Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology

Publisher: Society of Protozoologists; International Society of Protistologists, Blackwell Publishing

Description

  • Impact factor
    2.16
  • 5-year impact
    2.24
  • Cited half-life
    8.70
  • Immediacy index
    0.60
  • Eigenfactor
    0.00
  • Article influence
    0.67
  • Other titles
    Journal of eukaryotic microbiology (Online), The journal of eukaryotic microbiology
  • ISSN
    1550-7408
  • OCLC
    47723595
  • Material type
    Document, Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Blackwell Publishing

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author cannot archive a post-print version
  • Restrictions
    • Some journals impose embargoes typically of 6 or 12 months, occasionally of 24 months
    • no listing of affected journals available as yet
  • Conditions
    • See Wiley-Blackwell entry for articles after February 2007
    • Publisher version cannot be used
    • On author or institutional or subject-based server
    • Server must be non-commercial
    • Publisher copyright and source must be acknowledged with set statement ("The definitive version is available at www.blackwell-synergy.com ")
    • Articles in some journals can be made Open Access on payment of additional charge
    • 'Blackwell Publishing' is an imprint of 'Wiley-Blackwell'
  • Classification
    ​ yellow

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Investigation of marine eukaryotic picoplankton composition is limited by missing morphological features for appropriate identification. Consequently, molecular methods are required. In this study, we used 454-pyrosequencing to study picoplankton communities at four stations in the West Spitsbergen Current (WSC; Fram Strait). High abundances of Micromonas pusilla were detected in the station situated closest to Spitsbergen, as seen in surveys of picoplankton assemblages in the Beaufort Sea. At the other three stations, other phylotypes, affiliating with Phaeocystis pouchetii and Syndiniales in the phylogenetic tree, were present in high numbers, dominating most of them. The picoplankton community structures at three of the stations, all with similar salinity and temperature, were alike. At the fourth station, the influence of the East Spitsbergen Current (ESC), transporting cold water from the Barents Sea around Spitsbergen, causes different abiotic parameters that result in a significantly different picoeukaryote community composition, which is dominated by Micromonas pusilla. This observation is particularly interesting in regard to ongoing environmental changes in the Arctic. Ongoing warming of the WSC could convey a new picoplankton assemblage into the Arctic Ocean, which may come to affect the dominance of Micromonas pusilla.
    Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was applied to analyze the molecular karyotype of the ciliate Didinium nasutum. The data obtained indicate that D. nasutum belongs to the ciliate species with subchromosomal macronuclear genome organization. No short “gene-sized” DNA molecules were detected. Macronuclear DNAs formed a continuous spectrum from 50 kbp to approximately 1,000kbp in size with a peak plateau between 250 and 400 kbp. The macronuclear DNA molecules were packed into chromatin bodies of 80–265 nm in size. Comparison of the PFGE and electron microscopic data shows that most if not all chromatin bodies contain more than one DNA molecule.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Integral membrane transport proteins homologous to those found in the Transporter Classification Database (TCDB; www.tcdb.org) were identified and bioinformatically characterized by transporter class, family and substrate specificity in three ciliates, Paramecium tetraurelia (Para), Tetrahymena thermophila (Tetra), and Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich). In these three organisms, 1326 out of 39,600 proteins (3.4%), 1017 out of 24,800 proteins (4.2%) and 504 out of 8,100 proteins (6.2%) integral membrane transport proteins were identified, respectively. Thus, an inverse relationship was observed between the % transporters identified and the number of total proteins per genome reported. This surprising observation provides insight into the evolutionary process, giving rise to genome reduction following whole genome duplication (as in the case of Para) or during pathogenic association with a host organism (Ich). Of these transport proteins in Para and Tetra, about 41% were channels (more than any other type of organism studied), 31% were secondary carriers (fewer than most eukaryotes) and 26% were primary active transporters, mostly ATP-hydrolysis driven (more than most other eukaryotes). In Ich, the number of channels was selectively reduced by 66%, relative to Para and Tetra. Para has four times more inorganic anion transporters than Tetra, and Ich has non-selectively lost most of these. Tetra and Ich preferentially transport sugars and monocarboxylates while Para prefers di- and tricarboxylates. These observations serve to characterize the transport proteins of these related ciliates, providing insight into their nutrition and metabolism.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The morphology and phylogeny of Loxodes vorax and L. striatus orientalis subsp. n. were investigated based on infraciliature and small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene sequence data. L. striatus orientalis subsp. n. was separated from L. striatus striatus stat. n. by having fewer dikinetids in the intrabuccal kinety (35–55 vs. 50–70) and a variable number of macronuclei (2–4 vs. 2). In addition, the SSU rRNA gene sequence of the new subspecies differs in 13 and 11 nucleotides from that of two populations of the nominotypic subspecies. We also summarized the morphological differences between Loxodes and Remanella based on the data available. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the genus Loxodes was monophyletic and nested within Remanella species. The current study might, therefore, support the hypothesis that the freshwater genus Loxodes evolved from the marine genus Remanella.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The Microsporidium, Anncaliia algerae, an obligate intracellular parasite, has been identified as an opportunistic human pathogen but treatment has not been evaluated for infections with this organism. Albendazole, an anti-tubulin polymerization drug used against parasitic worm infections, has been the medication of choice used to treat some microsporidial infections affecting humans, with varying results ranging from clearing infection (Encephalitozoon) to resistance (Enterocytozoon). This study illustrates the effect of albendazole treatment on A. algerae infection in Rabbit Kidney (RK13) cells and Human Fetal Lung (HFL-1) fibroblasts. Albendazole appears to have an attenuating effect on A. algerae infection and albendazole's IC50 in RK13 cells is 0.1μg/ml. Long-term treatment inhibits up to 98% of spore production, but interrupting treatment re-establishes the infection without new exposure to the parasite as supported by microscopic observations. The parasite's Beta-Tubulin gene was purified, cloned, and sequenced. Five of the six specific amino acids, associated with benzimidazole sensitivity, are conserved in A. algerae. These findings suggest that A. algerae is sensitive to albendazole; however, the organism is not completely cleared from cultures.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In hypotrichous ciliates, macronuclear chromosomes are gene-sized, and micronuclear genes contain short, non-coding internal eliminated segments (IESs) as well as macronuclear destined segments (MDSs). In the present study, we characterized the complete macronuclear gene and 2-3 types of micronuclear actin genes of two urostylid species, i.e. Pseudokeronopsis rubra and Uroleptopsis citrina. Our results show that (1) the gain/loss of IES happens frequently in the subclass Hypotrichia (formerly Stichotrichia), and high fragmentation of germ-line genes does not imply for gene scrambling; and (2) the micronuclear actin gene is scrambled in the order Sporadotrichida but nonscrambled in the orders Urostylida and Stichotrichida, indicating the independent evolution of MIC-actin gene patterns in different orders of hypotrichs; (3) locations of MDS-IES junctions of micronuclear actin gene in coding regions are conserved among closely related species.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Microalgae in the division Haptophyta may be difficult to identify to species by microscopy because they are small and fragile. Here we used high-throughput sequencing to explore the diversity of haptophytes in outer Oslofjorden, Skagerrak, and supplemented this with electron microscopy. Nano- and picoplanktonic subsurface samples were collected monthly for two years, and the haptophytes were targeted by amplification of RNA/cDNA with Haptophyta-specific 18S ribosomal DNA V4 primers. Pyrosequencing revealed higher species richness of haptophytes than previously observed in the Skagerrak by microscopy. From c. 400,000 reads we obtained 156 haptophyte operational taxonomic units (OTUs) after rigorous filtering and 99.5% clustering. The majority (84%) of the OTUs matched environmental sequences not linked to a morphological species, most of which were affiliated with the order Prymnesiales. Phylogenetic analyses including Oslofjorden OTUs and available cultured and environmental haptophyte sequences showed that several of the OTUs matched sequences forming deep-branching lineages, potentially representing novel haptophyte classes. Pyrosequencing also retrieved cultured species not previously reported by microscopy in the Skagerrak. Electron microscopy revealed species not yet genetically characterised and some potentially novel taxa. This study contributes to linking genotype to phenotype within this ubiquitous and ecologically important protist group, and reveals great, unknown diversity.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: IL-18 is known to play a key role limiting Cryptosporidium parvum infection. In this study we show that IL-18 depletion in SCID mice significantly exacerbates C. parvum infection, whereas, treatment with recombinant IL-18 (rIL-18), significantly decreases the parasite load, as compared to controls. Increases in serum IFN-γ levels as well as the up-regulation of the antimicrobial peptides, cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (CRAMP) and beta defensin 3 (Defb3) were observed in the intestinal mucosa of mice treated with rIL-18. In addition, C. parvum infection significantly increased mRNA expression levels (>50 fold) of the alpha defensins, Defa3 and 5 respectively. Interestingly, we also found a decrease in mRNA expression of IL-33 (a recently identified cytokine in the same family as IL-18) in the small intestinal tissue from mice treated with rIL-18. In comparison, the respective genes were induced by IL-18 depletion. Our findings suggest that IL-18 can mediate its protective effects via different routes such as IFN-γ induction or by directly stimulating intestinal epithelial cells to increase antimicrobial activity.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Kofoidia loriculata is a parabasalid symbiont inhabiting the hindgut of the lower termite Paraneotermes simplicicornis. It was initially described as a lophomonad due to its apical tuft of multiple flagella that disintegrate during cell division, but its phylogenetic relationships have not been investigated using molecular evidence. From single cell isolations, we sequenced the small subunit rRNA gene and determined that K. loriculata falls within the Cristamonadea, but is unrelated to other lophomonads. This analysis further demonstrates the polyphyly of the lophomonads and the necessity to re-assess the morphological and cellular evolution of the Cristamonadea.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Encephalitozoon cuniculi is a microsporidian parasite that infects a wide range of vertebrates, including primates. It has recently emerged as an opportunistic parasite of patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. The blue fox (Alopex lagopus; also known as the arctic fox) is one of the most susceptible species for encephalitozoonosis. Here, we report an outbreak of encephalitozoonosis at a fox farm in China. The isolated parasites displayed the typical morphology of E. cuniculi as assessed by Masson's trichrome staining. Analysis of the internal transcribed spacer sequence indicated that the isolated parasite is a genotype III strain of E. cuniculi. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis of the PTP1 gene verifies classification of this new strain (termed LN-1) with other genotype III E. cuniculi strains, though the PTP3 and SWP1 sequences diverge from the reference strain. This is the first report of encephalitozoonosis in farmed blue foxes in China. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Apoamphisiella Foissner, 1997 is a genus of hypotrichous ciliates reported to occur in various locations in the world, but that seems particularly widespread in the Americas. In this study, the first record of A. vernalis for Brazil is presented based on a population from the Atlantic Forest of the Minas Gerais state. A redescription of A. vernalis made from light and scanning electron microscopy observations unveils a unique combination of diagnostic features for this species, namely the presence of green cortical granules, one contractile vacuole lacking collecting canals, and the rear end of both left and right marginal cirral rows located at same level. Moreover, A. vernalis is found to be an omnivorous predator, feeding on arcelline testate amoebae, rotifers, and other organisms. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 07/2014;
  • Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 07/2014; 61(4).
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    ABSTRACT: Despite a white-tailed deer (WTD) population in the United States of approximately 32 million animals extremely little is known of the prevalence and species of the protists that infect these animals. The present study was undertaken to determine the presence of potential human protist pathogens in culled WTD in central Maryland. Feces from fawns to adults were examined by molecular methods. The prevalence of Enterocytozoon bieneusi, Cryptosporidium, and Giardia was determined by PCR. All PCR-positive specimens were sequenced to determine the species and genotype(s). Of specimens from 80 WTD, 26 (32.5%) contained 17 genotypes of E. bieneusi. Four genotypes were previously reported (I, J, WL4, LW1) and 13 novel genotypes were identified and named DeerEb1-DeerEb13. Genotypes I, J, and LW1 are known to infect humans. Ten (12.5%) specimens contained the Cryptosporidium deer genotype, and one (1.25%) contained G. duodenalis Assemblage A. The identification zoonotic G. duodenalis Assemblage A as well as four E. bieneusi genotypes previously identified in humans suggest that WTD could play a role in the transmission of those parasites to humans.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Thelohanellus marginatus n. sp., a new myxosporean parasite infecting the primary gill filaments of the teleost fish Hypophthalmus marginatus (Pimelodidae) in the Amazon River, is described on the basis of microscopic and molecular procedures. The parasite forms whitish and ellipsoidal cysts up to 250 μm in diameter. Myxospores ellipsoidal with a slightly more pointed anterior end, measuring 17.1 ± 0.6 μm in length, 6.9 ± 0.4 μm in width, and 5.1 ± 0.5 μm in thickness. A single pyriform polar capsule, 9.0 ± 0.3 μm long and 6.1 ± 0.4 μm wide, positioned slightly right to the medial plane in valvular view, contains a polar filament arranged in 4-5 coils. Molecular analysis of the SSU rRNA gene by Maximum Parsimony, Neighbor-Joining, and Maximum Likelihood revealed the parasite clustering among other myxobolids, namely Henneguya and Myxobolus. Host affinity is supported as an important evolutionary signal for the phylogeny of myxobolids. The parasite here described represents the first record of the genus Thelohanellus Kudo, 1933 from the South American fauna.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Govinda Visvesvara officially retired from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA on September 30, 2013 after a distinguished career in identifying, diagnosing and improving methods for culturing free-living and pathogenic protists. A prolific researcher and author, he has consistently contributed to the literature with publications over his career, many of which have been with collaborators from all parts of the world. His research has earned him numerous honors and awards including election to fellowship in the American Academy of Microbiology and the CDC's McDade Award for Lifetime Scientific Achievement. This Festschrift is dedicated to him by colleagues in recognition of his pioneering studies and professional accomplishments.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: When Paramecium encounter positive stimuli, the membrane hyperpolarizes and ciliary beat frequency increases. We adapted an established immobilization protocol using a biological adhesive and a novel digital analysis system to quantify beat frequency in immobilized Paramecium. Cells showed low mortality and demonstrated beat frequencies consistent with previous studies. Chemoattractant molecules, reduction of external potassium, and posterior stimulation all increased somatic beat frequency. In all cases, the oral groove cilia maintained a higher beat frequency than mid-body cilia, but only oral cilia from cells stimulated with chemoattactants showed an increase from basal levels.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Naegleria fowleri, a free-living ameba, is the causative agent of Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis. Highly-pathogenic mouse-passaged amebae (Mp) and weakly-pathogenic axenically-grown (Ax) N. fowleri were examined for peptidase activity. Zymography and azocasein peptidase activity assays demonstrated that Mp and Ax N. fowleri exhibited a similar peptidase pattern. Prominent for whole cell lysates, membranes and conditioned medium from Mp and Ax amebae was the presence of an activity band of approximately 58kDa that was sensitive to E64, a cysteine peptidase inhibitor. However, axenically-grown N. fowleri demonstrated a high level of this peptidase activity in membrane preparations. The inhibitor E64 also reduced peptidase activity in ameba-conditioned medium consistent with the presence of secreted cysteine peptidases. Exposure of Mp amebae to E64 reduced their migration through matrigel that was used as an extracellular matrix, suggesting a role for cysteine peptidases in invasion of the central nervous system (CNS). The collective results suggest that the profile of peptidases is not a discriminative marker for distinguishing Mp from Ax N. fowleri. However, the presence of a prominent level of activity for cysteine peptidases in N. fowleri membranes and conditioned medium, suggests that these enzymes may serve to facilitate passage of the amebae into the CNS.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The diversity of hypotrichous ciliates has encouraged numerous researchers to use a combination of morphological, morphogenetic and phylogenetic data to provide a better understanding of the evolutionary relationships within this complex group. In this study, we investigated the morphology and morphogenesis of Pseudourostyla subtropica sp. nov., isolated from mangrove wetland. The new species can be distinguished from its congeners by the huge body size, many more adoral membranelles and marginal cirral rows, and numerous macronuclear nodules. In addition, we provide a morphological characterization of a population of Pseudourostyla nova Wiackowski, 1988 from an estuarine habitat. The main events during binary fission of P. subtropica sp. nov. and the Chinese population of P. nova are also revealed to be conservative. The morphological, ontogenetic and phylogenetic analyses based on the SSU rDNA sequences corroborate the monophyly of Pseudourostyla Borror, 1972, which corresponds well with previous research. The phylogenetic analyses also show that Pseudourostyla and Hemicycliostyla Stokes, 1886, both of which are assigned to the family Pseudourostylidae based on morphological and morphogenetic data, in fact fall into separated clades. The approximately unbiased tests, however, do not reject the possibility that the family Pseudourostylidae is a monophyletic lineage.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Little is known of Toxoplasma gondii isolates circulating in wildlife. The mouflon (Ovis ammon) is very popular game animal, hunted for its trophy horns. Here, we report the isolation and genetic characterization of T. gondii from two mouflon from Hawaii, USA. Both sheep had antibodies titers of 1: 800 or higher. Viable T. gondii were isolated and nested PCR-RFLP genotyping, revealed two genotypes, a clonal Type III (designated TgMouflonUS1). The second has new genotype (designated TgMouflonUS2, and ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotypes #249). This is the first report of T. gondii infection, isolation and genetic characterization in mouflon from the USA.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 07/2014;

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