Journal of the American Pharmacists Association

Publisher: American Pharmacists Association

Description

The Journal of the American Pharmacists Association, the official peer-reviewed journal of the American Pharmacists Association, provides members with articles and columns on pharmaceutical care, drug therapy, diseases and other health issues, trends in pharmacy practice and therapeutics, informed opinion, and original research.

  • Impact factor
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  • 5-year impact
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  • Cited half-life
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  • Website
    Journal of the American Pharmacists Association: JAPhA website
  • Other titles
    Journal of the American Pharmacists Association (1996: Online), Journal of the American Pharmacists Association, JAPhA
  • ISSN
    1544-3450
  • OCLC
    52032194
  • Material type
    Document, Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publications in this journal

  • Journal of the American Pharmacists Association 05/2014; 54(3):226.
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE To explore differences in perceived attributes of biometric screening services and organization characteristics among community pharmacies that adopt, outsource, or do not adopt biometric screening services that assess patients' blood pressure, blood glucose, serum cholesterol, and body mass index. DESIGN Qualitative, comparative analysis. SETTING Independently owned community pharmacies in Alabama. PARTICIPANTS 25 key informants from community pharmacies were classified as adopters, outsourced adopters, and nonadopters of biometric screening services. Pharmacies using in-house staff to conduct screenings are referred to as adopters; those using external staff are referred to as outsourced adopters. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Perceived attributes of the screening service and organizational characteristics identified through emergent theme analysis based on the Diffusion of Innovations Model and Model of Innovation Assimilation. RESULTS The screening service was perceived differently by adopters, outsourced adopters, and nonadopters. Adopters saw the opportunity to increase revenue and expand the role of the pharmacist in health care by offering the service. Adopters also perceived the service to be compatible with their pharmacy layout and organizational identity; simple to implement; modifiable in terms of experimentation with models of service delivery; and visible by external constituencies (which positively affects pharmacy image). In contrast, nonadopters felt the amount of time, investment, and lack of potential patients associated with the service influenced their decision not to adopt it. Adopters and nonadopters differed in regard to their innovativeness in patient care services, their connectedness in professional networks, and how they make sense of and deal with the uncertainty of new programs. Outsourced adopters were similar to adopters but were more cautious in their decision making. CONCLUSION Perceived attributes of the screening service and organizational characteristics differed among adopters, outsourced adopters, and nonadopters.
    Journal of the American Pharmacists Association 05/2014; 54(3):258-66.
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES To develop new, easy-to-understand prescription auxiliary labels, assess patient understanding of both new and existing labels, and compare the effectiveness of existing labels with the newly developed ones. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. SETTING Semistructured interviews. PARTICIPANTS Convenience sample of adults from minority populations who were currently taking or had previously taken a prescription medication and could understand English. INTERVENTION Easy-to-understand prescription auxiliary labels were developed. Both these newly created labels and existing labels were shown to participants. Participants' health literacy levels and understanding of the information provided on the labels were determined. The reading difficulty of the auxiliary labels was determined using a Lexile Score. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Interpretation and understanding of prescription auxiliary labels. RESULTS The study included 120 participants with a mean age of 40 years (SD = 14). All existing prescription auxiliary labels yielded less than 50% "excellent" interpretations except for those indicating "Take with food" and "Do not chew or crush." The newly designed labels were better understood compared with existing labels. Some existing labels yielded Lexile scores above the sixth-grade reading level. There was an association between higher levels of education (χ2 = 20.86, P = 0.02) or higher REALM-R (Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine, Revised) scores (χ2 = 26.79, P = 0.02) and better interpretation of auxiliary labels. CONCLUSION Simpler auxiliary labels with improved patient comprehension can be developed. Auxiliary label understanding and interpretation is low for commonly used labels. Pharmacies should consider using existing manufacturer auxiliary labels that meet the criteria for patients with low literacy.
    Journal of the American Pharmacists Association 05/2014; 54(3):267-74.
  • Journal of the American Pharmacists Association 05/2014; 54(3):217-24.
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE To evaluate a pharmacist-led weight loss program based on the general requirements set forth by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services' (CMS) Decision Memo for Intensive Behavioral Therapy for Obesity. SETTING Onsite Walgreens pharmacy located inside the main administration building of Maricopa County in downtown Phoenix, AZ. PRACTICE DESCRIPTION A prevention and wellness behavioral therapy weight loss program was developed for patients of the Maricopa County on-site Walgreens. PRACTICE INNOVATION Current pharmacy patients were recruited to attend 14 one-on-one, pharmacist-led, face-to-face behavioral therapy sessions during a 6-month period that addressed diet, exercise, and nutrition. Interactive PowerPoint presentations were used throughout the sessions. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES The primary outcome was mean weight loss from baseline to the end of the study. Secondary outcomes included changes in body composition, changes in nutritional intake, and participant satisfaction. RESULTS Of 12 enrolled participants, 11 (92%) completed the program. The mean weight loss from baseline to the end of the program was 5 kg (P <0.001), representing an average 4.5% weight loss. There was a statistically significant decrease in body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and percent visceral fat from baseline to the end of the study; however, the increase in percent muscle mass, decrease in percent body fat, and change in nutrition intake was not statistically significant. Overall, the participants rated the program highly. CONCLUSION Pharmacists are accessible health care providers who can effectively provide intensive behavioral therapy for obesity in a manner consistent with the CMS guidelines.
    Journal of the American Pharmacists Association 05/2014; 54(3):302-7.
  • Journal of the American Pharmacists Association 05/2014; 54(3):314-9.
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE To identify health care-related factors associated with online pharmacy use by considering patients' prescription drug insurance coverage, number of prescriptions, health care expenditures, types of medications purchased, and health status. METHODS Data were obtained from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality's 2002-2010 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. Online pharmacy users were compared with nonusers across study variables in unadjusted and adjusted comparisons using logistic regression. Survey weights were applied to generate nationally representative estimates. RESULTS A total of 443 online pharmacy users were identified, representing an average of 1.5 million individuals per year. Online users were found to be older and to have more prescriptions compared with nonusers, as well as to have higher health care expenditures and higher Charlson comorbidity index scores. Online users were also more likely to be privately insured, white, and married, and to be more educated. In logistic regression models, higher prescription expenditures (odds ratio [OR] 1.17 [1.05-1.32]), higher number of prescriptions (OR 5.13 [1.4-19]), medium to high income (OR 1.82 (1.3-2.5)], and use of erectile dysfunction drugs (OR 2.09 [1.06-4.10]) were associated with greater odds of online pharmacy use. Black race (OR 0.47 [0.3-0.72]), Medicaid insurance coverage (OR 0.23 [0.1-0.5]), and use of narcotic medications (OR 0.72 [0.53-0.97]) were associated with decreased odds of online pharmacy use. CONCLUSION This study showed that age, race, income level, insurance coverage, high health care expenditures, and higher number of prescriptions are predictors for online pharmacy use.
    Journal of the American Pharmacists Association 05/2014; 54(3):289-94.
  • Journal of the American Pharmacists Association 05/2014; 54(3):212-3.
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE To develop a medication take-back program to evaluate current medication disposal practices and to quantify medication waste. METHODS Seven medication take-back days have been held in a local community. The University of Findlay College of Pharmacy, local law enforcement, and municipal officials have collaborated to develop and sustain the events. All medications returned were quantified by documenting the drug name, dose, quantity, type, source, and estimated cost. Additionally, a participant survey was administered to determine demographics, prior disposal habits, and reason for disposal. RESULTS A total of 786,882 dosing units estimated to be worth $1,118,020 were collected. Participant surveys (n = 818) suggest common reasons for disposal were expired (50%) or discontinued (40%) medications. The average community pharmacy prescription contained 35 dosing units worth approximately $68, and the average mail-service prescription contained 95 dosing units worth approximately $205. Antihypertensive agents, gastrointestinal agents, and analgesics were the most common therapeutic categories returned. CONCLUSION Ongoing, collaborative medication take-back events are an effective method of removing unused medications from the community. Although the majority of medications collected were originally dispensed in community pharmacies, the average unused prescription from mail-service sources contained almost three times as many dosage units. These data suggest that the larger quantities more typically dispensed by mail-service pharmacies may contribute considerably to the problems associated with surplus medications. Further studies are needed to investigate this association.
    Journal of the American Pharmacists Association 05/2014; 54(3):275-9.
  • Journal of the American Pharmacists Association 05/2014; 54(3):309-13.
  • Journal of the American Pharmacists Association 05/2014; 54(3):214-5.
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES To describe the content of discussions between general pediatric providers and children and their caregivers about the benefits of asthma-control medication; describe the extent to which these discussions occur; and examine factors that are associated with medication benefit discussions. DESIGN Cross-sectional secondary analysis of audiotaped medical visits. SETTING Five primary care pediatric clinics in North Carolina. PARTICIPANTS 35 pediatric providers and 248 children with persistent asthma and their caregivers. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Presence of discussion about benefits associated with asthma-control medications. RESULTS Providers discussed benefits associated with asthma-control medications during 56% of medical visits. Benefits were more likely to be discussed when the child was younger and when medication adherence was discussed during the visit. When providers discussed benefits of asthma-control medications, they were most likely to ask questions and make statements regarding symptom control/prevention. CONCLUSION General pediatric medical providers often do not discuss the benefits of asthma-control medications. Pharmacists could fill this information gap by counseling both children and their caregivers about benefits that a child with asthma can expect as a result of treatment.
    Journal of the American Pharmacists Association 05/2014; 54(3):251-7.
  • Journal of the American Pharmacists Association 05/2014; 54(3):320.
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE To characterize the extent to which state and national professional pharmacy associations have implemented formal policies addressing the sale of tobacco and alcohol products in community pharmacies. METHODS To determine existence of tobacco and alcohol policies, national professional pharmacy associations (n = 10) and state-level pharmacy associations (n = 86) affiliated with the American Pharmacists Association (APhA) and/or the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP) were contacted via telephone and/or e-mail, and a search of the association websites was conducted. RESULTS Of 95 responding associations (99%), 14% have a formal policy opposing the sale of tobacco products in pharmacies and 5% have a formal policy opposing the sale of alcohol in pharmacies. Of the associations representing major tobacco-producing states, 40% have a formal policy against tobacco sales in pharmacies, significantly more than the 8% of non-tobacco state associations with such policies. CONCLUSION Among national professional pharmacy associations, only APhA and ASHP have formal policy statements opposing the sale of both tobacco and alcohol in pharmacies. Most state-level professional pharmacy associations affiliated with these two national organizations have no formal policy statement or position.
    Journal of the American Pharmacists Association 04/2014;
  • Journal of the American Pharmacists Association 04/2014;
  • Journal of the American Pharmacists Association 04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE To assess the design and implementation of influenza vaccination clinics across campus, assess participant satisfaction with the pharmacist-led clinics, and educate and increase visibility of the role of pharmacists as vaccinators. SETTING University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center (OUHSC), a comprehensive health sciences center. PRACTICE INNOVATION The College of Pharmacy on the OUHSC campus developed and implemented a vaccination program to increase influenza vaccination of OUHSC employees. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Number of employees receiving influenza vaccination, employee satisfaction with the pharmacist-led clinics, and employee awareness of the pharmacist's role in vaccination. RESULTS Reported OUHSC employee influenza vaccination rates increased from approximately 35% before implementation of the pharmacy-based program to 54% in 2012 after implementation. The increase was attributed to maintaining no out-of-pocket costs for employees, offering various clinic locations, and using media resources to educate employees about influenza infection and vaccination. Employees reported high satisfaction with the influenza vaccination clinics and with receiving vaccinations from pharmacists and student pharmacists. In the first 2 years of the program, the percentage of surveyed employees "very familiar" with the pharmacist's role in vaccinations increased from 23% to 66%. CONCLUSION A college of pharmacy on a large health sciences center developed and successfully implemented an influenza vaccination program, providing an accessible and convenient route for influenza prevention to employees, as well as enhanced the visibility of pharmacists as vaccination providers.
    Journal of the American Pharmacists Association 04/2014;
  • Journal of the American Pharmacists Association 04/2014;

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