway (nEPAP, Provent) device. We therefore recommend obtaining objective sleep data to confirm treatment effectiveness of the nEPAP device for OSA prior to long-term prescription. Further research is warranted to understand the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms and risk factors associated with CompSAS. Chopra A, Das P, Ramar K, Staats B, St Louis EK. Complex sleep apnea associated with use of nasal expiratory positive airway (nEPAP) device. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(5):577-579.
    Journal of clinical sleep medicine: JCSM: official publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine 05/2014; 10(5):577-9.
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    ABSTRACT: Both restless legs syndrome ([RLS], also known as Willis-Ekbom Disease [WED]) and depression are common during pregnancy. However, no prior studies have assessed if pregnant women with RLS have an elevated risk of depression during and/or after pregnancy. 1,428 women who were pregnant in gestational week 16-17 were asked to participate in a longitudinal survey. They were followed by web-based questionnaires in gestational week 17 and 32, and 6 weeks after delivery. Data were also retrieved from prenatal and birth records. Two different sets of criteria were used to examine the prevalence of RLS in the cohort (International Restless Legs Syndrome Society Group standard criteria and the later developed CH-RLSQ11 questionnaire). The latter questionnaire attempts to exclude those with common "mimics" of RLS. Adjusted odds ratio for depression in gestational week 17, 32, and postpartum week 6 in relation to pre-pregnancy RLS onset and moderate to severe symptom severity were 4.74 (2.30 - 9.76), 3.67 (1.85 - 7.28), and 2.58 (1.28 - 5.21), respectively. No significant associations were seen in pregnant women with de novo RLS during pregnancy. When using the standard diagnostic RLS criteria and frequency of symptoms more than 2-3 days per week, the prevalence of RLS was 12.3%. With the CH-RLSQ11 questionnaire and the same threshold for frequency of symptoms the prevalence was 6.5%. Women with RLS onset before pregnancy with moderate or severe symptoms had an increased risk of both antenatal and postnatal depression. The self-reported prevalence of RLS during pregnancy is lower when a questionnaire dealing with "mimics" is used. Wesström J, Skalkidou A, Manconi M, Fulda S, Sundström-Poromaa I. Pre-pregnancy restless legs syndrome (Willis-Ekbom Disease) is associated with perinatal depression. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(5):527-533.
    Journal of clinical sleep medicine: JCSM: official publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine 05/2014; 10(5):527-33.
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    ABSTRACT: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and sleep disordered breathing (SDB) can affect the sympathetic adrenomedullary system (SAM). As a biomarker of SAM activity, salivary α-amylase (sAA) in pediatric subjects was evaluated whether it has any correlation with polysomnographic (PSG) parameters related to SDB. Sixty-seven children who attended our clinic during 1 year were enrolled prospectively and underwent clinical examinations and in-lab polysomnography. The sAA was measured at 2 points-at night before PSG and in the early morning after PSG. Subjects were divided into control (n = 26, apneahypopnea index [AHI] < 1) and OSAS (n = 41, AHI ≥ 1) groups. The OSAS group was subdivided according to AHI (mild-moderate, 1 ≤ AHI < 10; severe, AHI ≥ 10). The sAA subtraction and ratio (p = 0.014 and p < 0.001, respectively) were significantly higher in severe OSAS than in the mild-moderate and control groups. Although oxygen desaturation index (ODI) and AHI were significantly associated with sAA, sAA in the OSAS group was not related to lowest oxygen saturation or adenotonsillar hypertrophy. sAA was well related to polysomnographic (PSG) parameters related to SDB, such as AHI and ODI. Therefore, screening test for sAA in children suspected to have SBD may help to identify OSAS patients from control. Park CS, Guilleminault C, Park HJ, Cho JH, Lee HK, Son HL, Hwang SH. Correlation of salivary alpha amylase level and adenotonsillar hypertrophy with sleep disordered breathing in pediatric subjects. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(5):559-566.
    Journal of clinical sleep medicine: JCSM: official publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine 05/2014; 10(5):559-66.
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigated the effects of fatty fish on sleep, daily functioning and biomarkers such as heart rate variability (HRV), vitamin D status (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) + docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) in red blood cells. Moreover the relationship among sleep, daily functioning, HRV, vitamin D status, and levels of EPA+DHA was investigated. Ninety-five male forensic patients from a secure forensic inpatient facility in the USA were randomly assigned into a Fish or a Control group. The Fish group received Atlantic salmon three times per week from September to February, and the Control group was provided an alternative meal (e.g., chicken, pork, beef), but with the same nutritional value as their habitual diet, three times per week during the same period. Sleep (sleep latency, sleep efficiency, actual sleep time, and actual wake time), self-perceived sleep quality and daily functioning, as well as vitamin D status, EPA+DHA, and HRV, were assessed pre- and post-intervention period. There was a significant increase in sleep latency from pre- to post-test in the Control group. The Fish group reported better daily functioning than the Control group during post-test. Fish consumption throughout the wintertime had also an effect on resting HRV and EPA+DHA, but not on vitamin D status. However, at post-test, the vitamin D status in the Fish group was still closer to the level regarded as optimal compared to the Control group. Vitamin D status correlated negatively with actual wake time and positively with sleep efficiency during pre-test, as well as positively with daily functioning and sleep quality during post-test. Finally, HRV correlated negatively with sleep latency and positively with daily functioning. Fish consumption seemed to have a positive impact on sleep in general and also on daily functioning, which may be related to vitamin D status and HRV. Hansen AL, Dahl L, Olson G, Thornton D, Graff IE, Frøyland L, Thayer JF, Pallesen S. Fish consumption, sleep, daily functioning, and heart rate variability. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(5):567-575.
    Journal of clinical sleep medicine: JCSM: official publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine 05/2014; 10(5):567-75.
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    ABSTRACT: Study Objectives: A majority of patients diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea are position dependent whereby they are at least twice as severe when sleeping supine (POSA). This study evaluated the accuracy and efficacy of a neck-worn device designed to limit supine sleep. The study included nightly measurements of snoring, sleep/wake, time supine, and the frequency and duration of feedback to monitor compliance. Methods: Thirty patients between ages 18 and 75 years, BMI<35 with an overall apnea-hypopnea index (AHI)>5 and an overall AHI>1.5 time the non-supine AHI, and an Epworth score >5 were prospectively studied. Subjective reports and polysomnography were used to assess efficacy resulting from four weeks of in-home supine-avoidance therapy and to measure device accuracy. From 363 polysomnography reports, 209 provided sufficient positional data to estimate one site’s prevalence of positional OSA. Results: In eighty-three percent of participants exhibiting >50% reduction in overall AHI, the mean and median reductions were 69 and 79%. Significant reductions in the overall and supine AHI, apnea index, percent time SpO2<90%, and snoring contributed to significant improvements in stage N1 and N2 sleep, reductions in cortical arousals and awakenings, and improved depression scores. Supine position was under-detected by >5% in 3% of cases. Sleep efficiency by neck actigraphy was within 10% of polysomnography in 87% of the studies when position feedback was delivered. The prevalence of POSA was consistently >70% when the overall AHI was <60. Conclusions: The neck position therapy device is accurate and effective in restricting supine sleep, improving AHI, sleep architecture and continuity, and monitoring treatment outcomes.
    Journal of clinical sleep medicine: JCSM: official publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine 04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: A naturally short sleeper phenotype with a sleep need of less than 6 hours without negative impact on health or performance is rare. We present a case of an acquired short sleeper phenotype after third ventriculostomy. A 59-year-old patient suffering from chronic hydrocephalus reported an average of 7-8 h of nocturnal sleep. After surgical intervention, the patient noted a strikingly reduced sleep need of 4-5 h without consequent fatigue or excessive daytime sleepiness, but with good daytime performance and well-balanced mood. Short sleep per 24 hours was confirmed by actigraphy. Postoperative imaging revealed decreased pressure around the anterior third ventricle. The temporal link between development of a short sleeper phenotype and third ventriculostomy is striking. This might suggest that individual short sleep need is not only determined by genetics but can be also be induced by external factors. Seystahl K; Könnecke H; Sürücü O; Baumann CR; Poryazova R. Development of a short sleeper phenotype after third ventriculostomy in a patient with ependymal cysts. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(2):211-213.
    Journal of clinical sleep medicine: JCSM: official publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine 01/2014; 10(2):211-3.
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the effects of botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) injection on jaw motor episodes during sleep in patients with or without orofacial pain who did not respond to oral splint treatment. Twenty subjects with a clinical diagnosis of SB completed this study. Ten subjects received bilateral BoNT-A injections (25 U per muscle) into the masseter muscles only (group A), and the other 10 received the injections into both the masseter and temporalis muscles (group B). Video-polysomnographic (vPSG) recordings were made before and at 4 weeks after injection. Rhythmic masticatory muscle activity (RMMA) and orofacial activity (OFA) were scored and analyzed for several parameters (e.g., frequency of episodes, bursts per episode, episode duration). The peak amplitude of electromyographic (EMG) activity in the two muscles was also measured. BoNT-A injection did not reduce the frequency, number of bursts, or duration for RMMA episodes in the two groups. The injection decreased the peak amplitude of EMG burst of RMMA episodes in the injected muscles (p < 0.001, repeated measure ANOVA) in both groups. At 4 weeks after injection, 9 subjects self-reported reduction of tooth grinding and 18 subjects self-reported reduction of morning jaw stiffness. A single BoNT-A injection is an effective strategy for controlling SB for at least a month. It reduces the intensity rather than the generation of the contraction in jaw-closing muscles. Future investigations on the efficacy and safety in larger samples over a longer follow-up period are needed before establishing management strategies for SB with BoNT-A. Shim YJ; Lee MK; Kato T; Park HU; Heo K; Kim ST. Effects of botulinum toxin on jaw motor events during sleep in sleep bruxism patients: a polysomnographic evaluation. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(3):291-298.
    Journal of clinical sleep medicine: JCSM: official publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine 01/2014; 10(3):291-8.
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the effects of dronabinol on quantitative electroencephalogram (EEG) markers of the sleep process, including power distribution and ultradian cycling in 15 patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). EEG (C4-A1) relative power (% total) in the delta, theta, alpha, and sigma bands was quantified by fast Fourier transformation (FFT) over 28-second intervals. An activation ratio (AR = [alpha + sigma] / [delta + theta]) also was computed for each interval. To assess ultradian rhythms, the best-fitting cosine wave was determined for AR and each frequency band in each polysomnogram (PSG). Fifteen subjects were included in the analysis. Dronabinol was associated with significantly increased theta power (p = 0.002). During the first half of the night, dronabinol decreased sigma power (p = 0.03) and AR (p = 0.03), and increased theta power (p = 0.0006). At increasing dronabinol doses, ultradian rhythms accounted for a greater fraction of EEG power variance in the delta band (p = 0.04) and AR (p = 0.03). Females had higher amplitude ultradian rhythms than males (theta: p = 0.01; sigma: p = 0.01). Decreasing AHI was associated with increasing ultradian rhythm amplitudes (sigma: p < 0.001; AR: p = 0.02). At the end of treatment, lower relative power in the theta band (p = 0.02) and lower AHI (p = 0.05) correlated with a greater decrease in sleepiness from baseline. This exploratory study demonstrates that in individuals with OSA, dronabinol treatment may yield a shift in EEG power toward delta and theta frequencies and a strengthening of ultradian rhythms in the sleep EEG. Farabi SS; Prasad B; Quinn L; Carley DW. Impact of dronabinol on quantitative electroencephalogram (qEEG) measures of sleep in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(1):49-56.
    Journal of clinical sleep medicine: JCSM: official publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine 01/2014; 10(1):49-56.
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    ABSTRACT: To examine the measurement differences in sleep and EEG arousal statistics between the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) recommended EEG montage (F4-M1, C4-M1, O2-M1) and acceptable EEG montage (Fz-Cz, C4-M1, Oz-Cz).
    Journal of clinical sleep medicine: JCSM: official publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine 01/2014; 10(7):803-9.
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    ABSTRACT: Sleep duration is commonly studied in children, but less is known about the potential impact of adverse sleep environments, particularly at preschool ages. We examined the frequency of suboptimal sleep environments and tested for associations with sleep duration or nocturnal sleep time among low-income preschool children. Parents of Head Start preschoolers in Michigan (Detroit and greater Lansing) completed questionnaires on children's sleep schedules and sleep environments. Respondents indicated how often their children slept in a place "too bright," "too loud," "too cold," or "too hot" on a scale of 1 = never to 5 = always. A suboptimal sleep environment (SSE) was defined when one or more of these conditions were reported for ≥ 1-2 nights/week. Weeknight sleep duration or reported time that the child went to sleep was regressed on SSE as an explanatory variable, with adjustment for age, race/ethnicity, gender, maternal education, and average daily nap duration. Among 133 preschool children, mean age was 4.1 ± 0.5 (SD), 48% were male, 39% were white, and 52% were black; 34% of parents had ≤ a high school degree. Parents reported that 26 (20%) of the children slept in a SSE ≥ 1-2 nights per week. In regression models, SSE was associated with 27 minutes shorter sleep duration (β = -0.45, SE = 0.22, p = 0.044) and 22 minutes later time child "fell asleep" (β = 0.37, SE = 0.19, p = 0.048) on weeknights. Among these Head Start preschool children, environmental challenges to adequate sleep are not uncommon, and they may have consequences. Clinician or preschool assessment of sleep environments may open opportunities to improve sleep at early ages. Wilson KE; Miller AL; Lumeng JC; Chervin RD. Sleep environments and sleep durations in a sample of low-income preschool children. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(3):299-305.
    Journal of clinical sleep medicine: JCSM: official publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine 01/2014; 10(3):299-305.

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