Pediatric exercise science (PEDIATR EXERC SCI )

Publisher: North American Society of Pediatric Exercise Medicine

Description

The Official Journal of the North American Society of Pediatric Exercise Medicine, Pediatric Exercise Science (PES) is devoted to enriching the scientific knowledge of exercise during childhood. Articles focus on children's unique responses to exercise; the role of exercise in treating chronic pediatric disease; the importance of physical activity in preventing illness and preserving wellness; and methods for making youth sports safer and more enjoyable.

  • Impact factor
    1.57
  • 5-year impact
    2.13
  • Cited half-life
    9.00
  • Immediacy index
    0.11
  • Eigenfactor
    0.00
  • Article influence
    0.62
  • Website
    Pediatric Exercise Science website
  • Other titles
    Pediatric exercise science
  • ISSN
    1543-2920
  • OCLC
    18237253
  • Material type
    Periodical
  • Document type
    Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study examined the acute effects of a 10-minute teacher-implemented classroom based activity break (AB) on physical activity participation and time on-task in a preschool-age population. 118 (M age = 3.80 ± 0.69 years) students from one preschool served as participants. The intervention took place over four days; two days AB were conducted and two days typical instruction occurred. Physical activity was monitored via accelerometry and time on-task was measured by direct observation. Results demonstrated that AB led to a higher percent of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) during the AB (M = 29.7%, p < .001). Breaks also promoted more on-task behavior (F1,117 = 18.86, p < .001) following the AB. Specifically, the most off-task students prior to the break improved on-task behavior by 30 percentage points (p < .001). Percent of school day MVPA was also higher during AB days (t117 = 3.274, p = .001). Findings indicate teachers may improve time on-task post-break for preschoolers with a short bout of physical activity in the classroom, especially in children who are the most off-task. Additionally, classroom-based AB resulted in marginal increases in MVPA during breaks that influenced whole day activity.
    Pediatric exercise science 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The modified Chrispin-Norman radiography score (CNS) is used in evaluation of radiographic changes in children with cystic fibrosis (CF). We evaluated the correlation of modified CNS with peak exercise capacity (Wpeak) and ventilatory efficiency (reflected by breathing reserve index-BRI) during progressive cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET). Thirty-six children aged 8-17 years were stratified according to their CNS into 3 groups: mild (<10), moderate (10-15), and severe (>15). CPET was performed on a cycle ergometer. Lung function tests included spirometry and whole-body plethysmography. Patients with higher CNS had lower FEV1 (p < .001), Wpeak predicted (%; p = .01) and lower mean peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak/kg; p = .014). The BRI at the anaerobic threshold and at Wpeak was elevated in patients with the highest CNS values (p < .001). The modified CNS correlates moderately with Wpeak (R = -0.443; p = .007) and BRI (R = -0.419; p = .011). Stepwise multiple linear regression showed that RV/TLC was the best predictor of Wpeak/pred (%; B = -0.165;  = -0.494; R2 = .244; p = .002). Children with CF who have high modified CNS exhibit decreased exercise tolerance and ventilatory inefficacy during progressive effort.
    Pediatric exercise science 08/2014; 26(3):259-265.
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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to determine the effects of a single High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) session on salivary cortisol (SC) levels, physiological responses and performance in trained boys and men. Twenty-three boys (11.5±0.8 years) and 25 men (29.7±4.6 years) performed HIIT (four consecutive Wingate Anaerobic Tests). SC in boys and men increased after HIIT from 5.55±3.3 nmol/l to 15.13±9.7 nmol/l (+173%) and from 7.07±4.7 nmol/l to 19.19±12.7 nmol/l (+171%), respectively (p<0.01). Pre-test SC as well as post-test changes were comparable in both groups (both p<0.01). Peak blood lactate concentration was significantly lower in boys (12.6±3.5 mmol/l) than in men (16.3±3.1 mmol/l; p<0.01). Throughout the HIIT, mean heart rates in boys were higher (p<0.001) but relative peak oxygen uptake (ml·min-1·kg-1; p<0.05) and performance were lower (p<0.001) in boys than in men. HIIT in young athletes is associated with a higher activation of the hormonal stress axis than other types of exercise regimes as described in the literature. This study is the first to show a pronounced SC increase to HIIT in trained boys accompanied by elevated levels of blood lactate concentrations and heart rate suggesting a high cardio-respiratory, metabolic and hormonal response to HIIT in 11-year-old boys.
    Pediatric exercise science 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), physical capacity (PC) has been correlated with mortality risk. In turn, PC is dependent on genetic factors. This study examines several polymorphisms associated with PC and health -related phenotype traits (VO2peak, FEV1, FVC, PImax and muscular strength) in a group of children with CF (n=66, primary purpose). The same analyses were also performed in a control group of healthy children (n=113, secondary purpose). The polymorphisms determined were classified as muscle function polymorphisms (ACE rs1799752; AGT rs699; ACTN3 rs1815739; PTK2 rs7843014 and rs7460; MSTN rs1805086; TRHR rs7832552; NOS3 rs2070744) or energy metabolism polymorphisms (PPARGC1A rs8192678; NRF1 rs6949152; NRF2 rs12594956; TFAM rs1937; PPARD rs2267668; ACSL1 rs6552828). No significant polymorphism/phenotype correlations were detected in children with CF, with marginal associations being observed between NOS3 rs2070744 and VO2peak and FEV1, as well as between PPARGC1A rs8192678 and FEV1. Overall, similar findings were observed in the control group, i.e., no major associations. The PC-related polymorphisms examined seem to have no effects on the PC or health of children with CF.
    Pediatric exercise science 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to examine the influence of age and degree of maturity on the comparison and relationship between lactate minimum intensity (LM) and critical speed (CS) throughout childhood and adolescence in swimmers. Fourty-six male swimmers aged between 10 and 18 years were divided into three age groups according to the pubertal stages and training status. Maximal efforts of 100 and 400 m, and the LM protocol with 200 m performances were executed. CS was determined with a three distances combination (100, 200, and 400 m). The one-way and mixed Anova for repeated measures, Bland-Altman, Pearson correlation, percentage difference and effect size were used to compare and examine the relationship between variables in each age group. The results revealed that LM and CS had differences in the comparison with one another throughout childhood and adolescence in swimmers, because CS clearly underestimated LM in the 10 to 12.6, while overestimating it in the 15.4 to 18-year age swimmers. Thus, coaches and swimmers must be aware of the age-dependency of CS for indices of aerobic endurance measurements in the initial ages of systematized swimming training.
    Pediatric exercise science 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Although physical activity is primarily considered for its effects on energy expenditure for prevention and treatment of both overweight and obesity, its role in the regulation and control of energy balance seems more complex. Not only does physical activity affect energy expenditure, it also leads to modifications in energy intake and appetite that have been identified in children and that should be considered for weight loss. It also appears that it may not systematically favor increased energy expenditure due to individual differences in compensatory responses. This brief paper summarizes the pediatric evidence regarding those potential compensatory responses to physical activity and suggests that these compensatory responses of increasing physical activity levels may depend on children's adiposity status.
    Pediatric exercise science 04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Pediatric obesity typically induces insulin resistance, often later evolving into Type 2 Diabetes. While exercise, enhancing insulin sensitivity, is broadly used to prevent this transition, it is unknown whether alterations in the exercise insulin response pattern occur in obese children. Therefore, we measured exercise insulin responses in 57 healthy-weight (NW), 20 overweight (OW), and 56 obese (Ob) children. Blood samples were drawn before and after 30min of intermittent (2min on, 1min off) cycling at ~80% VO2max. In a smaller group (14 NW, 6 OW, 15 Ob), a high-fat meal was ingested 45min pre-exercise. Baseline glycemia was similar and increased slightly and similarly in all groups during exercise. Basal insulin (pmol/L) was significantly higher in Ob vs. other groups; post-exercise, insulin increased in NW (+7±3) and OW (+5±8), but decreased in Ob (-15 ±5, P<0.0167 vs. NW). This insulin drop in Ob was disproportionately more pronounced in the half of Ob children with higher basal insulin (Ob-H). In all groups, high-fat feeding caused a rapid rise in insulin, promptly corrected by exercise; in Ob, however, insulin rose again 30-min post-exercise. Our data indicates a distinct pattern of exercise-induced insulin modulation in pediatric obesity, possibly modulated by basal insulin concentrations.
    Pediatric exercise science 04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the National Athletic Trainers' Association's recent Inter-Association Task Force held in Washington, D.C. at the 2013 Youth Safety Summit was to determine the best practice recommendations for preventing sudden death in secondary school athletics. This document highlights the major health and safety practices and policies in high school athletics that are paramount to keep student athletes safe. The purpose of this commentary is to review the findings of the document developed by the task force and to provide possible areas where research is needed to continue to educate medical practitioners, players, coaches, and parents on ways to prevent tragedies from occurring during sport.
    Pediatric exercise science 04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The strength of time-dependent correlations known as stride interval (SI) dynamics has been proposed as an indicator of neurologically healthy gait. Most recently, it has been hypothesized that these dynamics may be necessary for gait efficiency although the supporting evidence to date is scant. The current study examines over-ground SI dynamics, and their relationship with the cost of walking and physical activity levels in neurologically healthy children aged nine to 15 years. Twenty participants completed a single experimental session consisting of three phases: 10 minutes resting, 15 minutes walking and 10 minutes recovery. The scaling exponent (α) was used to characterize SI dynamics while net energy cost was measured using a portable metabolic cart, and physical activity levels were determined based on a 7-day recall questionnaire. No significant linear relationships were found between α and the net energy cost measures (r<0.07; p>0.25) or between α and physical activity levels (r=0.01, p=0.62). However, there was a marked reduction in the variance of α as activity levels increased. Over-ground stride dynamics do not appear to directly reflect energy conservation of gait in neurologically healthy youth. However, the reduction in the variance of α with increasing physical activity suggests a potential exercise-moderated convergence towards a level of stride interval persistence for able-bodied youth reported in the literature. This latter finding warrants further investigation.
    Pediatric exercise science 04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Hematopoietic stem-cell transplant (SCT) is increasingly used to treat children with cancer, and survival following SCT is improving. One predominant consequence of childhood cancer therapy is increased physical morbidity, which is worse in pediatric SCT recipients compared to children treated with chemotherapy or radiation alone. There are many factors that contribute to exercise intolerance and reduced physical function during the pre-transplant, peri-transplant, and post-transplant phases. These include side-effects from chemotherapy or radiation, excessive immobility due to bed rest, infections, the negative effects of immunosuppressants, and graft vs. host disease; all of which can impair cardiorespiratory fitness, muscle strength, and muscle function. Few studies have investigated the effects of exercise in childhood SCT recipients. In a small number of published studies, exercise interventions have been demonstrated to improve cardiorespiratory fitness, preserve or increase muscle mass, and improve muscle strength in children following SCT. The use of exercise as medicine may be a non-invasive and non-pharmaceutical treatment to target physical complications post-SCT. Researchers and health-care professionals should work together to develop exercise prescription guidelines for this unique and important population.
    Pediatric exercise science 04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The first objective was to review and analyse self-reported measures used for assessing mode and frequency of commuting to and from school in youngsters (4 to 18.5 years old). The secondary objective was to conduct a qualitative appraisal of the identified studies. We searched five online databases: PubMed, SportDiscus, ProQuest, National Transportation Library and Web of Knowledge. Four categories of search terms were identified: self-report, active transportation, school-aged children and school. Titles and abstracts were reviewed to determine whether the studies met the inclusion criteria. The quality of the reporting of the measures was assessed using a tailored list. The electronic search strategy produced 5,898 studies. After applying the inclusion criteria, we identified 158 studies. Sixty-three studies (39.8%) specified the question about modes of commuting to school. One hundred seven studies (67.7%) directly questioned the study subjects (i.e. children and/or adolescents). Twenty studies (12.7%) posed a valid and reliable question. The quality assessment of the self-report measures was medium. The self-report measures used in the literature for assessing commuting to school tend to be heterogeneous and make difficult inter-studies comparisons. Therefore we put forward the idea of a standard question designed to elicit reliable, comparable information on commuting to school.
    Pediatric exercise science 04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Physical inactivity has been shown to increase the risk for several chronic diseases across the lifespan. However, the impact of physical activity and aerobic fitness on childhood cognitive and brain health has only recently gained attention. The purposes of this article are to: 1) highlight the recent emphasis for increasing physical activity and aerobic fitness in children's lives for cognitive and brain health; 2) present aspects of brain development and cognitive function that are susceptible to physical activity intervention; 3) review neuroimaging studies examining the cross-sectional and experimental relationships between aerobic fitness and executive control function; and 4) make recommendations for future research. Given that the human brain is not fully developed until the third decade of life, preadolescence is characterized by changes in brain structure and function underlying aspects of cognition including executive control and relational memory. Achieving adequate physical activity and maintaining aerobic fitness in childhood may be a critical guideline to follow for physical as well as cognitive and brain health.
    Pediatric exercise science 04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: While most studies have focused on investigating the preventive effects of physical activity on metabolic risk, the longitudinal impacts of metabolic syndrome (MetS) on activity levels is poorly understood. This study aims to examine the influence of MetS on initial activity levels and the trajectory of activity levels in Latina and African American female children over 12 months (n=55, 9±1 years). Metabolic measures, including fat and lean tissue mass by BodPodTM, fasting glucose, lipids, blood pressure, and waist circumference, were collected at baseline. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and sedentary behavior by accelerometry were collected on a quarterly basis. There were no significant differences in either initial activity levels by MetS status (Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity: 33±12 mins/day for MetS, 48±28 mins/day for Non-MetS, p=0.12; sedentary behavior: 408±57 mins/day for MetS, 421±72 mins/day for Non-MetS, p=0.67). Longitudinal declines in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (p=0.038) and increases in sedentary behavior (p=0.003) were found. Daily sedentary behavior increased by 82.64 more minutes in youth with MetS than in those without over one year (p=0.015). This study yields the first evidence of the adverse effect of MetS on sedentary behavior. Targeted intervention strategies to reduce progressive sedentariness evident in minority youth with MetS are warranted.
    Pediatric exercise science 04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Serum vitamin D concentrations (25[OH]D) are associated with physical performance in the general population, but few studies have been published in athletes. 80 competitive adolescent swimmers from both sexes were tested for serum 25(OH)D concentrations, grip strength, balance and swimming performance at several speeds. Spearman's correlations were used to examine the associations between 25(OH)D concentrations and age-adjusted measures of performance. Performance parameters were also compared between vitamin D sufficient (n = 27), insufficient (25[OH]D ranging 20-29.9 ng/ml, n = 42), and deficient (25[OH]D < 20 ng/ml, n = 11) participants. No significant associations were found between serum 25(OH)D concentrations and any of the performance measures, with no significant differences found between vitamin D sufficient, insufficient and deficient participants. In competitive adolescent swimmers, serum vitamin D concentrations were not associated with strength, balance or swimming performance. Vitamin D insufficient/deficient swimmers did not have reduced performance.
    Pediatric exercise science 02/2014; 26(1):64-70.
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to measure oxygen uptake and energy expenditure in children during rock climbing activity. 29 children (age = 10.9 ± 1.7 yr) participated in the study. A commercially available rock climbing structure with ample features for submaximal effort climbing provided continuous terrain. Participants were instructed to climb at a comfortable pace. Following an initial 5-min rest, each child climbed one sustained 5-min bout followed by 5-min sitting recovery for a total of 10 min (SUS). This was immediately followed by five 1-min climbing + 1-min recovery intervals for a second total of 10 min (INT). Expired air was analyzed continuously. Energy expenditure (EE) was determined via the Weir method for 10-s intervals throughout the full protocol. The total energy expenditure in kilocalories during the 10-min SUS period was 34.3 ± 11.3 kcal. Energy expenditure during the 10-min INT period averaged 39.3 ± 13.1 kcal and was significantly higher than during SUS (p < .05). The mean total EE for SUS + INT was 73.7 ± 24.2 kcal. EE was correlated with body mass; r = .86. The rock climbing tasks employed in this study produced EE levels similar to what have been reported in children for stair climbing, sports/games activities, and easy jogging.
    Pediatric exercise science 02/2014; 26(1):49-55.
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    ABSTRACT: To make robust conclusions regarding the association between accelerometer-measured sedentary time and overweight and obesity among children, several gaps in the literature must be addressed. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between sedentary time, weekday sedentary time, weekend sedentary time, sedentary bouts, sedentary breaks, and BMI z-score among children and by low (bottom 50%) and high (top 50%) moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) participation. Results are based on 787 children aged 11 years living in Toronto, Canada. Children's physical activity and sedentary time were objectively assessed using ActiGraph accelerometers in 2010/11. Height and weight were measured and BMI z-scores were calculated based on the World Health Organization growth standards. When participants were stratified into low and high MVPA groups, sedentary bouts of 5-9 (β = 0.22 [95% CI: 0.01, 0.43]) and 10-19 (0.30 [-0.05, 0.55]) minutes for total days were associated with BMI z-score in the low MVPA group only. Similar trends were observed with the weekday but not the weekend variables. Therefore, in addition to increasing MVPA, reducing time spent in 5-19 min sedentary bouts may have important implications for weight status particularly for children with lower MVPA participation during the week.
    Pediatric exercise science 02/2014; 26(1):95-102.