Polymer Composites (Polymer Compos)

Publisher: Society of Plastics Engineers, Wiley

Journal description

Published six times per year, Polymer Composites is the foremost engineering & scientific journal covering the fields of reinforced plastics and polymer composites. In publication since 1980, Polymer Composites offers detailed applied developments of specific interest long before they become commercial realities.

Current impact factor: 1.48

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2015
2011 Impact Factor 1.231

Additional details

5-year impact 1.58
Cited half-life 6.00
Immediacy index 0.23
Eigenfactor 0.01
Article influence 0.39
Website Polymer Composites website
Other titles Polymer composites (Online), Polymer composites
ISSN 1548-0569
OCLC 43437991
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details


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    • If OnlineOpen is available, AHRC and ESRC authors, may self-archive after 24 months
    • Publisher last contacted on 07/08/2014
    • This policy is an exception to the default policies of 'Wiley'
  • Classification
    ​ yellow

Publications in this journal

  • Polymer Composites 03/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: The use of natural materials has grown in the last years in the plastics industry. Natural lignocellulose fibers derived from agricultural waste present potential to be used as a replacement for glass fibers for polymer reinforcement, leading to lower CO2 footprint products. However, cellulose fibers are hydrophilic and polar and as a result of that, incompatible with hydrophobic polymers such as polypropylene. For this reason, a surface modification on the cellulose fiber is required. This work focuses on the modification of the cellulose fibers to improve the compatibility with polypropylene. Wheat straw fibers derived from agricultural waste were scoured with the purpose to remove lignin, hemicellulose and pectin to facilitate the defibrillation. The fibers were then esterified using acetic anhydride. Thermal gravimetric tests have shown an increase in the thermal stability of the scoured and esterified cellulose fibers, from 246°C for untreated fibers to 292°C and 316°C, respectively. From mechanical tests results it could be seen that the tensile modulus of the composites with esterified cellulose fibers increased 57% compared with the neat PP. Flexural strength increased by 31% and flexural modulus by 70%. The use of esterified fibers led to an improvement of 79% in the impact strength compared with the neat PP. A better compatibilization between fibers and matrix could be seen using maleic anhydride modified polypropylene copolymer as compatibilizer, even with esterified fibers, probably due to residual hydroxyl groups still available on modified cellulose.
    Polymer Composites 03/2015; DOI:10.1002/pc.23392
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    ABSTRACT: Polyimide-MWCNT nanocomposites were prepared by the reaction of a heterocyclic diamine monomer of bis(4-amino-3,5-dimethylphenyl)-2-chloro-3-quinolylmethane (BACQM), pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA) with unmodified MWCNT (MWCNT), acid-functionalized MWCNT (acid-MWCNT) or amine-functionalized MWCNT (amine-MWCNT) using microwave irradiation as well as by the conventional method. The structure of the monomer was confirmed by FTIR, 1H-NMR, and 13C-NMR spectral techniques. The glass transition temperature (Tg) of the MWCNTs/polyimide nanocomposite was found to be higher than that of the unfilled polyimide system. The Tg's of both systems were higher when prepared with the microwave method than the conventional synthesis. The Tg's of the nanocomposites using acid and amine functionalized MWCNTs are greater than 300°C, in both methods. This is attributed to the presence of hydrogen bond and strong covalent bond in both the acid-MWCNT/polyimide and amine-MWCNT/polyimide systems. The morphological studies of the nanocomposites synthesized using microwave irradiation show that a distinct MWCNT nanofibrillar network is formed in the matrix when MWCNT or acid-MWCNT is used. A homogeneous morphology, without distinct nanotube domains is seen when the amine-MWCNT is covalently linked to the polymer. POLYM. COMPOS., 2015. © 2015 Society of Plastics Engineers
    Polymer Composites 03/2015; DOI:10.1002/pc.23426
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    ABSTRACT: Composite materials of polypropylene, graphene nanoplatelets (GNP) or fullerene C60 were synthesized by in situ polymerization. GNP particles consist of 3–5 graphene layers and have aspect ratio 40. In composites with pristine GNP particles their aspect ratio is 110, whereas ultrasonic processing reduces it to 40–50. This change of aspect ratio of filler particles and their aggregates results in different properties of composites with pristine and sonicated GNP. Percolation threshold for composites with pristine GNP is 0.25% vol. In composites with sonicated GNP it is 2–3% vol. This is due to reduction in the size of filler particles aggregates and more uniform distribution of particles in polymer matrix after ultrasonic treatment. The presence of nanocarbon filler (GNP or fullerene) makes α-transition, associated with the glass transition of the amorphous phase of polypropylene, clearly resolved. Its intensity increases with the concentration of nanofiller, which acts as a dielectric probe. POLYM. COMPOS., 2015. © 2015 Society of Plastics Engineers
    Polymer Composites 03/2015; DOI:10.1002/pc.23447
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    ABSTRACT: This study has reported the preparation of polycarbonate (PC)/graphene nanoplate (GNP)/multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) hybrid composite by simple melt mixing method of PC with GNP and MWCNT at 330°C above the processing temperature of the PC (processing temperature is 280°C) followed by compression molding. Through optimizing the ratio of (GNP/MWCNT) in the composites, high electromagnetic interference shielding effectiveness (EMI SE) value (∼21.6 dB) was achieved at low (4 wt%) loading of (GNP/MWCNT) and electrical conductivity of ≈6.84 × 10−5 S.cm−1 was achieved at 0.3 wt% (GNP/MWCNT) loading with low percolation threshold (≈0.072 wt%). The high temperature melt mixing of PC with nanofillers lowers the melt viscosity of the PC that has helped for better dispersion of the GNPs and MWCNTs in the PC matrix and plays a key factor for achieving high EMI shielding value and high electrical conductivity with low percolation threshold than ever reported in PC/MWCNT or PC/graphene composites. With this method, the formation of continuous conducting interconnected GNP-CNT-GNP or CNT-GNP-CNT network structure in the matrix polymer and strong π–π interaction between the electron rich phenyl rings and oxygen atom of PC chain, GNP, and MWCNT could be possible throughout the composites. POLYM. COMPOS., 2015. © 2015 Society of Plastics Engineers
    Polymer Composites 03/2015; DOI:10.1002/pc.23384
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    ABSTRACT: Microcellular foaming of poly(phenylene sulfide) (PPS) and its glass–fiber (GF) reinforced composites using supercritical CO2 as a blowing agent presents a promising approach to produce novel cellular materials with tailored microstructures. This study investigated the effects of the material composition and process conditions on the foaming behaviors and final morphologies of the microcellular foamed PPS and PPS/GF composites. The rheological and thermal properties as well as the saturation and desorption behaviors of CO2 in the pure PPS and PPS/GF composites were also detailedly discussed. The results show that microcellular foams with various relative densities, cell sizes, cell-size distributions, and cell densities can be attained by tailoring the fiber content and key process parameters. At low foaming temperatures below the cold crystallization temperature, the microcellular foamed PPS and PPS/GF composites both present a unimodal cell-size distribution. At elevated temperatures, the generated crystalline superstructures including spherulites in the polymer matrix and transcrystals around the GF will cause a secondary heterogeneous cell nucleation. This leads to the observations of bimodal and trimodal cell-size distributions in the pure PPS and the PPS/GF composites, respectively. The mechanisms for the solid-state foaming behaviors of pure PPS and PPS/GF composites have been illustrated by establishing theoretical models. POLYM. COMPOS., 2015. © 2015 Society of Plastics Engineers
    Polymer Composites 03/2015; DOI:10.1002/pc.23443
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    ABSTRACT: Cured and uncured scraps from manufacturing of epoxy based carbon fiber reinforced composites were treated with a pyrolytic process to provide, as solid residue, carbon fibers to be re-used in new composites production. The industrial scraps were pyrolyzed at different temperatures in a 70 kg batch pilot plant and the pyrolysis products (gas, oil, and solid) were fully characterized. The solid residue (carbon fibers covered by a carbonaceous layer) was subjected to a further oxidative step at 500 and 600°C for different residence times to provide fibers devoid of any organic residue that did not volatilize during pyrolysis. The effects of both pyrolysis and oxidative process on the recovered fibers were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy and Raman Spectroscopy. The reinforcement behavior of pyrolyzed and pyrolyzed/oxidized chopped fibers, compared to virgin fibers, was tested in the production of new Chopped Carbon Fiber Reinforced Composites. The optimized double pyrolysis/oxidation process was found to provide fibers whose performance in the composites were comparable to the virgin ones. POLYM. COMPOS., 2015. © 2015 Society of Plastics Engineers
    Polymer Composites 03/2015; DOI:10.1002/pc.23440
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    ABSTRACT: This study was aimed at fabrication of green composites of polypropylene (PP) matrix 5, 10, 15, and 20 wt% of saw palmetto spent (SPS) (a spent of nutraceuticals) as filler material. Two wt% organically modified montmorillonite clay (MMT) was used as a co-filler in all formulations and composites were fabricated by melt blending. The fabricated PP/SPS/MMT composites were characterized for physicomechanical and tribological properties. Improvement in tensile modulus of the composites was noticed with increase in SPS content. The tensile strength of composites was decreased by 14% with increase in filler content from 5 to 20 wt%. Flexural strength of the composites increased from 31.3 to 37.8 MPa (21% improvement) and also flexural modulus improved from 956 to 1383 MPa (45% improvement) with increased SPS content. Composites were subjected to three-body abrasion with different loads and abrading distances. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) study revealed that the predominant wear mechanisms of composite material sliding against continuous flowing sand were microploughing and filler detachment from the polymer matrix. POLYM. COMPOS., 2015. © 2015 Society of Plastics Engineers
    Polymer Composites 03/2015; DOI:10.1002/pc.23409
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    ABSTRACT: Styrene acrylate polymer (SAC) nanocomposites with various carbon nanofillers (multi-walled carbon nanotubes, MWCNT, and onion like carbons, OLCs, annealed at two different temperatures) are manufactured by means of latex based and combined routes. Concentration of the carbon nanofillers is changed in a broad interval starting from 0.01 up to 10 wt%. Elastic, dielectric, and electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding efficiency of SAC nanocomposites are investigated. Dynamic elastic modulus, electrical conductivity, and EMI shielding efficiency of the investigated SAC nanocomposites increase along with rising nanofiller content. The effect of the addition of anisodiametric MWCNT on the elastic properties as well as EMI shielding characteristics of the SAC nanocomposites is higher than in the case of the addition of OLCs. Modification effectiveness of the polymer matrix in respects to elastic and EMI shielding performance provided by the OLC, annealed at higher temperature, is greater in comparison with the OLC, annealed at lower temperature, generally because of more perfect structure of the first. POLYM. COMPOS., 2015. © 2015 Society of Plastics Engineers
    Polymer Composites 03/2015; DOI:10.1002/pc.23446
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    ABSTRACT: Poly(glycidyl methacrylate)/zeolite (PGMA/Z) composite was prepared by free radical polymerization and it was further modified to contain amino groups on its surface, by reacting to hexamethylenediamine. FTIR, TG, and SEM analyses were performed and investigated its potential as an adsorbent for removal of anionic dyes; namely, Reactive Red 120 (RR120) and Reactive Blue 4 (RB4). The effect of operational parameters was investigated. Maximum RR120 and RB4 adsorption capacities of composite were calculated as 136.5 and 189.8 mg g−1, respectively. Isotherm, kinetic, and thermodynamic studies were also performed. It was found that the adsorption process might be heterogeneous by nature, and adsorption kinetics of reactive dyes followed the pseudo-second order. The thermodynamic calculations showed that adsorption process was spontaneous and exothermic. POLYM. COMPOS., 2015. © 2015 Society of Plastics Engineers
    Polymer Composites 03/2015; DOI:10.1002/pc.23410
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    ABSTRACT: Polymer blends of incompatible components need to undergo compatibilization, in order to give rise to a blend with good physical properties. At the same way, polymer/clay nanocomposites show this problem because of different chemical nature of the polymer matrix and of the clay. Compatibilization is therefore more necessary if an incompatible polymer blend is filled with an organomodified clay in order to give a final material with good properties. In this work, a polyethylene/polyamide 6 blend filled with an organomodified clay has been compatibilized with a maleic anhydride grafted SEBS (styrene-ethylene-butylene-styrene) copolymer and a glicidylmethacrylate-ethylene copolymer. The results show that compatibilization improves the mechanical properties in terms of elongation at break, as well as the rheological properties under nonisothermal elongational flow; furthermore, an unexpected effect has been found, since going from the isotropic to the anisotropic material, a fragile-ductile transition occurs, with a significant increase of the elongation values, while a small reduction of the elastic modulus was found, because of the lower crystallinity in comparison to isotropic samples. POLYM. COMPOS., 2015. © 2015 Society of Plastics Engineers
    Polymer Composites 03/2015; DOI:10.1002/pc.23415
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    ABSTRACT: Highly functionalized thermoresponsive composites in which two kinds of functional inorganic particles and thermoresponsive polymer work concertedly were prepared. In this study, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) and calcium alginate were used as the thermoresponsive polymer and structure support polymer, respectively. TiO2 and Fe3O4 were used as functional inorganic nanoparticles. The thermoresponsive functional composites were prepared using a single-tube nozzle by modifying the simple process to prepare microcapsules reported in our previous study. The experimental results showed that the TiO2/Fe3O4-embedded thermoresponsive composites were successfully obtained. The resulting composites exhibited thermoresponsive volume change and photocatalytic activity. Localized heating of the thermoresponsive bead containing Fe3O4 was also achieved by applying an alternating current (AC) magnetic field on the bead. Because of the localized heating property, repeated shrinking-swelling movement (i.e., pumping movement) of the composite was achieved by applying an AC magnetic field intermittently. Finally, based on the experimental results, the effect of the promoted mass transfer of the substrate and product due to thermoresponsive pumping on the enhancement of the apparent photocatalytic activity was simulated. The results showed the effectiveness of thermoresponsive pumping in improving the apparent photocatalytic activity of TiO2 nanoparticles embedded in the composite gel. POLYM. COMPOS., 2015. © 2015 Society of Plastics Engineers
    Polymer Composites 03/2015; DOI:10.1002/pc.23407
  • Polymer Composites 03/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: In this article, two goals are followed. First, free vibrations of laminated beams reinforced by Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (SWCNTs) are studied based on various Higher order Shear Deformation Beam Theories (HSDBTs) and using an analytical method. The SWCNTs are assumed to be aligned and straight with a uniform layout. The extended rule of mixture is applied to describe the effective material properties of the structure. The natural frequencies of the nanocomposite beam are compared with the existing solutions to verify the validity of the theories. Results show the simplicity and accuracy of the method for free vibration analysis of nanocomposite beams. The effects of Carbon Nanotube (CNT) volume fractions in the layers and span-to-depth ratio on the fundamental frequency of the structure are also studied. As for the second goal of this study, optimization of nanocomposite-laminated beams is presented. The main objective of the optimization problem is maximizing the fundamental frequency of the structure. The total amount of CNT in the structure is considered as a constraint on the optimization problem. The primary optimization variables are the values of CNT volume fraction in layers of a 10-layer laminated nanocomposite beam. Since the search space of the optimization problem is large, the optimization processes becomes so complicated and time consuming. Thus, a novel meta–heuristic approach called Imperialist Competitive Algorithm (ICA), which is a socio-politically motivated global search strategy, is applied to find the optimal solution. Results show the success of ICA for the design of nanocomposite structures. POLYM. COMPOS., 2015. © 2015 Society of Plastics Engineers
    Polymer Composites 03/2015; DOI:10.1002/pc.23429
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    ABSTRACT: We present our recent results from constant temperature-pressure (NPT) molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of a bead-spring copolymer model, in which the polymer is confined between two crystalline substrates. Our goal was to study the combined effect of the polymer crosslinking density and the degree of confinement on the glass-transition temperature and the equilibrium structure of the films. In the direction perpendicular to the substrates, the polymer chains are ordered in layers of increasing density towards the substrates, for all crosslinking densities and the degrees of confinement. In the direction parallel to the substrates, the polymer films display an amorphous structure, just like in the bulk. The glass-transition temperature increases with confinement and crosslinking density, with the former having a large effect compared to the later. POLYM. COMPOS., 2015. © 2015 Society of Plastics Engineers
    Polymer Composites 03/2015; DOI:10.1002/pc.23413
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    ABSTRACT: It was aimed to investigate how thermal conductivity and stability properties of synthesized thermoplastic elastomers were influenced by zinc oxide (ZnO) additives which differed in size and surface treatment. ZnO particles were prepared by the homogeneous precipitation method by mixing aqueous solutions of hexamethylenetetramine (HMT) and zinc nitrate. The obtained particles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) was used as a modifier to reduce aggregation among the ZnO particles. The composites, prepared by melt compounding method, were characterized in terms of their morphology and thermal properties. Uniformly distributed surface treated particles caused an enhancement in thermal conductivity properties. At 10 wt% ZnO concentration the thermal conductivity of composite reached 1.7 W/mK compared with 0.3 W/mK for the neat polymer. At the same filler loading, ZnO nanoparticles exhibited a greater effect on thermal conductivity compared with submicron sized particles. It was found that the coefficient of thermal expansion of composites decreased at low temperature (55°C) with increasing ZnO content. Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) showed that the neat polymer and the composites were resistant up to 340°C without significant mass loss. POLYM. COMPOS., 2015. © 2015 Society of Plastics Engineers
    Polymer Composites 03/2015; DOI:10.1002/pc.23418
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    ABSTRACT: This study reports the preparation of advanced carbon fiber composites with a nanocomposite matrix prepared by dispersing multiwall carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in a powder type epoxy oligomer with two different processing techniques (1) master batch dilution technique and (2) direct mixing (with the help of twin-screw extruder in both cases). The master batch technique shows a better efficiency for the dispersion of the CNTs aggregates. The rheological results demonstrate that the incorporation of the CNTs into the epoxy oligomer leads, as expected, to a marked increase in the viscosity and of the presence of a yield stress point that also depends on the processing technique adopted. Carbon fiber (CFRP) and glass fiber (GFRP) composite materials were produced by electrostatic spraying of the epoxy matrix formulations on the carbon and glass fabric, respectively, followed by calendering and mold pressing. The mechanical properties of the obtained epoxy/CNT-matrix composite materials, such as interlaminar fracture toughness, flexural strength, shear storage and loss moduli are discussed in terms of the processing techniques and fabric material. The incorporation of 1 wt% CNTs in the epoxy matrix results in a relevant increase of the fracture toughness, flexural strength and modulus of both CFRP and GFRP. POLYM. COMPOS., 2015. © 2015 Society of Plastics Engineers
    Polymer Composites 03/2015; DOI:10.1002/pc.23419
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    ABSTRACT: For the applications of underwater acoustics and ultrasonics, the 1-3 piezoelectric composite has proven to be useful material given its attractive performance. As a special modified version of 1-3 composite, the 1-3-2 piezoelectric composite which is composed of 1-3 composite and a ceramic base layer has been studied a lot recently for getting greater stability than 1-3 composite. But there still exist shortcomings caused by limitations in the manufacturing process of both 1-3 and 1-3-2 piezoelectric composites. In this article, a 2-1-3 composite that consists of 1-3 composite and a ceramic cover layer instead of the ceramic base layer for 1-3-2 composite is proposed to loosen the fineness requirement of 1-3 or 1-3-2 composites in the manufacturing process. The finite element method (FEM) has been adopted to analyze the dependence of electric-elastic properties (the longitudinal velocity and thickness electromechanical coupling coefficient) of 1-3, 1-3-2, and 2-1-3 composites on the aspect ratio α (the ratio of the lateral periodicity of PZT rods to the thickness of composite). The results of the 2-1-3 composite with soft matrix show great improvement in loosening the fineness requirement of the manufacturing. Typically, the fineness of 30%-volume faction 2-1-3 composite can be reduced to 2.54% of that of 1-3-2 composite. Hence, the 2-1-3 composite offers greater feasibility for the design of various sensing materials. POLYM. COMPOS., 2015. © 2015 Society of Plastics Engineers
    Polymer Composites 03/2015; DOI:10.1002/pc.23420
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    ABSTRACT: A novel procedure to synthesize in-situ clay/nylon-6 composite suspension was explored via anionic solution polymerization. The suspension was efficiently blended with water-based epoxy resin using mechanical stirrer at room temperature. Hence, a 3-component coating system was obtained consisting of nano-clay, nylon-6 and epoxy resin. Large number of coatings and films were prepared with variation in clay and nylon-6 loading. Concentration of clay was found to have profound effect on crystallinity of nylon-6, thereby affecting the overall properties of clay/nylon/epoxy composite. All the films were characterized for thermal and dynamic mechanical behavior using differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). Lower amount of clay was found to increase the crystallinity of nylon-6 which in turn increased the plasticization of epoxy resin indicated by reduction in Tg. A multiphase morphology with distinct amorphous and crystalline zones was observed under scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A remarkable symmetrical morphology with branched dendritic crystal structure was observed for few of the clay/nylon/epoxy system. POLYM. COMPOS., 2015. © 2015 Society of Plastics Engineers
    Polymer Composites 03/2015; DOI:10.1002/pc.23399