The Journal of Immunology (J Immunol)

Publisher: American Association of Immunologists, American Association of Immunologists

Journal description

The JI publishes novel results in all areas of experimental immunology.

Current impact factor: 4.92

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2016
2014 Impact Factor 4.922
2013 Impact Factor 5.362
2012 Impact Factor 5.52
2011 Impact Factor 5.788
2010 Impact Factor 5.745
2009 Impact Factor 5.646
2008 Impact Factor 6
2007 Impact Factor 6.068
2006 Impact Factor 6.293
2005 Impact Factor 6.387
2004 Impact Factor 6.486
2003 Impact Factor 6.702
2002 Impact Factor 7.014
2001 Impact Factor 7.065
2000 Impact Factor 6.834
1999 Impact Factor 7.145
1998 Impact Factor 7.166
1997 Impact Factor 6.937
1996 Impact Factor 7.296
1995 Impact Factor 7.412
1994 Impact Factor 7.383
1993 Impact Factor 7.065
1992 Impact Factor 6.723

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 5.26
Cited half-life 8.60
Immediacy index 0.96
Eigenfactor 0.24
Article influence 2.02
Website The Journal of Immunology website
Other titles Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md.: 1950: Online), The journal of immunology, JI
ISSN 1550-6606
OCLC 34394395
Material type Document, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

American Association of Immunologists

  • Pre-print
    • Archiving status unclear
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • Pre-print archiving may be considered prior publication
    • Post-print on personal website only
    • Post-print not allowed on Institutional Repository
    • Set statement must accompany article (see policy link)
    • If mandated by funding agency may deposit authors post-print in PubMed Central, 6 or 12 months after publication
    • Papers submitted after 29th March 2011, funded by NIH, HHMI, MRC or Wellcome Trust, will be automatically deposited in PubMed Central if requested at submission
    • Publisher's version/PDF may only be used, if part of a thesis/ dissertation within a thesis repository
    • Must link to publisher version
  • Classification

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We investigated whether phagocytosis participates in the protection of insects from viral infection using the natural host–virus interaction between Drosophila melanogaster and Drosophila C virus (DCV). Drosophila S2 cells were induced to undergo apoptotic cell death upon DCV infection. However, UV-inactivated virus was unable to cause apoptosis, indicating the need for productive infection for apoptosis induction. S2 cells became susceptible to phagocytosis by hemocyte-derived l(2)mbn cells after viral infection, and the presence of phagocytes in S2 cell cultures reduced viral proliferation. Phagocytosis depended, in part, on caspase activity in S2 cells, as well as the engulfment receptors Draper and integrin βν in phagocytes. To validate the in vivo situation, adult flies were abdominally infected with DCV, followed by the analysis of fly death and viral growth. DCV infection killed flies in a dose-responding manner, and the activation of effector caspases was evident, as revealed by the cleavage of a target protein ectopically expressed in flies. Furthermore, hemocytes isolated from infected flies contained DCV-infected cells, and preinjection of latex beads to inhibit the phagocytic activity of hemocytes accelerated fly death after viral infection. Likewise, viral virulence was exaggerated in flies lacking the engulfment receptors, and was accompanied by the augmented proliferation of virus. Finally, phagocytosis of DCV-infected cells in vitro was inhibited by phosphatidylserine-containing liposome, and virus-infected flies died early when a phosphatidylserine-binding protein was ectopically expressed. Collectively, our study demonstrates that the apoptosis-dependent, phosphatidylserine-mediated phagocytosis of virus-infected cells plays an important role in innate immune responses against viral infection in Drosophila.
    The Journal of Immunology 12/2015; 159. DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1500613
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    ABSTRACT: Hyperlipidemia has been extensively studied in the context of atherosclerosis, whereas the potential health consequences of the opposite extreme, hypolipidemia, remain largely uninvestigated. Circulating lipoproteins are essential carriers of insoluble lipid molecules and are increasingly recognized as innate immune effectors. Importantly, severe hypolipidemia, which may occur with trauma or critical illness, is clinically associated with bacterial pneumonia. To test the hypothesis that circulating lipoproteins are essential for optimal host innate defense in the lung, we used lipoprotein-deficient mice and a mouse model of Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia in which invasive infection requires virulence factor expression controlled by the accessory gene regulator (agr) operon. Activation of agr and subsequent virulence factor expression is inhibited by apolipoprotein B, the structural protein of low-density lipoprotein, which binds and sequesters the secreted agr-signaling peptide (AIP). In this article, we report that lipoprotein deficiency impairs early pulmonary innate defense against S. aureus quorum-sensing-dependent pathogenesis. Specifically, apolipoprotein B levels in the lung early postinfection are significantly reduced with lipoprotein deficiency, coinciding with impaired host control of S. aureus agr-signaling and increased agr-dependent morbidity (weight loss) and inflammation. Given that lipoproteins also inhibit LTA- and LPS-mediated inflammation, these results suggest that hypolipidemia may broadly impact posttrauma pneumonia susceptibility to both Gram-positive and -negative pathogens. Together with previous reports demonstrating that hyperlipidemia also impairs lung innate defense, these results suggest that maintenance of normal serum lipoprotein levels is necessary for optimal host innate defense in the lung.
    The Journal of Immunology 11/2015; DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1501835
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    ABSTRACT: The quality of Ag-specific CD8(+) T cell responses is central to immune efficacy in infectious and malignant settings. Inducing effector CD8(+) T cells with potent functional properties is therefore a priority in the field of immunotherapy. However, the optimal assessment of new treatment strategies in humans is limited by currently available testing platforms. In this study, we introduce an original model of in vitro CD8(+) T cell priming, based on an accelerated dendritic cell coculture system, which uses unfractionated human PBMCs as the starting material. This approach enables the rapid evaluation of adjuvant effects on the functional properties of human CD8(+) T cells primed from Ag-specific naive precursors. We demonstrate that a selective TLR8 agonist, in combination with FLT3L, primes high-quality CD8(+) T cell responses. TLR8L/FLT3L-primed CD8(+) T cells displayed enhanced cytotoxic activity, polyfunctionality, and Ag sensitivity. The acquisition of this superior functional profile was associated with increased T-bet expression induced via an IL-12-dependent mechanism. Collectively, these data validate an expedited route to vaccine delivery or optimal T cell expansion for adoptive cell transfer.
    The Journal of Immunology 11/2015; DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1501140
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    ABSTRACT: Nanoparticulate delivery systems for vaccine adjuvants, designed to enhance targeting of secondary lymphoid organs and activation of APCs, have shown substantial promise for enhanced immunopotentiation. We investigated the adjuvant activity of synthetic oligonucleotides containing CpG-rich motifs linked to the sucrose polymer Ficoll, forming soluble 50-nm particles (DV230-Ficoll), each containing >100 molecules of the TLR9 ligand, DV230. DV230-Ficoll was evaluated as an adjuvant for a candidate vaccine for anthrax using recombinant protective Ag (rPA) from Bacillus anthracis. A single immunization with rPA plus DV230-Ficoll induced 10-fold higher titers of toxin-neutralizing Abs in cynomolgus monkeys at 2 wk compared with animals immunized with equivalent amounts of monomeric DV230. Monkeys immunized either once or twice with rPA plus DV230-Ficoll were completely protected from challenge with 200 LD50 aerosolized anthrax spores. In mice, DV230-Ficoll was more potent than DV230 for the induction of innate immune responses at the injection site and draining lymph nodes. DV230-Ficoll was preferentially colocalized with rPA in key APC populations and induced greater maturation marker expression (CD69 and CD86) on these cells and stronger germinal center B and T cell responses, relative to DV230. DV230-Ficoll was also preferentially retained at the injection site and draining lymph nodes and produced fewer systemic inflammatory responses. These findings support the development of DV230-Ficoll as an adjuvant platform, particularly for vaccines such as for anthrax, for which rapid induction of protective immunity and memory with a single injection is very important.
    The Journal of Immunology 11/2015; DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1501903
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    ABSTRACT: The group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a leading cause of neonatal invasive disease. GBS bacteria are surrounded by a thick capsular polysaccharide that is a potent inhibitor of complement deposition via the alternative pathway. Several of its surface molecules can however activate the classical and lectin complement pathways, rendering this species still vulnerable to phagocytic killing. In this study we have identified a novel secreted protein named complement interfering protein (CIP) that downregulates complement activation via the classical and lectin pathways, but not the alternative pathway. The CIP protein showed high affinity toward C4b and inhibited its interaction with C2, presumably preventing the formation of the C4bC2a convertase. Addition of recombinant CIP to GBS cip-negative bacteria resulted in decreased deposition of C3b on their surface and in diminished phagocytic killing in a whole-blood assay. Our data reveal a novel strategy exploited by GBS to counteract innate immunity and could be valuable for the development of anti-infective agents against this important pathogen.
    The Journal of Immunology 11/2015; DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1501954
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    ABSTRACT: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common chronic liver disease with a spectrum of presentations. S100A8 has been suggested to play a pivotal role as an endogenous immune-activator in inflammatory diseases. In this study, we investigated the involvement of S100A8 in the development of NAFLD. We used a diet model of NAFLD, in which mice were fed either a high-fat and high-cholesterol diet (HFHCD) or a normal diet (ND) as a control. We also assessed liver tissues from patients with NAFLD, including patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). HFHCD-fed mice, but not ND-fed mice, developed steatohepatitis. S100A8 expression was significantly elevated in the livers of HFHCD-fed mice compared with the controls. S100A8 was exclusively expressed in CXCR2-expressing CD11b(+)Gr-1(high) cells, which significantly increased in the livers of HFHCD-fed mice. These cells were F4/80 negative and did not possess a suppressor function. TNF-α expression was enhanced by S100A8 in primary liver leukocytes or a hepatocyte cell line and significantly elevated in the livers of HFHCD-fed mice. TNF-α was primarily produced from CD11b(+)F4/80(+) cells in liver leukocytes in response to S100A8. TNF-α deficiency attenuated hepatitis in HFHCD-fed mice. S100A8 was significantly more expressed in the liver tissues of patients with NASH than in those of patients with NAFL. In conclusion, these results suggest that S100A8 is primarily produced from CXCR2-expressing CD11b(+)Gr-1(high) cells, and it upregulates TNF-α production in CD11b(+)F4/80(+) cells through cellular cross-talk, which is an important mechanism in the development of NAFLD.
    The Journal of Immunology 11/2015; DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1402709
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    ABSTRACT: Human lung mast cells (HLMCs) play a central role in asthma pathogenesis through their relocation to the airway smooth muscle (ASM) bundles. β2 adrenoceptor (β2-AR)-agonists are used to relieve bronchoconstriction in asthma, but may reduce asthma control, particularly when used as monotherapy. We hypothesized that HLMC and human ASM cell (HASMC) responsiveness to β2-AR agonists would be attenuated when HLMCs are in contact with HASMCs. Cells were cultured in the presence of the short-acting β2-agonist albuterol, and the long-acting β2-agonists formoterol and olodaterol. Constitutive and FcεRI-dependent HLMC histamine release, HASMC contraction, and β2-AR phosphorylation at Tyr(350) were assessed. Constitutive HLMC histamine release was increased in HLMC-HASMC coculture and this was enhanced by β2-AR agonists. Inhibition of FcεRI-dependent HLMC mediator release by β2-agonists was greatly reduced in HLMC-HASMC coculture. These effects were reversed by neutralization of stem cell factor (SCF) or cell adhesion molecule 1 (CADM1). β2-AR agonists did not prevent HASMC contraction when HLMCs were present, but this was reversed by fluticasone. β2-AR phosphorylation at Tyr(350) occurred within 5 min in both HLMCs and HASMCs when the cells were cocultured, and was inhibited by neutralizing SCF or CADM1. HLMC interactions with HASMCs via CADM1 and Kit inhibit the potentially beneficial effects of β2-AR agonists on these cells via phosphorylation of the β2-AR. These results may explain the potentially adverse effects of β2-ARs agonists when used for asthma therapy. Targeting SCF and CADM1 may enhance β2-AR efficacy, particularly in corticosteroid-resistant patients.
    The Journal of Immunology 11/2015; DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1402232
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    ABSTRACT: NY-ESO-1-specific CD4(+) T cells are of interest for immune therapy against tumors, because it has been shown that their transfer into a patient with melanoma resulted in tumor regression. Therefore, we investigated how NY-ESO-1 is processed onto MHC class II molecules for direct CD4(+) T cell recognition of melanoma cells. We could rule out proteasome and autophagy-dependent endogenous Ag processing for MHC class II presentation. In contrast, intercellular Ag transfer, followed by classical MHC class II Ag processing via endocytosis, sensitized neighboring melanoma cells for CD4(+) T cell recognition. However, macroautophagy targeting of NY-ESO-1 enhanced MHC class II presentation. Therefore, both elevated NY-ESO-1 release and macroautophagy targeting could improve melanoma cell recognition by CD4(+) T cells and should be explored during immunotherapy of melanoma.
    The Journal of Immunology 11/2015; DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1402664
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    ABSTRACT: Lunatic, Manic, and Radical Fringe (LFNG, MFNG, and RFNG) are N-acetylglucosaminyltransferases that modify Notch receptors and regulate Notch signaling. Loss of LFNG affects thymic T cell development, and LFNG and MFNG are required for marginal zone (MZ) B cell development. However, roles for MFNG and RFNG in T cell development, RFNG in B cell development, or Fringes in T and B cell activation are not identified. In this study, we show that Lfng/Mfng/Rfng triple knockout (Fng tKO) mice exhibited reduced binding of DLL4 Notch ligand to CD4/CD8 double-negative (DN) T cell progenitors, and reduced expression of NOTCH1 targets Deltex1 and CD25. Fng tKO mice had reduced frequencies of DN1/cKit(+) and DN2 T cell progenitors and CD4(+)CD8(+) double-positive (DP) T cell precursors, but increased frequencies of CD4(+) and CD8(+) single-positive T cells in the thymus. In spleen, Fng tKO mice had reduced frequencies of CD4(+), CD8(+), central memory T cells and MZ B cells, and an increased frequency of effector memory T cells, neutrophils, follicular, and MZ P B cells. The Fng tKO phenotype was cell-autonomous and largely rescued in mice expressing one allele of a single Fng gene. Stimulation of Fng tKO splenocytes with anti-CD3/CD28 beads or LPS gave reduced proliferation compared with controls, and the generation of activated T cells by Concanavalin A or L-PHA was also reduced in Fng tKO mice. Therefore, each Fringe contributes to T and B cell development, and Fringe is required for optimal in vitro stimulation of T and B cells.
    The Journal of Immunology 11/2015; DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1402421
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    ABSTRACT: The availability of specific stimuli to induce the anticancer cytotoxicity of human TCRVγ9-expressing T lymphocytes has allowed the development of γδ T cell-based cancer immunotherapies. However, the stringent dependence of such strategies on the inherently toxic IL-2 has raised safety concerns for patients, justifying a search for alternative methods for inducing γδ T cell stimulation. IL-33 is a γ-chain receptor-independent cytokine of the IL-1 superfamily that is expressed by endothelial cells from a tumor microenvironment and can sustain Th1 and Th2 immune responses. Therefore, we investigated its ability to support the stimulation of human TCRVγ9(+) γδ T cells. In this study, we report that IL-33 efficiently sustained the in vitro activation of Vγ9 T lymphocytes by synthetic phosphoantigens, zoledronate, and a BTN3A1 Ab in the absence of an exogenous supply of IL-2. IL-33 was as potent as IL-2 in allowing the proliferative amplification of Vγ9 T cells isolated from PBMC following activation by the synthetic phosphoantigen bromohydrin pyrophosphate. IL-33 also induced an identical maturation into TNF-α- and IFN-γ-producing Th1 effector memory cells, and IL-33-stimulated cells showed an equivalent cytotoxicity for various tumor cells in vitro. Finally, we found that the bioactivity of IL-33 on the Vγ9 T cell was indirectly mediated through contact with CD4 T cells and IL-2 production by CD4 T cells and Vγ9 T cells themselves. These data posit IL-33 as an alternative to IL-2 for Vγ9 T cell-based cancer immunotherapies.
    The Journal of Immunology 11/2015; DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1500260
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    ABSTRACT: T cells reactive to β cell Ags are critical players in the development of autoimmune type 1 diabetes. Using a panel of diabetogenic CD4 T cell clones derived from the NOD mouse, we recently identified the β cell secretory granule protein, chromogranin A (ChgA), as a new autoantigen in type 1 diabetes. CD4 T cells reactive to ChgA are pathogenic and rapidly transfer diabetes into young NOD recipients. We report in this article that NOD.ChgA(-/-) mice do not develop diabetes and show little evidence of autoimmunity in the pancreatic islets. Using tetramer analysis, we demonstrate that ChgA-reactive T cells are present in these mice but remain naive. In contrast, in NOD.ChgA(+/+) mice, a majority of the ChgA-reactive T cells are Ag experienced. Our results suggest that the presence of ChgA and subsequent activation of ChgA-reactive T cells are essential for the initiation and development of autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice.
    The Journal of Immunology 11/2015; DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1501190
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    ABSTRACT: Hypomorphic mutations in the nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) DNA repair protein DNA ligase IV (LIG4) lead to immunodeficiency with varying severity. In this study, using a murine knock-in model, we investigated the mechanisms underlying abnormalities in class switch recombination (CSR) associated with the human homozygous Lig4 R278H mutation. Previously, we found that despite the near absence of Lig4 end-ligation activity and severely reduced mature B cell numbers, Lig4(R278H/R278H) (Lig4(R/R)) mice exhibit only a partial CSR block, producing near normal IgG1 and IgE but substantially reduced IgG3, IgG2b, and IgA serum levels. In this study, to address the cause of these abnormalities, we assayed CSR in Lig4(R/R) B cells generated via preassembled IgH and IgK V region exons (HL). This revealed that Lig4(R278H) protein levels while intact exhibited a higher turnover rate during activation of switching to IgG3 and IgG2b, as well as delays in CSR kinetics associated with defective proliferation during activation of switching to IgG1 and IgE. Activated Lig4(R/R)HL B cells consistently accumulated high frequencies of activation-induced cytidine deaminase-dependent IgH locus chromosomal breaks and translocations and were more prone to apoptosis, effects that appeared to be p53-independent, as p53 deficiency did not markedly influence these events. Importantly, NHEJ instead of alternative end-joining (A-EJ) was revealed as the predominant mechanism catalyzing robust CSR. Defective CSR was linked to failed NHEJ and residual A-EJ access to unrepaired double-strand breaks. These data firmly demonstrate that Lig4(R278H) activity renders NHEJ to be more error-prone, and they predict increased error-prone NHEJ activity and A-EJ suppression as the cause of the defective B lymphopoiesis in Lig4 patients.
    The Journal of Immunology 11/2015; DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1403099
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, we analyzed the putative functions of stabilin-1 in blood monocytes. Microarray analysis revealed downregulation of several proinflammatory genes in the stabilin-1(high) monocytes when compared with stabilin-1(low) monocytes. When cocultured with stabilin-1(high) monocytes, IFN-γ synthesis by T cells was diminished in Ag-recall assays. Knockdown of stabilin-1 in monocytes increased the synthesis of several proinflammatory molecules, including TNF-α, and supported high IFN-γ and low IL-4 and IL-5 production by T cells in Ag-specific stimulation assays. Anti-stabilin-1 Ab treatment also led to increased IFN-γ synthesis in the recall assays. In clinical settings, the expression of stabilin-1 was diminished on blood monocytes and tissue macrophages under proinflammatory conditions. These data define stabilin-1 as a new immunosuppressive molecule and suggest that stabilin-1(high) monocytes may dampen proinflammatory reactions in vivo.
    The Journal of Immunology 11/2015; DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1500257
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    ABSTRACT: Recent successes in immune therapeutic strategies aimed to improve control over tumor growth have sparked hope that long-lived control of cancer through stimulation of the immune system can be possible. However, the underlying immunological mechanisms that are induced by immunotherapeutic strategies are not well understood. In this study, we used the highly immunogenic Friend virus-induced FBL-3 tumor as a model to study the mechanisms of immunological tumor control by CD4(+) T cells in the course of CD137 (4-1BB) agonist immunotherapy in the absence of a CD8 T cell response. We demonstrate that treatment with a CD137 agonist resulted in complete FBL-3 tumor regression in CD8(+) T cell-deficient mice. CD137 signaling enhanced the production of proinflammatory cytokines and cytotoxic molecules in tumor-specific CD4(+) T cells. Interestingly, a subset of CD4(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells was reprogrammed to eliminate immunogenic virus-induced tumor cells in response to CD137 agonist treatment. These cells expressed markers characteristic for Th cells (CD154) and produced the cytokine TNF-α or the T-box transcriptional factor Eomesodermin and granzyme B without loss of Foxp3 expression. Foxp3 Eomes double-positive CD4(+) T cells were capable of eliminating immunogenic virus-induced tumor cells in vivo. Thus, our data show that tumor-induced Foxp3(+)CD4(+) T cells can be reprogrammed into cytotoxic effector cells upon therapeutic costimulatory signaling and restore antitumor immunity.
    The Journal of Immunology 11/2015; DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1403039
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    ABSTRACT: We have previously shown that CD4(+) T cells from B6.Sle1Sle2.Sle3 lupus mice and patients present a high cellular metabolism, and a treatment combining 2-deoxy-d-glucose, which inhibits glucose metabolism, and metformin, which inhibits oxygen consumption, normalized lupus T cell functions in vitro and reverted disease in mice. We obtained similar results with B6.lpr mice, another model of lupus, and showed that a continuous treatment is required to maintain the beneficial effect of metabolic inhibitors. Further, we investigated the relative roles of glucose oxidation and pyruvate reduction into lactate in this process. Treatments of B6.Sle1Sle2.Sle3 mice with either 2-deoxy-d-glucose or metformin were sufficient to prevent autoimmune activation, whereas their combination was necessary to reverse the process. Treatment of B6.Sle1Sle2.Sle3 mice with dichloroacetate, an inhibitor of lactate production, failed to effectively prevent or reverse autoimmune pathology. In vitro, CD4(+) T cell activation upregulated the expression of genes that favor oxidative phosphorylation. Blocking glucose oxidation inhibited both IFN-γ and IL-17 production, which could not be achieved by blocking pyruvate reduction. Overall, our data show that targeting glucose oxidation is required to prevent or reverse lupus development in mice, which cannot be achieved by simply targeting the pyruvate-lactate conversion.
    The Journal of Immunology 11/2015; DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1501537
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic inflammation is associated with immunosuppression and downregulated expression of the TCR CD247. In searching for new biomarkers that could validate the impaired host immune status under chronic inflammatory conditions, we discovered that sorting nexin 9 (SNX9), a protein that participates in early stages of clathrin-mediated endocytosis, is downregulated as well under such conditions. SNX9 expression was affected earlier than CD247 by the generated harmful environment, suggesting that it is a potential marker sensing the generated immunosuppressive condition. We found that myeloid-derived suppressor cells, which are elevated in the course of chronic inflammation, are responsible for the observed SNX9 reduced expression. Moreover, SNX9 downregulation is reversible, as its expression levels return to normal and immune functions are restored when the inflammatory response and/or myeloid-derived suppressor cells are neutralized. SNX9 downregulation was detected in numerous mouse models for pathologies characterized by chronic inflammation such as chronic infection (Leishmania donovani), cancer (melanoma and colorectal carcinoma), and an autoimmune disease (rheumatoid arthritis). Interestingly, reduced levels of SNX9 were also observed in blood samples from colorectal cancer patients, emphasizing the feasibility of its use as a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker sensing the host's immune status and inflammatory stage. Our new discovery of SNX9 as being regulated by chronic inflammation and its association with immunosuppression, in addition to the CD247 regulation under such conditions, show the global impact of chronic inflammation and the generated immune environment on different cellular pathways in a diverse spectrum of diseases.
    The Journal of Immunology 11/2015; DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1402877
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    ABSTRACT: Calpains are intracellular proteases that play a key role in inflammation/immunity. Rare studies show that they are partially externalized. However, the mechanism of this secretion and the functions of exteriorized calpains remain poorly understood. In this study, we found that mouse and human lymphocytes secreted calpains through an ABCA1-driven process. In turn, extracellular calpains inhibited IL-17A expression. We were able to attribute this function to a cleavage of the TLR2 extracellular domain, which prevented TLR2-induced transcription of molecules essential for IL-17A induction. Calpain exteriorization and TLR2 cleavage were critical for the control of IL-17A expression by low doses of IL-2. By using newly developed transgenic mice in which extracellular calpains are specifically inactivated, we provide evidence for the relevance of calpain externalization in vivo in regulating IL-17A expression and function in experimental sterile peritonitis and autoimmune arthritis, respectively. Thus, this study identifies calpain exteriorization as a potential target for immune modulation.
    The Journal of Immunology 11/2015; DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1500749
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    ABSTRACT: Dendritic cell (DC) migration is essential for efficient host defense against pathogens and cancer, as well as for the efficacy of DC-based immunotherapies. However, the molecules that induce the migratory phenotype of DCs are poorly defined. Based on a large-scale proteome analysis of maturing DCs, we identified the GPI-anchored protein semaphorin 7A (Sema7A) as being highly expressed on activated primary myeloid and plasmacytoid DCs in human and mouse. We demonstrate that Sema7A deficiency results in impaired chemokine CCL21-driven DC migration in vivo. Impaired formation of actin-based protrusions, resulting in slower three-dimensional migration, was identified as the mechanism underlying the DC migration defect. Furthermore, we show, by atomic force microscopy, that Sema7A decreases adhesion strength to extracellular matrix while increasing the connectivity of adhesion receptors to the actin cytoskeleton. This study demonstrates that Sema7A controls the assembly of actin-based protrusions that drive DC migration in response to CCL21.
    The Journal of Immunology 11/2015; DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1403096
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    ABSTRACT: Microsporidia, a latent opportunistic infection associated with mild inflammation, is characterized by a strong CD8 T cell response, which has been shown to be CD4 T cell dependent. In this manuscript, we demonstrate that CD4 help is provided via IL-21 production, a common γ-chain cytokine closely related to IL-2. The peak of IL-21 expression, observed during the acute infection, is associated with an elevated IL-21(+) CD4 T subset, and these cells bear a phenotypic resemblance to T follicular helper cells. We observed that, during per-oral microsporidial infection, IL-21 was critical for the generation of an optimal effector CD8 T cell immunity. Sharply decreased effector KLRG1(+) CD8 response was observed in IL-21R knockout mice, and although these cells exhibited reduced functional properties, they retained the ability to proliferate. The role of IL-21 in the generation of CD8 effectors was cell intrinsic, as stronger defects were observed in the IL-21-deficient compartment from the bone marrow chimeric mice (IL-21R knockout/wild-type). These findings are different from those reported for viral infections in which IL-21 has been primarily associated with the generation and maintenance of CD8 memory response. To the best of our knowledge, this report demonstrates a critical role for IL-21 in the generation of a primary effector CD8 T cell response to an infectious disease model.
    The Journal of Immunology 11/2015; DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1501258
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    ABSTRACT: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic demyelinating disorder of the CNS characterized by immune cell infiltration across the brain vasculature into the brain, a process not yet fully understood. We previously demonstrated that the sphingolipid metabolism is altered in MS lesions. In particular, acid sphingomyelinase (ASM), a critical enzyme in the production of the bioactive lipid ceramide, is involved in the pathogenesis of MS; however, its role in the brain vasculature remains unknown. Transmigration of T lymphocytes is highly dependent on adhesion molecules in the vasculature such as intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). In this article, we hypothesize that ASM controls T cell migration by regulating ICAM-1 function. To study the role of endothelial ASM in transmigration, we generated brain endothelial cells lacking ASM activity using a lentiviral shRNA approach. Interestingly, although ICAM-1 expression was increased in cells lacking ASM activity, we measured a significant decrease in T lymphocyte adhesion and consequently transmigration both in static and under flow conditions. As an underlying mechanism, we revealed that upon lack of endothelial ASM activity, the phosphorylation of ezrin was perturbed as well as the interaction between filamin and ICAM-1 upon ICAM-1 clustering. Functionally this resulted in reduced microvilli formation and impaired transendothelial migration of T cells. In conclusion, in this article, we show that ASM coordinates ICAM-1 function in brain endothelial cells by regulating its interaction with filamin and phosphorylation of ezrin. The understanding of these underlying mechanisms of T lymphocyte transmigration is of great value to develop new strategies against MS lesion formation.
    The Journal of Immunology 11/2015; DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1500702