The Journal of Immunology (J Immunol)

Publisher: American Association of Immunologists, American Association of Immunologists

Journal description

The JI publishes novel results in all areas of experimental immunology.

Current impact factor: 5.36

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2015
2013 / 2014 Impact Factor 5.362
2012 Impact Factor 5.52
2011 Impact Factor 5.788
2010 Impact Factor 5.745
2009 Impact Factor 5.646
2008 Impact Factor 6
2007 Impact Factor 6.068
2006 Impact Factor 6.293
2005 Impact Factor 6.387
2004 Impact Factor 6.486
2003 Impact Factor 6.702
2002 Impact Factor 7.014
2001 Impact Factor 7.065
2000 Impact Factor 6.834
1999 Impact Factor 7.145
1998 Impact Factor 7.166
1997 Impact Factor 6.937
1996 Impact Factor 7.296
1995 Impact Factor 7.412
1994 Impact Factor 7.383
1993 Impact Factor 7.065
1992 Impact Factor 6.723

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 5.67
Cited half-life 7.70
Immediacy index 0.95
Eigenfactor 0.33
Article influence 2.21
Website The Journal of Immunology website
Other titles Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md.: 1950: Online), The journal of immunology, JI
ISSN 1550-6606
OCLC 34394395
Material type Document, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

American Association of Immunologists

  • Pre-print
    • Archiving status unclear
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • Pre-print archiving may be considered prior publication
    • Post-print on personal website only
    • Post-print not allowed on Institutional Repository
    • Set statement must accompany article (see policy link)
    • If mandated by funding agency may deposit authors post-print in PubMed Central, 6 or 12 months after publication
    • Papers submitted after 29th March 2011, funded by NIH, HHMI, MRC or Wellcome Trust, will be automatically deposited in PubMed Central if requested at submission
    • Publisher's version/PDF may only be used, if part of a thesis/ dissertation within a thesis repository
    • Must link to publisher version
  • Classification
    ​ blue

Publications in this journal

  • The Journal of Immunology 09/2015; 195(5):1921-6.
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    ABSTRACT: The now-famous term "restriction" derived from experiments in which T cells from Donor A failed to recognize Ags presented by cells from Donor B. Restriction results from interdonor variation in MHC genes. Donor restriction dominates immunologists' thinking about the T cell response because it governs organ transplantation and hinders the discovery of disease-associated Ags. However, other T cells can be considered "donor unrestricted" because their targets, CD1a, CD1b, CD1c, CD1d, or MR1, are expressed in a similar form among all humans. A striking feature of donor unrestricted T cells is the expression of invariant TCRs with nearly species-wide distribution. In this article, we review new evidence that donor unrestricted T cells are common in humans. NKT cells, mucosa-associated invariant T cells, and germline-encoded mycolyl-reactive T cells operate outside of the familiar principles of the MHC system, providing a broader picture of T cell function and new opportunities for therapy. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.
    The Journal of Immunology 09/2015; 195(5):1927-32. DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1500943
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    ABSTRACT: A newly discovered B cell subset, age-associated B cells, expresses the transcription factor T-bet, has a unique surface phenotype, and accumulates progressively with age. Moreover, B cells with these general features are associated with viral infections and autoimmunity in both mice and humans. In this article, we review current understanding of the characteristics, origins, and functions of these cells. We also suggest that the protective versus pathogenic actions of these cells reflect appropriate versus aberrant engagement of regulatory mechanisms that control the Ab responses to nucleic acid-containing Ags. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.
    The Journal of Immunology 09/2015; 195(5):1933-7. DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1501209
  • The Journal of Immunology 09/2015; 195(5):1909-10. DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1501575
  • Shannon M Rapovy · Junfang Zhao · Rebecca L Bricker · Stephanie M Schmidt · Kenneth D R Setchell · Joseph E Qualls
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    ABSTRACT: Microbicidal NO production is reliant on inducible NO synthase-mediated l-arginine metabolism in macrophages (MΦs). However, l-arginine supply can be restricted by arginase activity, resulting in inefficient NO output and inhibition of antimicrobial MΦ function. MΦs circumvent this by converting l-citrulline to l-arginine, thereby resupplying substrate for NO production. In this article, we define the metabolic signature of mycobacteria-infected murine MΦs supplied l-arginine, l-citrulline, or both amino acids. Using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, we determined that l-arginine synthesized from l-citrulline was less effective as a substrate for arginase-mediated l-ornithine production compared with l-arginine directly imported from the extracellular milieu. Following Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin infection and costimulation with IFN-γ, we observed that MΦ arginase activity did not inhibit production of NO derived from l-citrulline, contrary to NO inhibition witnessed when MΦs were cultured in l-arginine. Furthermore, we found that arginase-expressing MΦs preferred l-citrulline over l-arginine for the promotion of antimycobacterial activity. We expect that defining the consequences of l-citrulline metabolism in MΦs will provide novel approaches for enhancing immunity, especially in the context of mycobacterial disease. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.
    The Journal of Immunology 08/2015; DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1500800
  • Verity Q Pearce · Hicham Bouabe · Amy R MacQueen · Valentina Carbonaro · Klaus Okkenhaug
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    ABSTRACT: PI3Ks regulate diverse immune cell functions by transmitting intracellular signals from Ag, costimulatory receptors, and cytokine receptors to control cell division, differentiation, survival, and migration. In this study, we report the effect of inhibiting the p110δ subunit of PI3Kδ on CD8(+) T cell responses to infection with the intracellular bacteria Listeria monocytogenes. A strong dependency on PI3Kδ for IFN-γ production by CD8(+) T cells in vitro was not recapitulated after Listeria infection in vivo. Inactivation of PI3Kδ resulted in enhanced bacterial elimination by the innate immune system. However, the magnitudes of the primary and secondary CD8 +: T cell responses were reduced. Moreover, PI3Kδ activity was required for CD8(+) T cells to provide help to other responding CD8(+) cells. These findings identify PI3Kδ as a key regulator of CD8(+) T cell responses that integrates extrinsic cues, including those from other responding cells, to determine the collective behavior of CD8(+) T cell populations responding to infection. Copyright © 2015 The Authors.
    The Journal of Immunology 08/2015; DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1501227
  • Ifeoma Okwor · Ping Jia · Jude E Uzonna
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    ABSTRACT: Although some studies indicate that the interaction of CD40 and CD40L is critical for IL-12 production and resistance to cutaneous leishmaniasis, others suggest that this pathway may be dispensable. In this article, we compared the outcome of Leishmania major infection in both CD40- and CD40L-deficient mice after treatment with rIL-12. We show that although CD40 and CD40L knockout (KO) mice are highly susceptible to L. major, treatment with rIL-12 during the first 2 wk of infection causes resolution of cutaneous lesions and control of parasite replication. Interestingly, although treated CD40 KO mice remained healed, developed long-term immunity, and were resistant to secondary L. major challenge, treated CD40L KO reactivated their lesion after cessation of rIL-12 treatment. Disease reactivation in CD40L KO mice was associated with impaired IL-12 and IFN-γ production and a concomitant increase in IL-4 production by cells from lymph nodes draining the infection site. We show that IL-12 production by dendritic cells and macrophages via CD40L-macrophage Ag 1 (Mac-1) interaction is responsible for the sustained resistance in CD40 KO mice after cessation of rIL-12 treatment. Blockade of CD40L-Mac-1 interaction with anti-Mac-1 mAb led to spontaneous disease reactivation in healed CD40 KO mice, which was associated with impaired IFN-γ response and loss of infection-induced immunity after secondary L. major challenge. Collectively, our data reveal a novel role of CD40L-Mac-1 interaction in IL-12 production, development, and maintenance of optimal Th1 immunity in mice infected with L. major. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.
    The Journal of Immunology 08/2015; DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1500922
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    ABSTRACT: Mutations in the adaptor protein PSTPIP2 are the cause of the autoinflammatory disease chronic multifocal osteomyelitis in mice. This disease closely resembles the human disorder chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis, characterized by sterile inflammation of the bones and often associated with inflammation in other organs, such as the skin. The most critical process in the disease's development is the enhanced production of IL-1β. This excessive IL-1β is likely produced by neutrophils. In addition, the increased activity of macrophages, osteoclasts, and megakaryocytes has also been described. However, the molecular mechanism of how PSTPIP2 deficiency results in this phenotype is poorly understood. Part of the PSTPIP2 inhibitory function is mediated by protein tyrosine phosphatases from the proline-, glutamic acid-, serine- and threonine-rich (PEST) family, which are known to interact with the central part of this protein, but other regions of PSTPIP2 not required for PEST-family phosphatase binding were also shown to be indispensable for PSTPIP2 function. In this article, we show that PSTPIP2 binds the inhibitory enzymes Csk and SHIP1. The interaction with SHIP1 is of particular importance because it binds to the critical tyrosine residues at the C terminus of PSTPIP2, which is known to be crucial for its PEST-phosphatase-independent inhibitory effects in different cellular systems. We demonstrate that in neutrophils this region is important for the PSTPIP2-mediated suppression of IL-1β processing and that SHIP1 inhibition results in the enhancement of this processing. We also describe deregulated neutrophil response to multiple activators, including silica, Ab aggregates, and LPS, which is suggestive of a rather generalized hypersensitivity of these cells to various external stimulants. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.
    The Journal of Immunology 08/2015; DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1401494
  • Min Li · Rui Sun · Long Xu · Wenwei Yin · Yongyan Chen · Xiaodong Zheng · Zhexiong Lian · Haiming Wei · Zhigang Tian
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    ABSTRACT: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) persistence is a fundamental process in chronic HBV infection and a key factor in all related liver diseases; however, the mechanisms have yet to be elucidated. We studied the role of TLR2 in HBV persistence using a well-established HBV-carrier mouse model generated by hydrodynamically injecting a phospho-adeno-associated virus/HBV1.2 plasmid into mice. We found that a genetic deficiency in TLR2 improves HBV elimination, whereas activating TLR2 led to more stable HBV persistence, suggesting that TLR2 activation is critical in HBV persistence. Furthermore, we noted that TLR2 activation could inhibit CD8(+) T cell function, causing the exhaustion phenotype in HBV-carrier mice, because TLR2 deficiency might rescue CD8(+) T cell function in a cellular adoptive experiment. TLR2 expression on Kupffer cells (KCs) was upregulated in HBV-carrier mice, which accounts for HBV persistence, because the difference in anti-HBV immunity between HBV-carrier wild-type and Tlr2(-/-) mice did not exist after KC depletion. In addition, similar to TLR2 deficiency, after KC depletion, CD8(+) T cells were more efficiently activated in HBV-carrier mice, leading to rapid HBV elimination. KCs produced more IL-10 upon TLR2 activation in response to direct hepatitis B core Ag stimulation, and the elevated IL-10 inhibited CD8(+) T cell function in HBV-carrier mice, because IL-10 deficiency or anti-IL-10R treatment resulted in CD8(+) T cells with stronger antiviral function. In conclusion, KCs support liver tolerance by inducing anti-HBV CD8(+) T cell exhaustion via IL-10 production after TLR2 activation by hepatitis B core Ag stimulation. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.
    The Journal of Immunology 08/2015; DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1500839
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    ABSTRACT: Mucosa-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are innate-like T cells with a conserved TCR α-chain recognizing bacterial metabolites presented on the invariant MHC-related 1 molecule. MAIT cells are present in intestinal tissues and liver, and they rapidly secrete IFN-γ and IL-17 in response to bacterial insult. In colon cancer, IL-17-driven inflammation promotes tumor progression, whereas IFN-γ production is essential for antitumor immunity. Thus, tumor-associated MAIT cells may affect antitumor immune responses by their secreted cytokines. However, the knowledge of MAIT cell presence and function in tumors is virtually absent. In this study, we determined the frequency, phenotype, and functional capacity of MAIT cells in colon adenocarcinomas and unaffected colon lamina propria. Flow cytometric analyses showed significant accumulation of MAIT cells in tumor tissue, irrespective of tumor stage or localization. Colonic MAIT cells displayed an activated memory phenotype and expression of chemokine receptors CCR6 and CCR9. Most MAIT cells in unaffected colon tissues produced IFN-γ, whereas only few produced IL-17. Colonic MAIT cells also produced TNF-α, IL-2, and granzyme B. In the tumors, significantly lower frequencies of IFN-γ-producing MAIT cells were seen, whereas there were no differences in the other cytokines analyzed, and in vitro studies showed that secreted factors from tumor tissue reduced IFN-γ production from MAIT cells. In conclusion, MAIT cells infiltrate colon tumors but their ability to produce IFN-γ is substantially reduced. We suggest that MAIT cells have the capacity to promote local immune responses to tumors, but factors in the tumor microenvironment act to reduce MAIT cell IFN-γ production. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.
    The Journal of Immunology 08/2015; DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1500258
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    ABSTRACT: FcεRI, which is composed of α, β, and γ subunits, plays an important role in IgE-mediated allergic responses. TGF-β1 has been reported to suppress FcεRI and stem cell factor receptor c-Kit expression on mast cell surfaces and to suppress mast cell activation induced by cross-linking of FcεRI. However, the molecular mechanism by which these expressions and activation are suppressed by TGF-β1 remains unclear. In this study, we found that the expression of Ets homologous factor (Ehf), a member of the Ets family transcriptional factors, is upregulated by TGF-β/Smad signaling in mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs). Forced expression of Ehf in BMMCs repressed the transcription of genes encoding FcεRIα, FcεRIβ, and c-Kit, resulting in a reduction in cell surface FcεRI and c-Kit expression. Additionally, forced expression of Ehf suppressed FcεRI-mediated degranulation and cytokine production. Ehf inhibited the promoter activity of genes encoding FcεRIα, FcεRIβ, and c-Kit by binding to these gene promoters. Furthermore, the mRNA levels of Gata1, Gata2, and Stat5b were lower in BMMCs stably expressing Ehf compared with control cells. Because GATA-1 and GATA-2 are positive regulators of FcεRI and c-Kit expression, decreased expression of GATAs may be also involved in the reduction of FcεRI and c-Kit expression. Decreased expression of Stat5 may contribute to the suppression of cytokine production by BMMCs. In part, mast cell response to TGF-β1 was mimicked by forced expression of Ehf, suggesting that TGF-β1 suppresses FcεRI and c-Kit expression and suppresses FcεRI-mediated activation through upregulation of Ehf. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.
    The Journal of Immunology 08/2015; DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1402856
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    ABSTRACT: The secreted neurorepellent Slit2, acting through its transmembrane receptor, Roundabout (Robo)-1, inhibits chemotaxis of varied cell types, including leukocytes, endothelial cells, and vascular smooth muscle cells, toward diverse attractants. The role of Slit2 in regulating the steps involved in recruitment of monocytes in vascular inflammation is not well understood. In this study, we showed that Slit2 inhibited adhesion of monocytic cells to activated human endothelial cells, as well as to immobilized ICAM-1 and VCAM-1. Microfluidic live cell imaging showed that Slit2 inhibited the ability of monocytes tethered to endothelial cells to stabilize their actin-associated anchors and to resist detachment in response to increasing shear forces. Transfection of constitutively active plasmids revealed that Slit2 inhibited postadhesion stabilization of monocytes on endothelial cells by preventing activation of Rac1. We further found that Slit2 inhibited chemotaxis of monocytes toward CXCL12 and CCL2. To determine whether Slit2 and Robo-1 modulate pathologic monocyte recruitment associated with vascular inflammation and cardiovascular disease, we tested PBMC from patients with coronary artery disease. PBMC from these patients had reduced surface levels of Robo-1 compared with healthy age- and sex-matched subjects, and Slit2 failed to inhibit chemotaxis of PBMC of affected patients, but not healthy control subjects, toward CCL2. Furthermore, administration of Slit2 to atherosclerosis-prone LDL receptor-deficient mice inhibited monocyte recruitment to nascent atherosclerotic lesions. These results demonstrate that Slit2 inhibits chemotaxis of monocytes, as well as their ability to stabilize adhesions and resist detachment forces. Slit2 may represent a powerful new tool to inhibit pathologic monocyte recruitment in vascular inflammation and atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.
    The Journal of Immunology 08/2015; DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1500640
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    ABSTRACT: Impaired T cell responses are a defining characteristic of HIV infection, but the extent to which altered mononuclear phagocyte function contributes to this defect is unclear. We show that mononuclear phagocytes enriched from rhesus macaque lymph nodes have suppressed ability to stimulate CD4 T cell proliferation and IFN-γ release after acute SIV infection. When individual populations were isolated, myeloid dendritic cells (mDC) and macrophages but not plasmacytoid DC (pDC) had suppressed capacity to stimulate CD4 T cell proliferation, with macrophage function declining as infection progressed. Macrophages, but not pDC or mDC, had suppressed capacity to induce IFN-γ release from CD4 T cells in acute infection, even after stimulation with virus-encoded TLR7/8 ligand. Changes in expression of costimulatory molecules did not explain loss of function postinfection. Conversely, pDC and mDC had marked loss of IFN-α and IL-12 production, respectively, and macrophages lost production of both cytokines. In T cell cocultures without TLR7/8 ligand, macrophages were the primary source of IL-12, which was profoundly suppressed postinfection and correlated with loss of IFN-γ release by T cells. TLR7/8-stimulated pDC, mDC and macrophages all produced IL-12 in T cell cocultures, which was suppressed in chronic infection. Supplementing IL-12 enhanced mDC-driven IFN-γ release from T cells, and IL-12 and IFN-α together restored function in TLR7/8-activated macrophages. These findings reveal loss of macrophage and mDC T cell-stimulating function in lymph nodes of SIV-infected rhesus macaques associated with diminished IL-12 and IFN-α production that may be a factor in AIDS immunopathogenesis. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.
    The Journal of Immunology 08/2015; DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1500683
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    ABSTRACT: The abnormal immune response accompanying IgG4-related autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is presently unclear. In this study, we examined the role of plasmacytoid dendritic cell (pDC) activation and IFN-α production in this disease as well as in a murine model of AIP (MRL/Mp mice treated with polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid). We found that the development of AIP in treated MRL/Mp mice occurred in parallel with pancreatic accumulation of pDCs producing IFN-α, and with pDC depletion and IFN-α-blocking studies, we showed that such accumulation was necessary for AIP induction. In addition, we found that the pancreas of treated MRL/Mp mice contained neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) shown previously to stimulate pDCs to produce IFN-α. Consistent with these findings, we found that patients with IgG4-related AIP also exhibited pancreatic tissue localization of IFN-α-expressing pDCs and had significantly higher serum IFN-α levels than healthy controls. In addition, the inflamed pancreas of these patients but not controls also contained NETs that were shown to be capable of pDC activation. More importantly, patient pDCs cultured in the presence of NETs produced greatly increased levels of IFN-α and induced control B cells to produce IgG4 (but not IgG1) as compared with control pDCs. These data suggest that pDC activation and production of IFN-α is a major cause of murine AIP; in addition, the increased pDC production of IFN-α and its relation to IgG4 production observed in IgG4-related AIP suggest that this mechanism also plays a role in the human disease. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.
    The Journal of Immunology 08/2015; DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1500971
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    ABSTRACT: T follicular helper cells (TFH) are critical for the development and maintenance of germinal center (GC) and humoral immune responses. During chronic HIV/SIV infection, TFH accumulate, possibly as a result of Ag persistence. The HIV/SIV-associated TFH expansion may also reflect lack of regulation by suppressive follicular regulatory CD4(+) T cells (TFR). TFR are natural regulatory T cells (TREG) that migrate into the follicle and, similar to TFH, upregulate CXCR5, Bcl-6, and PD1. In this study, we identified TFR as CD4(+)CD25(+)FOXP3(+)CXCR5(+)PD1(hi)Bcl-6(+) within lymph nodes of rhesus macaques (RM) and confirmed their localization within the GC by immunohistochemistry. RNA sequencing showed that TFR exhibit a distinct transcriptional profile with shared features of both TFH and TREG, including intermediate expression of FOXP3, Bcl-6, PRDM1, IL-10, and IL-21. In healthy, SIV-uninfected RM, we observed a negative correlation between frequencies of TFR and both TFH and GC B cells, as well as levels of CD4(+) T cell proliferation. Post SIV infection, the TFR/TFH ratio was reduced with no change in the frequency of TREG or TFR within the total CD4(+) T cell pool. Finally, we examined whether higher levels of direct virus infection of TFR were responsible for their relative depletion post SIV infection. We found that TFH, TFR, and TREG sorted from SIV-infected RM harbor comparable levels of cell-associated viral DNA. Our data suggest that TFR may contribute to the regulation and proliferation of TFH and GC B cells in vivo and that a decreased TFR/TFH ratio in chronic SIV infection may lead to unchecked expansion of both TFH and GC B cells. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.
    The Journal of Immunology 08/2015; DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1402701
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    ABSTRACT: Leishmaniasis is a significant neglected tropical disease that is associated with a wide range of clinical presentations and a lifelong persistent infection. Because of the chronic nature of the disease, there is a high risk for coinfection occurring in patients, and how coinfections influence the outcome of leishmaniasis is poorly understood. To address this issue, we infected mice with Leishmania major and 2 wk later with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) and then monitored the course of infection. Leishmania parasites are controlled by production of IFN-γ, which leads to macrophage-mediated parasite killing. Thus, one might predict that coinfection with LCMV, which induces a strong systemic type 1 response, would accelerate disease resolution. However, we found that infection with LCMV led to significantly enhanced disease in L. major-infected animals. This increased disease correlated with an infiltration into the leishmanial lesions of NKG2D(+) CD8(+) T cells producing granzyme B, but surprisingly little IFN-γ. We found that depletion of CD8 T cells after viral clearance, as well as blockade of NKG2D, reversed the increased pathology seen in coinfected mice. Thus, this work highlights the impact a secondary infection can have on leishmaniasis and demonstrates that even pathogens known to promote a type 1 response may exacerbate leishmanial infections. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.
    The Journal of Immunology 08/2015; DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1500855