Current Heart Failure Reports (Curr Heart Fail Rep )

Publisher: Springer Verlag

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Website Current Heart Failure Reports website
Other titles Current heart failure reports (Online), Current heart failure reports
ISSN 1546-9549
OCLC 53129493
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

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Springer Verlag

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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Today, innate immunity is recognized as an important pathophysiologic factor and therapeutic target for cardiac remodeling after myocardial infarction (MI). The innate immune system exerts its function via soluble and cellular components. Recently, function and kinetics of immune cells after MI have been clarified using new innovative technology. Therefore, herein, we will discuss the function of neutrophils, monocytes, and macrophages in the pathophysiology of cardiac remodeling after MI in basic as well as clinical science.
    Current Heart Failure Reports 02/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: The place of invasive hemodynamic monitoring in patients with acute heart failure is still debated, even though frequently used. Invasive techniques, which include the pulmonary artery catheter and transpulmonary thermodilution, provide important information on cardiac output and intravascular pressures or volume. These techniques should be used in combination with echocardiography and allow nurse-driven semicontinuous hemodynamic monitoring. These techniques are useful not only in the diagnosis of circulatory or respiratory failure but also for the evaluation of the effects of therapies. Admittedly, large-scale randomized trials failed to demonstrate a survival benefit with the pulmonary artery catheter (and were even not yet performed with transpulmonary thermodilution). However, these trials may be subjected to selection bias, as patients from recruiting centers not included in the trial but receiving the pulmonary artery catheter were more severe and had higher mortality rates than patient included in the trial. Hence, invasive techniques may still have a place in selected patients with acute circulatory failure and especially in the most severe cases.
    Current Heart Failure Reports 02/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) are any report obtained directly from a patient about how they feel or function in relation to their health condition and its therapies. Strong support for PROs exists at multiple levels of the health-care community from regulatory boards to clinical researchers. PROs are particularly important in heart failure because it is a common chronic illness marked with acute exacerbations, often requiring hospitalization, and significant symptom burden. Use of PROs to understand patient perspectives will help providers deliver more patient-centered care, and thus improve the quality of care. This review provides a contemporary overview of the current state of PROs in heart failure and suggests future directions and opportunities to advance PRO use to provide more comprehensive care. Advancing PRO measurement along with incorporating longitudinal measures in national databases and local electronic health records will serve to improve patient-centered care for patients with heart failure.
    Current Heart Failure Reports 02/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: Heart failure (HF) is increasing in incidence globally, and approximately half of all HF patients are women. When women and men with HF are compared, there are significant differences in disease etiology, expression, outcomes, and perhaps, response to therapy. Hypertension rather than coronary artery disease is a more important etiology of HF in women, and HF with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (HFPEF) is more common in women. Regardless of its etiology, women have better survival and less sudden cardiac death, but poorer quality of life with equivalent degrees of left ventricular dysfunction. Animal studies of myocardial response to stressors resulting in heart failure corroborate sex differences in ventricular remodeling, cellular morphology, and function. Despite the fact that women make up nearly 50 % of HF patients, their inclusion in randomized clinical trials has remained at about 20 %, with no trials including women as a prespecified subgroup for statistical analysis. Thus, the evidence base for treatment of HF in women is not robustly supported by sex-specific data.
    Current Heart Failure Reports 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: Significant improvements in the morbidity and mortality associated with chronic heart failure have been gained with the use ACE inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists, and diuretics. However, the use of these agents is often limited by their propensity to precipitate worsening renal function and hyperkalemia, particularly in patients with chronic kidney disease. Several pharmacologic agents have been developed in recent years that utilize the gastrointestinal tract as an alternate route for drug absorption, electrolyte exchange, and drug and electrolyte elimination. The existing data establishing the safety and efficacy of these novel agents will be the focus of this review.
    Current Heart Failure Reports 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Cardiac remodeling includes alterations in molecular, cellular, and interstitial systems contributing to changes in size, shape, and function of the heart. This may be the result of injury, alterations in hemodynamic load, neurohormonal effects, electrical abnormalities, metabolic changes, etc. Thyroid hormones (THs) serve as master regulators for diverse remodeling processes of the cardiovascular system-from the prenatal period to death. THs promote a beneficial cardiomyocyte shape and improve contractility, relaxation, and survival via reversal of molecular remodeling. THs reduce fibrosis by decreasing interstitial collagen and reduce the incidence and duration of arrhythmias via remodeling ion channel expression and function. THs restore metabolic function and also improve blood flow both by direct effects on the vessel architecture and decreasing atherosclerosis. Optimal levels of THs both in the circulation and in cardiac tissues are critical for normal homeostasis. This review highlights TH-based remodeling and clinically translatable strategies for diverse cardiovascular disorders.
    Current Heart Failure Reports 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: With the advances of mechanical circulatory support, the selection of patients has undergone many changes over the last decade. Determining who is suitable for left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation is important to understanding the overall risk and outcomes. As devices improve, it is expected that changes will continue in this field. This review describes current state of patient selection, evaluation, and optimization prior to implantation of a long-term circulatory support device.
    Current Heart Failure Reports 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Over a million patients get hospitalized with the diagnosis of acute decompensated heart failure which poses an insurmountable financial burden on the health care system. Heart failure alone incurs over 30 billion dollars with half the cost spent towards acute hospitalizations. Majority of the treatment strategies have focused towards decongesting patients which often comes with the cost of worsening renal function. Renal dysfunction in the setting of acute decompensated heart failure portends worse morbidity and mortality. Recently, there has been a change in the focus with shift towards therapies attempting to conserve renal function. In the past decade, we have witnessed several large randomized controlled trials testing the established as well as emerging therapies in this subset of population with mixed results. This review intends to provide a comprehensive overview of the pharmacologic therapies commonly utilized in the management of acute decompensated heart failure and the body of evidence supporting these strategies.
    Current Heart Failure Reports 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Left ventricular (LV) noncompaction cardiomyopathy (LVNC) is a form of cardiomyopathy in which trabeculations fail to "compact" with the left ventricular endocardium during fetal cardiac development and is classically associated with subsequent impairment of LV function, significant mortality, ventricular dysrhythmias, and embolic phenomena. As awareness and medical imaging quality have improved, it is becoming easier to identify trabeculations that traverse the LV cavity and serve as a distinguishing feature of this disorder. Differentiating true noncompaction from mild increases in trabeculations requires prudent imaging and clinical correlation. This review seeks to discuss the potential methods of evaluating left ventricular trabeculations, the role of increased trabeculations in cardiovascular disease, and how their presence may affect clinical management.
    Current Heart Failure Reports 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The morbidity and mortality associated with heart failure (HF) represents a significant public health challenge. Stage D HF identifies a distinct subgroup of advanced HF patients characterized by adverse clinical and hemodynamic factors which warrant evaluation for specialized advanced management strategies and/or consideration of palliative care in tandem with the same recommendations for goal-directed optimal medical therapy as earlier stages of HF. In fact, one of the inherent markers of progression to stage D disease is the need to withdraw previously tolerated neurohormonal agents in the setting of systemic circulatory limitations or renal dysfunction. Furthermore, the requirement for aggressive diuresis in the setting of borderline blood pressures and renal insufficiency is often complicated by worsening renal impairment. Assessment of the appropriate need for inotropic support, given the significant complications associated with their use, is also a frequently encountered challenge complicating the medical management of Stage D HF. This review outlines some of the most relevant challenges of pharmacological therapy in stage D HF and describes current and future strategies that may be employed to overcome some of these obstacles.
    Current Heart Failure Reports 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Accumulating evidence shows that acute as well as chronic heart disease can directly contribute to an acute or chronic worsening of liver function and vice versa. Description and definition of cardiohepatic syndrome (CHS) in this review are based on the cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) concept. The eye-catching analogy between CHS and CRS is applied to facilitate an understanding of the pathophysiology and overall burden of disease for each of the proposed CHS subtypes, their natural course, and associated morbidity and mortality.
    Current Heart Failure Reports 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Heart transplantation remains the gold standard treatment for advanced heart failure, although its use is limited by donor organ availability. To ensure that the rare resource of a donor heart is allocated appropriately, the evaluation of the heart transplant candidates includes extensive medical and psychosocial assessments. These psychosocial factors are critically important to understand pre-heart transplant because it is known that psychosocial evaluation and psychosocial comorbidities have a strong association with post-heart transplant outcomes. The critical factors to assess are psychological functioning, adherence to medical recommendations, and social support. These factors are likely inter-related and have been shown to have an effect on the health-related quality of life and overall survival. Recently, new tools have been developed to standardize the evaluation process. In this review, we will discuss the tools available to assess psychosocial factors in the transplant candidate and discuss the role these factors have on post-heart transplant outcomes.
    Current Heart Failure Reports 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The natriuretic peptide system (NPS) is intimately involved in cardiorenal homeostasis in health, and dysregulation of the NPS plays an important role in the pathophysiology of heart failure (HF). Indeed, the diuretic, vasorelaxation, beneficial remodeling, and potent neurohumoral inhibition of the NPS support the therapeutic development of chronic augmentation of the NPS in symptomatic HF. Further, chronic augmentation of the protective NPS and in early stages of HF may ultimately prevent the progression of HF and reduced subsequent morbidity and mortality. In the current manuscript, we review the rationale for as well as previous and current efforts aimed at chronic therapeutic augmentation of the NPS in HF.
    Current Heart Failure Reports 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The new pharmacological classes of GLP-1 agonists and DPP-4 inhibitors are now widely used in diabetes and have been postulated as beneficial in heart failure. These proposed benefits arise from the inter-related pathophysiologies of diabetes and heart failure (diabetes increases the risk of heart failure, and heart failure can induce insulin resistance) and also in light of the dysfunctional myocardial energetics seen in heart failure. The normal heart utilizes predominantly fatty acids for energy production, but there is some evidence to suggest that increased myocardial glucose uptake may be beneficial for the failing heart. Thus, GLP-1 agonists, which stimulate glucose-dependent insulin release and enhance myocardial glucose uptake, have become a focus of investigation in both animal models and humans with heart failure. Limited pilot data for GLP-1 agonists shows potential improvements in systolic function, hemodynamics, and quality of life, forming the basis for current phase II trials.
    Current Heart Failure Reports 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Heart failure (HF) is a clinical syndrome characterized by dyspnea, fatigue, and poor exercise capacity due to insufficient cardiac function. HF represents the leading cause of hospitalization among adult patients over 65 years of age. Neurohormonal blockade has improved clinical outcomes; however, HF incidence continues to rise, suggesting an urgent need to develop novel drugs that target a different pathophysiological paradigm. Inflammation plays a central role in many cardiovascular diseases. Interleukin-1 (IL-1), a prototypical proinflammatory cytokine, is upregulated in HF and associated with worse prognosis. Preclinical models suggest a beneficial effect of IL-1 blockade, and pilot clinical trials are currently underway to evaluate the role of IL-1 blockade to reduce inflammation, ameliorate ventricular remodeling, and improve exercise capacity in patients with HF.
    Current Heart Failure Reports 10/2014;