Annual Review of Nutrition (ANNU REV NUTR )

Publisher: Annual Reviews

Description

  • Impact factor
    9.16
  • 5-year impact
    10.19
  • Cited half-life
    0.00
  • Immediacy index
    0.90
  • Eigenfactor
    0.01
  • Article influence
    3.78
  • Website
    Annual Review of Nutrition website
  • Other titles
    Annual review of nutrition
  • ISSN
    1545-4312
  • OCLC
    6307740
  • Material type
    Internet resource
  • Document type
    Journal / Magazine / Newspaper, Internet Resource

Publisher details

Annual Reviews

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author cannot archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • Must prominently state near the title of the preprint version that the article has been accepted for publication by Annual Reviews in a revised form
    • Authors may place their ePrint URL (free access to article) on one of author's personal website and one institutional website only
    • Publisher copyright and source must be acknowledged
    • Must link to publisher version
    • Publisher last contacted on 03/09/2014
  • Classification
    ​ yellow

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Calcium and bone metabolism remain key concerns for space travelers, and ground-based models of space flight have provided a vast literature to complement the smaller set of reports from flight studies. Increased bone resorption and largely unchanged bone formation result in the loss of calcium and bone mineral during space flight, which alters the endocrine regulation of calcium metabolism. Physical, pharmacologic, and nutritional means have been used to counteract these changes. In 2012, heavy resistance exercise plus good nutritional and vitamin D status were demonstrated to reduce loss of bone mineral density on long-duration International Space Station missions. Uncertainty continues to exist, however, as to whether the bone is as strong after flight as it was before flight and whether nutritional and exercise prescriptions can be optimized during space flight. Findings from these studies not only will help future space explorers but also will broaden our understanding of the regulation of bone and calcium homeostasis on Earth. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Nutrition Volume 34 is July 17, 2014. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/catalog/pubdates.aspx for revised estimates.
    Annual Review of Nutrition 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Hypoxia develops in white adipose tissue in obese mice, resulting in changes in adipocyte function that may underpin the dysregulation that leads to obesity-associated disorders. Whether hypoxia occurs in adipose tissue in human obesity is unclear, with recent studies contradicting earlier reports that this was the case. Adipocytes, both murine and human, exhibit extensive functional changes in culture in response to hypoxia, which alters the expression of up to 1,300 genes. These include genes encoding key adipokines such as leptin, interleukin (IL)-6, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), which are upregulated, and adiponectin, which is downregulated. Hypoxia also inhibits the expression of genes linked to oxidative metabolism while stimulating the expression of genes associated with glycolysis. Glucose uptake and lactate release by adipocytes are both stimulated by hypoxia, and insulin sensitivity falls. Preadipocytes and macrophages in adipose tissue also respond to hypoxia. The hypoxia-signaling pathway may provide a new target for the treatment of obesity-associated disorders. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Nutrition Volume 34 is July 17, 2014. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/catalog/pubdates.aspx for revised estimates.
    Annual Review of Nutrition 05/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Decisions related to a spectrum of nutrition-related public health and clinical concerns must consider many factors and are best informed by evaluating the totality and quality of the evidence. Systematic review (SR) is a structured process to evaluate, compare, and synthesize relevant evidence for the SR-specific question(s). Applications of SR are exemplified here through the discussion of four case studies: research agenda, nutrient reference intakes, dietary guidance, and practice guidelines. Concerns that SR cannot be effectively applied to nutrition evidence because of the lack of an unexposed comparator and the complex homeostasis in nutrition are discussed. Central to understanding the applicability of SR is its flexibility in defining key inclusion criteria and rigorous elements as appropriate for the SR-specific question(s). Through the reduction of bias and random error by explicit, reproducible, comprehensive, and rigorous examination of all of the evidence, SR informs the scientific judgment needed for sound evidence-based public health nutrition. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Nutrition Volume 34 is July 17, 2014. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/catalog/pubdates.aspx for revised estimates.
    Annual Review of Nutrition 04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The cytochrome P450s (CYPs) represent a highly divergent class of enzymes involved in the oxidation of organic compounds. A subgroup of CYPs metabolize ω3-arachidonic and linoleic acids and ω6-docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) into a series of related biologically active mediators. Over the past 20 years, increasing evidence has emerged for a role of these PUFA-derived mediators in physiological and pathophysiological processes in the vasculature, during inflammation, and in the regulation of metabolism. With recent technological advances and increased availability of lipid mass spectroscopy, we are now starting to discern the patterns of these CYP-PUFA products in health and disease. These analyses are revealing not only the diverse spectrum of lipid nutrients regulated by CYPs, but also clearly indicate that the balance of these mediators changes with dietary intake of different PUFA classes. These findings suggest that we are only just beginning to understand all of the relevant lipid species produced by CYP pathways. Moreover, we are still a long way from understanding the nature and presence of their receptors, their tissue expression, and the pathophysiological processes they regulate. This review highlights these future issues in the context of lipid-metabolizing CYP enzymes, focusing particularly on the CYP450 family of epoxygenases and the lipid mediators they produce. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Nutrition Volume 34 is July 17, 2014. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/catalog/pubdates.aspx for revised estimates.
    Annual Review of Nutrition 04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Long-chain fatty acyl-coenzyme As (CoAs) are critical regulatory molecules and metabolic intermediates. The initial step in their synthesis is the activation of fatty acids by one of 13 long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase isoforms. These isoforms are regulated independently and have different tissue expression patterns and subcellular locations. Their acyl-CoA products regulate metabolic enzymes and signaling pathways, become oxidized to provide cellular energy, and are incorporated into acylated proteins and complex lipids such as triacylglycerol, phospholipids, and cholesterol esters. Their differing metabolic fates are determined by a network of proteins that channel the acyl-CoAs toward or away from specific metabolic pathways and serve as the basis for partitioning. This review evaluates the evidence for acyl-CoA partitioning by reviewing experimental data on proteins that are believed to contribute to acyl-CoA channeling, the metabolic consequences of loss of these proteins, and the potential role of maladaptive acyl-CoA partitioning in the pathogenesis of metabolic disease and carcinogenesis. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Nutrition Volume 34 is July 17, 2014. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/catalog/pubdates.aspx for revised estimates.
    Annual Review of Nutrition 04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Arguably the most fundamental physiological systems for all eukaryotic life are those governing energy balance. Without sufficient energy, an individual is unable to survive and reproduce. Thus, an ever-growing appreciation is that mammalian physiology developed a redundant set of neuroendocrine signals that regulate energy intake and expenditure, which maintains sufficient circulating energy, predominantly in the form of glucose, to ensure that energy needs are met throughout the body. This orchestrated control requires cross talk between the gastrointestinal tract, which senses the incoming meal; the pancreas, which produces glycemic counterregulatory hormones; and the brain, which controls autonomic and behavioral processes regulating energy balance. Therefore, this review highlights the physiological, pharmacological, and pathophysiological effects of the incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 and gastric inhibitory polypeptide, as well as the pancreatic hormone amylin, on energy balance and glycemic control. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Nutrition Volume 34 is July 17, 2014. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/catalog/pubdates.aspx for revised estimates.
    Annual Review of Nutrition 04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Long-chain omega-3 fatty acids belong to a family of polyunsaturated fatty acids that are known to have important beneficial effects on metabolism and inflammation. Such effects may confer a benefit in specific chronic noncommunicable diseases that are becoming very prevalent in Westernized societies [e.g., nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)]. Typically, with a Westernized diet, long-chain omega-6 fatty acid consumption is markedly greater than omega-3 fatty acid consumption. The potential consequences of an alteration in the ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acid consumption are increased production of proinflammatory arachidonic acid-derived eicosanoids and impaired regulation of hepatic and adipose function, predisposing to NAFLD. NAFLD represents a spectrum of liver fat-related conditions that originates with ectopic fat accumulation in liver (hepatic steatosis) and progresses, with the development of hepatic inflammation and fibrosis, to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). If the adipose tissue is inflamed with widespread macrophage infiltration, the production of adipokines may act to exacerbate liver inflammation and NASH. Omega-3 fatty acid treatment may have beneficial effects in regulating hepatic lipid metabolism, adipose tissue function, and inflammation. Recent studies testing the effects of omega-3 fatty acids in NAFLD are showing promise and suggesting that these fatty acids may be useful in the treatment of NAFLD. To date, further research is needed in NAFLD to (a) establish the dose of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids as a treatment, (b) determine the duration of therapy, and (c) test whether there is benefit on the different component features of NAFLD (hepatic fat, inflammation, and fibrosis).
    Annual Review of Nutrition 07/2013; 33:231-48.
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    ABSTRACT: The esterification of amphiphilic alcohols with fatty acids is a ubiquitous strategy implemented by eukaryotes and some prokaryotes to conserve energy and membrane progenitors and simultaneously detoxify fatty acids and other lipids. This key reaction is performed by at least four evolutionarily unrelated multigene families. The synthesis of this "neutral lipid" leads to the formation of a lipid droplet, which despite the clear selective advantage it confers is also a harbinger of cellular and organismal malaise. Neutral lipid deposition as a cytoplasmic lipid droplet may be thermodynamically favored but nevertheless is elaborately regulated. Optimal utilization of these resources by lipolysis is similarly multigenic in determination and regulation. We present here a perspective on these processes that originates from studies in model organisms, and we include our thoughts on interventions that target reductions in neutral lipids as therapeutics for human diseases such as obesity and diabetes. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Nutrition Volume 33 is July 17, 2013. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/catalog/pubdates.aspx for revised estimates.
    Annual Review of Nutrition 05/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Laboratory evidence suggests a plausible role for dietary fat in breast cancer pathophysiology. We conducted a systematic literature review to assess the epidemiological evidence on the impact of total dietary fat and fat subtypes, measured pre- and/or postcancer diagnosis, in relation to breast cancer-specific and all-cause mortality among breast cancer survivors. Studies were included if they were in English, had a sample size ≥200, and presented the hazard ratio/rate ratio for recurrence, diseasespecific mortality, or all-cause mortality (n = 18). Although the results are mixed, most studies suggested that higher saturated fat intake prediagnosis was associated with increased risk of breast cancer-specific and all-cause mortality. Postdiagnostic trans fat intake was associated with a 45% and 78% increased risk of all-cause mortality. Higher monounsaturated fat intake before and after diagnosis was generally associated with increased risk of all-cause and breast cancer-specific mortality, albeit the majority of the studies were statistically nonsignificant. Two studies evaluating omega-3 fat intake suggested an inverse association with all-cause mortality. Although there were too few studies on fat subtypes to draw definitive conclusions, high consumption of saturated fat may exert a detrimental effect on breast cancer-specific and all-cause mortality, whereas omega-3 fat may be beneficial. The inconsistent and limited evidence warrants research to assess the impact of consumption of fat subtypes on breast cancer recurrence and mortality. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Nutrition Volume 33 is July 17, 2013. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/catalog/pubdates.aspx for revised estimates.
    Annual Review of Nutrition 05/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Bariatric surgery, and in particular, gastric bypass is an increasingly utilized and successful approach for long-term treatment of obesity and amelioration of comorbidities. Nutrient deficiencies after surgery are common and have multiple causes. Preoperative factors include obesity, which appears to be associated with risk for several nutrient deficiencies, and preoperative weight loss. Postoperatively, reduced food intake, suboptimal dietary quality, altered digestion and absorption, and nonadherence with supplementation regimens contribute to risk of deficiency. The most common clinically relevant micronutrient deficiencies after gastric bypass include thiamine, vitamin B12, vitamin D, iron, and copper. Reports of deficiencies of many other nutrients, some with severe clinical manifestations, are relatively sporadic. Diet and multivitamin use are unlikely to consistently prevent deficiency, thus supplementation with additional specific nutrients is often needed. Though optimal supplement regimens are not yet defined, most micronutrient deficiencies after gastric bypass currently can be prevented or treated by appropriate supplementation. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Nutrition Volume 33 is July 17, 2013. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/catalog/pubdates.aspx for revised estimates.
    Annual Review of Nutrition 04/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Energy homeostasis-ensuring that energy availability matches energy requirements-is essential for survival. One way that energy balance is achieved is through coordinated action of neural and neuroendocrine feeding circuits, which promote energy intake when energy supply is limited. Feeding behavior engages multiple somatic and visceral tissues distributed throughout the body-contraction of skeletal and smooth muscles in the head and along the upper digestive tract required to consume and digest food, as well as stimulation of endocrine and exocrine secretions from a wide range of organs. Accordingly, neurons that contribute to feeding behaviors are localized to central, peripheral, and enteric nervous systems. To promote energy balance, feeding circuits must be able to identify and respond to energy requirements, as well as the amount of energy available from internal and external sources, and then direct appropriate coordinated responses throughout the body. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Nutrition Volume 33 is July 17, 2013. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/catalog/pubdates.aspx for revised estimates.
    Annual Review of Nutrition 04/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: The field of nutrigenomics shows tremendous promise for improved understanding of the effects of dietary intake on health. The knowledge that metabolic pathways may be altered in individuals with genetic variants in the presence of certain dietary exposures offers great potential for personalized nutrition advice. However, although considerable resources have gone into improving technology for measurement of the genome and biological systems, dietary intake assessment remains inadequate. Each of the methods currently used has limitations that may be exaggerated in the context of gene × nutrient interaction in large multiethnic studies. Because of the specificity of most gene × nutrient interactions, valid data are needed for nutrient intakes at the individual level. Most statistical adjustment efforts are designed to improve estimates of nutrient intake distributions in populations and are unlikely to solve this problem. An improved method of direct measurement of individual usual dietary intake that is unbiased across populations is urgently needed. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Nutrition Volume 33 is July 17, 2013. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/catalog/pubdates.aspx for revised estimates.
    Annual Review of Nutrition 04/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Iron is a nutritionally essential trace element that functions through incorporation into proteins and enzymes, many of which contribute to physical and neuropsychological performance. Poor iron status, including iron deficiency (ID; diminished iron stores) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA; poor iron stores and diminished hemoglobin), affects billions of people worldwide. This review focuses on physical and neuropsychological outcomes associated with ID and IDA in premenopausal women, as the prevalence of ID and IDA is often greater in premenopausal women than other population demographics. Recent studies addressing the physiological effects of poor iron status on physical performance, including work productivity, voluntary activity, and athletic performance, are addressed. Similarly, the effects of iron status on neurological performance, including cognition, affect, and behavior, are summarized. Nutritional countermeasures for the prevention of poor iron status and the restoration of decrements in performance outcomes are described. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Nutrition Volume 33 is July 17, 2013. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/catalog/pubdates.aspx for revised estimates.
    Annual Review of Nutrition 04/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: The circulation of nitrogen in nature is a prerequisite for life on earth. In the nitrogen cycle atmospheric nitrogen is fixated by bacteria into forms that can be utilized by plants and mammals. Nitrate and nitrite are obligate intermediates in this cycle, and for more than half a century these anions have interested nutritional scientists, mostly in relation to cancer, because of their ability to form nitrosamines. However, after the discovery of mammalian endogenous nitric oxide (NO) generation and later that its oxidation products nitrate and nitrite can be recycled back to bioactive NO, a novel field of research has emerged that explores a potentially beneficial role of these anions in physiology, nutrition, and therapeutics. In our diet, vegetables are the major source of nitrate that can fuel a nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway. Herein we discuss the nutritional aspects of this pathway and what is presently known about the implications for human health. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Nutrition Volume 33 is July 17, 2013. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/catalog/pubdates.aspx for revised estimates.
    Annual Review of Nutrition 04/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: To maintain homeostasis under variable nutrient conditions, cells rapidly and robustly respond to fluctuations through adaptable signaling networks. Evidence suggests that the O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) posttranslational modification of serine and threonine residues functions as a critical regulator of intracellular signaling cascades in response to nutrient changes. O-GlcNAc is a highly regulated, reversible modification poised to integrate metabolic signals and acts to influence many cellular processes, including cellular signaling, protein stability, and transcription. This review describes the role O-GlcNAc plays in governing both integrated cellular processes and the activity of individual proteins in response to nutrient levels. Moreover, we discuss the ways in which cellular changes in O-GlcNAc status may be linked to chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes, neurodegeneration, and cancers, providing a unique window through which to identify and treat disease conditions. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Nutrition Volume 33 is July 17, 2013. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/catalog/pubdates.aspx for revised estimates.
    Annual Review of Nutrition 04/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Concern about the overconsumption of unhealthy foods is growing worldwide. With high global rates of noncommunicable diseases related to poor nutrition and projections of more rapid increases of rates in low- and middle-income countries, it is vital to identify effective but low-cost interventions. Cost-effectiveness studies show that individually targeted dietary interventions can be effective and cost-effective, but a growing number of modeling studies suggest that population-wide approaches may bring larger and more sustained benefits for population health at a lower cost to society. Mandatory regulation of salt in processed foods, in particular, is highly recommended. Future research should focus on lacunae in the current evidence base: effectiveness of interventions addressing the marketing, availability, and price of healthy and unhealthy foods; modeling health impacts of complex dietary changes and multi-intervention strategies; and modeling health implications in diverse subpopulations to identify interventions that will most efficiently and effectively reduce health inequalities. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Nutrition Volume 33 is July 17, 2013. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/catalog/pubdates.aspx for revised estimates.
    Annual Review of Nutrition 04/2013;