The Progressive Fish-Culturist

Publisher: American Fisheries Society

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  • Website
    Progressive Fish-Culturist, The website
  • Other titles
    Progressive fish-culturist
  • ISSN
    1548-8640
  • OCLC
    163395046
  • Material type
    Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

American Fisheries Society

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    • Open access repositories
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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of six diets to promote growth, survival, and egg production in juvenile mummichogs Fundulus heteroclitus reared in the laboratory. Fish were fed one of six diets—nauplii of brine shrimp Artemia sp. (24 h posthatch), frozen brine shrimp, BioTrainer, Salomon Moist, TetraMin, or Canadian Moist—for 33 weeks. The instantaneous growth rate in mummichogs changed significantly (analysis of variance, P < 0.05) between diet treatment and over time. TetraMin and Canadian Moist produced the lowest growth overall. Survival was high for fish fed brine shrimp nauplii, frozen brine shrimp, BioTrainer, and TetraMin. There were no significant differences in egg production on the basis of total female weight. Brine shrimp nauplii, frozen brine shrimp, BioTrainer, and Salomon Moist promoted the best growth; brine shrimp nauplii, frozen brine shrimp, BioTrainer, and TetraMin promoted the best survival. Fish size rather than diet affected total egg production. Processed diets high in animal protein that contained added flavor enhancement promoted better growth in juvenile mummichogs than diets made of plant and animal products.
    The Progressive Fish-Culturist 09/1998; 60(4):276-283.
  • The Progressive Fish-Culturist 09/1998; 60(4):272-275.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Optimal conditions were determined for induction of meiotic diploid gynogenesis in white bass Morone chrysops. In two series of experiments, ultraviolet light (UV) irradiation doses to inactivate sperm genome and optimal temperature shock to restore diploidy were established. Eggs of white bass were inseminated with sperm from striped bass M. saxatilis diluted (1:30) in saline and irradiated with UV at doses ranging from 50 to 1,200 J/m. A typical “Hertwig effect” was observed with increasing UV dose. Larvae obtained at doses of 400 J/m and greater were abnormally developed (haploid syndrome) and had a haploid chromosome number (n = 24). Heat shocks to cause retention of the second polar body were applied. Heat shocks of 2-min duration at 36°C, 38°C, or 40°C were applied at 2 or 3 min after insemination to white bass eggs inseminated with irradiated (800 J/m) striped bass sperm. The best results were obtained after application of 36°C heat shock at 3 min after insemination, which induced a significant increase in yield of diploid gynogens (24–39%, from initial numbers of gynogenetic embryos) and provided relatively high postshock embryo survival. The gynogenetic origin of diploids obtained was confirmed by the lack of melanophores in putative gynogens (contrary to pigmented control hybrid larvae).
    The Progressive Fish-Culturist 09/1998; 60(4):288-292.
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    ABSTRACT: Female channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus were induced to spawn with carp pituitary extract either singly paired with channel catfish males in aquaria (males present) or stocked with multiple females in aquaria or tanks (males absent). There was no difference between ovulation rates of females induced to spawn in the presence or absence of channel catfish males (P = 0.57). Females hand-stripped with males absent produced more eggs per kilogram of body weight (4,585) than females with males present (2,942; P = 0.07). When females in the males-present treatment deposited eggs in the aquaria, which allowed observation of the readiness of females, the number of eggs available for stripping was reduced. There was no difference in fertilization rate between treatments when using sperm from blue catfish I. furcatus (P = 0.35). Females that ovulated with males absent produced a similar (P = 0.12) number of viable eggs per kilogram of female body weight as females that ovulated with males present (3,809 and 2,291, respectively). It may be commercially feasible to artificially produce hybrids of channel and blue catfish by using the methods demonstrated in this experiment. This study has shown that pairing channel catfish females with males is unnecessary to induce ovulation in females and that more eggs are available to the culturist for hybrid production when males are absent.
    The Progressive Fish-Culturist 09/1998; 60(4):297-300.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: There are many applications in biology and aquaculture for a shaker, including the suspension of small batches of eggs or algal cultures. Three-dimensional motion platform shakers provide uniformly mixed fluids with little or no foaming, but they are expensive. If only a one-speed device for suspending fluids is needed, one of these shakers can be constructed simply, in less than an hour if all the materials are at hand, for about US$75. Construction centers around a subfractional gear motor, a “lazy susan” turntable swivel with ball-bearings, and a slightly eccentric angled hole that is drilled in a block of wood attached to the lazy susan.
    The Progressive Fish-Culturist 09/1998; 60(4):319-322.
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    ABSTRACT: Juvenile chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha reared at Willamette Hatchery, Oakridge, Oregon, showed nonrandom distributions in both modified Burrows raceways and Michigan raceways. When fish were reared in Burrows raceways at densities of 10–15 kg/m, largest fish tended to reside near the upstream end of the raceway, but when fish were crowded for sampling, smaller fish were found at the upstream end, and larger fish were found at the downstream end. In Michigan raceways, fish near release size occupied six compartments formed by baffles. Smallest fish were usually found in the upstream and downstream compartments, while largest fish were in the middle compartments. Fish sizes were compared between fish sampled by dip net with and without crowding in all experimental raceways. Only 9 of 49 measurements showed statistical differences in weight between the two methods. We conclude that juvenile chinook salmon distribute in modified Burrows raceways and Michigan raceways in a nonrandom manner, even when crowded. For estimates of fish weights in hatchery raceways, care must be taken to sample all portions of the population to ensure that a nonbiased sample is obtained.
    The Progressive Fish-Culturist 06/1998; 60(3):159-166.
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    ABSTRACT: A float–stopper mechanism was designed to drain fish holding tanks directly from the bottom. Unlike traditional, top-drawn standpipe systems, it allows continuous flushing of settled solid waste. It also prevents the accumulation of these wastes between the two standpipes that are used in bottom-drawn, double-walled standpipe systems. When suspended solids are forced upward between the outer and inner standpipes of such systems, a minimum velocity must be maintained to prevent sediment accumulation. This minimum velocity determines the minimum flow rate through the tank. The system described in this report flushes well over a wide range of flow rates.
    The Progressive Fish-Culturist 03/1998; 60(2):152-155.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Dietary essential fatty acid supplements fed to subadult sunshine bass Morone chrysops ♀ × M. saxatilis ♂ were evaluated for 6 months with four experimental semipurified diets that were formulated with different ratios of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids (EPA and DHA): 0:0 for diet 1 (control), 1:1 for diet 2, 1:2 for diet 3, and 2:1 for diet 4. A commercially available trout grower diet known to support sunshine bass growth was compared as an industry standard. Fish were fed each diet in triplicate, with 25 fish/replicate. Weight was measured every 6 weeks. With the exception of the final weighing, at which fish fed the trout grower diet were larger, there was no significant difference in the weights of the fish from all the diet trials. Fish fed diets supplemented with highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) showed a decline in tissue concentrations of n-3 HUFA over the study period, except in diet 4 (high EPA in diet, elevated EPA body levels) and diets 2, 3, and 4 (high DHA in diet, elevated DHA body levels). This decline in body HUFA levels was not as prominent as that with the control diet.
    The Progressive Fish-Culturist 03/1998; 60(2):95-100.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Temperature (5–25°C) and photoperiod (daylight of 10–14 h) were manipulated to induce spawning in groups and individual pairs of longnose darters Percina nasuta. The fish were maintained in tanks for up to 6 years and were fed blackworms, zooplankton, and aquatic insects harvested from hatchery ponds. The fish were spawned four times between June 1994 and February 1996. Eight females released over 3,400 eggs, of which 73% were deposited on Spawntex mats. Various incubation methods were used, and 706 fry (20% hatch) were produced. Fry were offered brine shrimp Artemia sp., copepods, and cladocerans (0.053–0.212 mm in diameter) and rotifers (0.053–0.106 mm in diameter) under various culture conditions. Mortality of fry was 100% within 9 d.
    The Progressive Fish-Culturist 03/1998; 60(2):137-145.
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    ABSTRACT: Adult sea-run Atlantic salmon Salmo salarcaptured and transported to Richard Cronin National Salmon Station (Sunderland, Massachusetts), Nashua National Fish Hatchery (Nashua, New Hampshire), and Whittemore State Fish Hatchery (Waterford, Connecticut) during 1986- 1992 were treated with oxolinic acid and a bacterin. The bacterin was developed against furun- culosis and enteric redmouth disease. Among the 2,552 fish that were treated since 1986, 362 died and 65 (18%) of those fish had furunculosis. Among 206 untreated fish that were maintained as controls, 109 died and 63 (57.8%) had furunculosis. The reduction in mortality could not be attributed to either vaccine or antibiotic alone without further study. A 3-year study was designed to investigate if adult Atlantic salmon, undergoing the stress of migration, handling, and spawning, could mount a protective humoral immune response. Although the salmon were able to produce an agglutinin response, evidence was not found for production of a protective humoral response by these vaccinated Atlantic salmon. The infectious bacterial disease furunculosis (causative agent, Aeromonas salmonicida), causes losses among sea-run Atlantic salmon Salmo salar that are captured from the Merrimack and Con- necticut rivers and held for spawning. Enteric red- mouth disease (ERM), caused by Yersinia ruckeri, has been a bacterial pathogen of lesser concern to managers of sea-run broodstock holding facilities throughout New England. Early attempts at treat- ment for furunculosis involved antibiotic baths and injections, antiserum injections (1979-1980), as well as vaccination with an A. salmonicida bac- terin. These actions, however, were never com- pletely satisfactory at controlling infections and subsequent mortality of the valuable broodstock. Since enhanced numbers of fish have been return- ing to southern New England rivers, furunculosis has become an increasingly important cause of mortality.
    The Progressive Fish-Culturist 03/1998; 60(2):88-94.
  • The Progressive Fish-Culturist 01/1998; 60(3):227-230.
  • The Progressive Fish-Culturist 01/1998; 60(1):9-19.
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    ABSTRACT: The 96-h median-lethal concentration (96h LC50) of total ammonia nitrogen (ammonia-N) to fingerling shortnose sturgeon Acipenser brevirostrum was 149.8 ± 55.20 mg/L (mean ± SD, 17.9 ± 0.62°C, pH = 6.8–7.3). Calculated 96-h LC50 for un-ionized ammonia-N was 0.58 ± 0.213 mg/L. The 96-h LC50 of nitrite nitrogen to shortnose sturgeon fingerlings was 11.3 ± 8.17 mg/L (17.9 ± 0.31°C,
    The Progressive Fish-Culturist 01/1998; 60(4):315-318.
  • The Progressive Fish-Culturist 01/1998; 60(1):71-73.
  • The Progressive Fish-Culturist 01/1998; 60(1):50-54.
  • The Progressive Fish-Culturist 01/1998; 60(1):55-58.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This experiment examined whether photoperiodic changes induce chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha to alter various indices of smoltification. The effect of 24 h light, a constant photoperiod of 9 h light: 015 h dark (9L:15D), and a naturally increasing photoperiod on plasma levels of thyroxine and cortisol, hematocrit, condition factor (K), and hepatosomatic index (HSI) was tested during the period of smoltification in chinook salmon. The 24-h-light group grew faster than the other two groups, but was significantly larger than one of the two groups on only three sampling dates. Mean plasma thyroxine and cortisol levels were highest in the natural-photoperiod group and lowest in the 9L:15D group. Mean plasma cortisol levels increased significantly in the increasing and 9L:15D photoperiod groups but were unchanged in the continuous-light group. Mean HSI decreased faster in the natural-photoperiod group than in the other two groups. Mean hematocrit did not change in the natural-photoperiod group but decreased in the other two groups. Mean K decreased in the natural-photoperiod and 24-h-light groups, but not in the 9L:15D group. The natural-photoperiod group clearly showed a more coordinated and complete smoltification based on the indices measured: highest mean and peak levels of both thyroxine and cortisol, greatest decrease in HSI, greatest decrease in K (along with the 24-h-light group), and least decrease in hematocrit. These results show that a natural photoperiod is beneficial and that continuous light or a short, unchanging photoperiod are detrimental to smoltification in chinook salmon. Hatcheries should account for photoperiodic effects when raising chinook salmon, particularly indoors.
    The Progressive Fish-Culturist 01/1998; 60(3):179-191.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Results and observations from 120 chloramine-T treatment trials to control mortality in a variety of salmonids caused by bacterial gill disease and columnaris are provided to aid fish culturists in determining more effective treatment regimes. When chloramine-T was used at 6, 10, or 15 mg/L, regardless of treatment frequency, efficacy in control of mortality was observed in 56%, 65%, and 61% of the trials, respectively. When chloramine-T was administered one, two, or three times, regardless of treatment concentration, efficacy was observed in 38%, 62%, and 88% of the trials, respectively.
    The Progressive Fish-Culturist 01/1998; 60(1):63-66.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Triploidy induction is a technique that allows genetic manipulation of chromosome number to control reproduction and potentially create faster-growing animals; however, most methods for inducing polyploidy are not 100% effective. Using sunshine bass (white bass Morone chrysops ♀ × striped bass M. saxatilis ♂) as a model, we cross-validated the most common verification techniques: DNA staining and fluorescence quantification with a flow cytometer, erythrocyte nuclear volume with a Coulter counter particle size analyzer, silver staining of nucleolar organizer regions (NORs), and cytological karyotyping. Results indicated that the electronic techniques of particle size analysis and flow cytometry were the simplest and quickest methods of validation. The major drawback of both electronic ploidy determination methods is the cost of the equipment required for analysis. Cytological karyotyping was the most accurate method for determining polyploidy because actual chromosome numbers were determined. It was also the most time-consuming, tedious, and frustrating of the techniques, which reduces its applicability in mass screening of fish. Silver staining was the least expensive technique used for verifying a nominal number of fish, but it was also the most suspect because the NORs were sometimes difficult to detect, and there were conflicting results in older fish. All techniques demand a certain technical competence that can either be self-taught or requires extramural training.
    The Progressive Fish-Culturist 01/1998; 60(3):221-226.
  • The Progressive Fish-Culturist 01/1998; 60(4):323-330.