Pediatric exercise science (PEDIATR EXERC SCI )

Publisher: North American Society of Pediatric Exercise Medicine

Description

The Official Journal of the North American Society of Pediatric Exercise Medicine, Pediatric Exercise Science (PES) is devoted to enriching the scientific knowledge of exercise during childhood. Articles focus on children's unique responses to exercise; the role of exercise in treating chronic pediatric disease; the importance of physical activity in preventing illness and preserving wellness; and methods for making youth sports safer and more enjoyable.

  • Impact factor
    1.57
  • 5-year impact
    2.13
  • Cited half-life
    9.00
  • Immediacy index
    0.11
  • Eigenfactor
    0.00
  • Article influence
    0.62
  • Website
    Pediatric Exercise Science website
  • Other titles
    Pediatric exercise science
  • ISSN
    1543-2920
  • OCLC
    18237253
  • Material type
    Periodical
  • Document type
    Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Eleven healthy girls (mean(SD): age 12.1(0.6) years) completed three, 2-day conditions in a counterbalanced, crossover design. On day 1, participants either walked at 60(2)% peak oxygen uptake (energy deficit 1.55(0.20) MJ) (EX), restricted food energy intake (energy deficit 1.51(0.25) MJ) (ER) or rested (CON). On day 2, capillary blood samples were taken at pre-determined intervals throughout the 6.5 h postprandial period prior to, and following, the ingestion of standardised breakfast and lunch meals. Fasting plasma [TAG] was 29% and 13% lower than CON in EX (effect size (ES) = 1.39, P = 0.01) and ER (ES = 0.57, P = 0.02) respectively; EX was 19% lower than ER (ES = 0.82, P = 0.06). The EX total area under the [TAG] versus time curve was 21% and 13% lower than CON (ES = 0.71, P = 0.004) and ER (ES = 0.39, P = 0.06) respectively; ER was marginally lower than CON (-10%; ES = 0.32, P = 0.12). An exercise-induced energy deficit elicited a greater reduction in fasting plasma [TAG] with a trend for a larger attenuation in postprandial plasma [TAG] than an isoenergetic diet-induced energy deficit in healthy girls.
    Pediatric exercise science 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Sprinting is an important physical capacity and the development of sprint ability can take place throughout the athlete's growth. The purpose of this study therefore was to determine if the kinematics and kinetics associated with maximum sprint velocity differs in male youth participants of different maturity status (pre-, mid- and post-peak height velocity (PHV)) and if maximum sprint velocity is determined by age, maturity or individual body size measurement. Participants (n = 74) sprinted over 30 meters on a non-motorised treadmill and the fastest four consecutive steps were analysed. Pre-PHV participants were found to differ significantly (p < 0.05) to mid- and post-PHV participants in speed, step length, step frequency, vertical and horizontal force, and horizontal power (~8 to 78%). However, only relative vertical force and speed differed significantly between mid and post-PHV groups. The greatest average percent change in kinetics and kinematics was observed from pre- to mid-PHV (37.8%) compared to mid- to post- PHV groups (11.6%). When maturity offset was entered as a covariate, there was no significant difference in velocity between the three groups. However, all groups were significantly different from each other when age was chosen as the covariate. The two best predictors of maximal velocity within each maturity group were power and horizontal force (R2 = 97-99%) indicating the importance of horizontal force application whilst sprinting. Finally, maturity explained 83% of maximal velocity across all groups.
    Pediatric exercise science 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: To test the effect of a brief, novel bone- and fat-targeted exercise program on bone, muscle and fat in healthy pre and peripubertal boys. We conducted a 10-min, 3/wk capoeira and jumping exercise intervention for 9 months with year 5 and 6 school boys. Anthropometrics, maturity, heart rate, blood pressure, maximal vertical jump, aerobic capacity and calcaneal broadband ultrasound attenuation and stiffness index (BUA and SI; Achilles, GE) were assessed. Bone, lean and fat tissue (DXA; XR800, Norland), and parameters of bone geometry (pQCT, XCT3000, Stratec) were measured from a subsample of 36 boys. Of 188 boys (10.6±0.5 yr) who consented, 172 completed all testing; 104 exercisers (EX) and 68 controls (CON). 30 EX and 6 CON participants underwent DXA and pQCT measures. EX improved BUA (+4.3% vs. +2.1%, p=0.035), waist circumference (+2.8% vs. +6.2%, p=0.001), heart rate (-5.3% vs. +1.5%, p=0.005), maximal vertical jump (+12.2% vs. -0.3%, p=0.001) and estimated maximal oxygen consumption (+9.1% vs. +1.2%, p=0.001) compared to CON. Three 10-min sessions of capoeira and jumping per week improved calcaneal bone and metabolic health of pre and peripubertal boys over the course of a school year with little disruption to the academic schedule.
    Pediatric exercise science 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: This study examined associations of various elements of the home environment with after-school physical activity and sedentary time in 671 sixth-grade children (Mage = 11.49 ± 0.5 years). Children's after-school total physical activity (TPA), moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary time were measured by accelerometry. Parents completed surveys assessing elements of the home social and physical environment. Mixed-model regression analyses were used to examine the associations between each element of the home environment and children's after-school physical activity and sedentary time. Availability of home physical activity resources was associated positively with after-school TPA and negatively with after-school sedentary time in boys. Parental support was associated positively with after-school TPA and MVPA and negatively with after-school sedentary time in girls. The home physical environment was associated with boys' after-school physical activity and sedentary time, whereas the home social environment was associated with girls' after-school physical activity and sedentary time.
    Pediatric exercise science 11/2014; In press.
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    ABSTRACT: Teaching adolescents to use self-management strategies (SMS's) may be an effective approach to promoting lifelong physical activity (PA). However, the extent to which adolescents use SMS's and their impact on current PA have not been studied previously. The aims of this study were: 1) describe the prevalence of SMS use in adolescents; and 2) determine relationships between SMS use, PA self-efficacy, and PA participation. 197 students completed questionnaires measuring use of SMS's, self-efficacy, and PA behavior. The most prevalent SMS's (>30%) were thinking about the benefits of PA, making PA more enjoyable, choosing activities that are convenient, setting aside time to do PA, and setting goals to do PA. Less than 10% reported rewarding oneself for PA, writing planned activities in a book or calendar, and keeping charts of PA. SMS use was associated with increased self-efficacy (r = 0.47, P < .001) and higher levels of PA (r = 0.34 P < .001). A one unit difference in SMS scores was associated with a ~ 4-fold increase in the probability of being active (OR = 3.7, 95% CI = 1.8-7.4). Although strongly associated with PA, a relatively small percentage of adolescents routinely use SMS's.
    Pediatric exercise science 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Second-generation antipsychotic (SGA) medications, used to treat youth for a wide-range of mental health conditions, are associated with excessive weight gain and other comorbidities, placing these individuals at high risk for cardiovascular disease. Little is known about the effect of physical activity (PA) on cardiovascular risk in these children. Anthropometrics, fasting blood sample and self-report PA were obtained in 386 children diagnosed with mental health conditions (6-18 y). PA was classified as below (<60 min/day) or meets (≥60 min/day) current recommended guidelines for daily PA in children. SGA-treated (n = 166) and SGA-naïve (n = 220) were compared in the analysis. The SGA-treated children had higher (p < .05) BMI z-score, waist-to-height ratio, fasting glucose, and LDL-cholesterol than SGA-naïve children. Waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio, HDL cholesterol, fasting insulin, and HOMA-IR were significantly different by PA status. After adjusting for SGA-treatment duration, sex, age, and ethnicity, higher PA was associated with lower insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in SGA-treated (mean, 95% CI; below vs. meets: 2.10 [1.84, 2.37] vs. 1.59 [1.37, 1.81], p = .046) but not in SGA-naïve (1.70 [1.47, 1.94] vs 1.55 [1.35, 1.75], p = .707) children. Upon initial screening, SGA-treated children that reported meeting the minimal recommendations for daily PA displayed lower measures of adiposity and improved insulin resistance.
    Pediatric exercise science 11/2014; 26(4):455-62.
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    ABSTRACT: Physical exercise is known to regulate energy balance. Important to this regulatory system is the existence of several peptides that communicate the status of body energy stores to the brain and are related to the body fatness including leptin, adiponectin and ghrelin. These hormones assist in regulating energy balance as well as somatic and pubertal growth in children. It appears that rather few studies have investigated the responses of leptin, adiponectin and ghrelin to acute exercise and these studies have demonstrated no changes in these peptides as a result of exercise. Leptin levels are decreased and may remain unchanged advancing from prepuberty to pubertal maturation in young male and female athletes. A limited number of studies indicate that adiponectin levels are not different between prepubertal and pubertal athletes and untrained controls. However, in certain circumstances circulating adiponectin could be increased in young athletes after onset of puberty as a result of heavily increased energy expenditure. Ghrelin levels are elevated in young sportsmen. However, pubertal onset decreases ghrelin levels in boys and girls even in the presence of chronically elevated energy expenditure as seen in young athletes. Ghrelin may also be used as an indicator of energy imbalance across the menstrual cycle in adolescent athletes. There are no studies with high-molecular-weight adiponectin and only very few studies with acylated ghrelin responses to acute exercise and chronic training have been performed in young athletes. Since these forms of adiponectin and ghrelin have been thought to be bioactive forms, further studies with these specific forms of adiponectin and ghrelin are needed. In conclusion, further studies should be conducted to investigate the response of these hormones to acute and chronic negative energy balance to better understand their role in regulating energy balance during growth and maturation in young athletes.
    Pediatric exercise science 11/2014; 26(4):392-403.
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    ABSTRACT: The beneficial effects of exercise, including reduction of cardiovascular risk, are especially important in children with type 1 diabetes (T1DM), in whom incidence of lifetime cardiovascular complications remains elevated despite good glycemic control. Being able to exercise safely is therefore a paramount concern. Dysregulated metabolism in T1DM however, causes frequent occurrence of both hypo- and hyperglycemia, the former typically associated with prolonged, moderate exercise, the latter with higher intensity, if shorter, challenges. While very few absolute contraindications to exercising exist in these children, exercise should not be started with glycemia outside the 80-250 mg/dl range. Within this glycemic range, careful adjustments in insulin administration (reduction or infusion rate via insulin pumps, or overall reduction of dosage of multiple injections) should be combined with carbohydrate ingestion before/during exercise, based on prior, individual experience with specific exercise formats. Unfamiliar exercise should always be tackled with exceeding caution, based on known responses to other exercise formats. Finally, gaining a deep understanding of other complex exercise responses, such as the modulation of inflammatory status, which is a major determinant of the cardio-protective effects of exercise, can help determine which exercise formats and which individual metabolic conditions can lead to maximally beneficial health effects.
    Pediatric exercise science 11/2014; 26(4):375-83.
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    ABSTRACT: The present study compares previous reports on the effect of "real-life" typical field individual (ie, cross-country running and wrestling-representing combat versus noncombat sports) and team sports (ie, volleyball and water polo-representing water and land team sports) training on GH and IGF-1, the main growth factors of the GH→IGF axis, in male and female late pubertal athletes. Cross-country running practice and volleyball practice in both males and females were associated with significant increases of circulating GH levels, while none of the practices led to a significant increase in IGF-I levels. The magnitude (percent change) of the GH response to the different practices was determined mainly by preexercise GH levels. There was no difference in the training-associated GH response between individual and team sports practices. The GH response to the different typical practices was not influenced by the practice-associated lactate change. Further studies are needed to better understand the effect of real-life typical training in prepubertal and adolescent athletes and their role in exercise adaptations.
    Pediatric exercise science 11/2014; 26(4):428-33.
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to describe longitudinal changes in body composition, leptin, adiponectin, and ghrelin over a 36-month period in prepubertal rhythmic gymnasts (RG) and their age-matched untrained controls (UC) entering into puberty. Thirty-five RG (8.0 ± 0.6 yrs) and 33 UC (8.2 ± 0.6 yrs) were followed at 12-month intervals for the next 3 years. Height, weight, pubertal stage, body composition, leptin, adiponectin, and ghrelin were measured at each time points. The pubertal development over the next 36 months was slower in the RG compared with UC. Leptin was increased in UC and remained unchanged in RG over 3-year study period (3.7 ± 3.6 vs. 0.2 ± 1.1 ng/ml; p < .05). In RG, baseline leptin was negatively correlated with the change in body fat percentage over a 36-month period (r = -0.34; p < .05). The change in adiponectin over the study period was negatively correlated with the change in BMI (r = -0.43; p < .05). RG had relative leptin deficiency per body fat mass. In conclusion, relatively high leptin concentration at the beginning of puberty may predict those girls who do not increase their body fat percentage through coming years and therefore may have increased risk for delayed puberty.
    Pediatric exercise science 11/2014; 26(4):477-84.
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    ABSTRACT: In recent years several genetic polymorphisms related to the GH-IGF-I axis were suggested to promote athletic excellence in endurance and power sports. We studied the presence of the C-1245T SNP (rs35767), a nucleotide substitution in the promoter region of the IGF-I gene, and the presence of the 275124A > C SNP (rs1464430), a common nucleotide substitution in the intron region of the IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) gene in elite long and short-distance swimmers compared with nonphysically active controls. The rare T/T IGF-I polymorphism was found only in 5.3% of the long-distance swimmers, and was not found at all in the short-distance swimmers or among the control group participants. The prevalence of the IGF-I receptor AA genotype was significantly lower in the swimming group as a whole (35%) compared with the control group (46%), in particularly due to reduced frequency of the AA genotype among short-distance swimmers (26%). In contrast to previous reports in elite endurance and power track and field athletes, single nucleotide polymorphisms of the IGF-I and the IGF-IR were not frequent among elite Israeli short- and long-distance swimmers emphasizing the importance of other factors for excellence in swimming. The results also suggest that despite seemingly similar metabolic characteristics different sports disciplines may have different genetic polymorphisms. Thus, combining different disciplines for sports genetic research purposes should be done with extreme caution.
    Pediatric exercise science 11/2014; 26(4):470-6.
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    ABSTRACT: During childhood, varying exercise modalities are recommended to stimulate normal growth, development, and health. This project investigated hormonal and metabolic responses triggered by a resistance exercise protocol in lean children (age: 9.3 ± 1.4 y, body fat: 18.3 ± 4.9%), obese children (age: 9.6 ± 1.3 y, body fat: 40.3 ± 5.2%) and lean adults (age: 23.3 ± 2.4 y, body fat: 12.7 ± 2.9%). The protocol consisted of stepping onto a raised platform (height = 20% of stature) while wearing a weighted vest (resistance = 50% of lean body mass). Participants completed 6 sets of 10 repetitions per leg with a 1-min rest period between sets. Blood samples were obtained at rest preexercise, immediately postexercise and 2 times throughout the 1-hr recovery to analyze possible changes in hormones and metabolites. Children-adult differences included a larger exercise-induced norepinephrine increase in adults vs. children and a decrease in glucagon in children but not adults. Similarities between adults and children were observed for GH-IGF-1 axis responses. Metabolically, children presented with lower glycolytic and increased fat metabolism after exercise than adults did. Obesity in childhood negatively influenced GH, insulin, and glucose concentrations. While adults occasionally differed from children, amount of activated lean mass, not maturation, likely drove these dissimilarities.
    Pediatric exercise science 11/2014; 26(4):444-54.
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    ABSTRACT: This study examined the acute effects of a 10-minute teacher-implemented classroom based activity break (AB) on physical activity participation and time on-task in a preschool-age population. 118 (M age = 3.80 ± 0.69 years) students from one preschool served as participants. The intervention took place over four days; two days AB were conducted and two days typical instruction occurred. Physical activity was monitored via accelerometry and time on-task was measured by direct observation. Results demonstrated that AB led to a higher percent of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) during the AB (M = 29.7%, p < .001). Breaks also promoted more on-task behavior (F1,117 = 18.86, p < .001) following the AB. Specifically, the most off-task students prior to the break improved on-task behavior by 30 percentage points (p < .001). Percent of school day MVPA was also higher during AB days (t117 = 3.274, p = .001). Findings indicate teachers may improve time on-task post-break for preschoolers with a short bout of physical activity in the classroom, especially in children who are the most off-task. Additionally, classroom-based AB resulted in marginal increases in MVPA during breaks that influenced whole day activity.
    Pediatric exercise science 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The modified Chrispin-Norman radiography score (CNS) is used in evaluation of radiographic changes in children with cystic fibrosis (CF). We evaluated the correlation of modified CNS with peak exercise capacity (Wpeak) and ventilatory efficiency (reflected by breathing reserve index-BRI) during progressive cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET). Thirty-six children aged 8-17 years were stratified according to their CNS into 3 groups: mild (<10), moderate (10-15), and severe (>15). CPET was performed on a cycle ergometer. Lung function tests included spirometry and whole-body plethysmography. Patients with higher CNS had lower FEV1 (p < .001), Wpeak predicted (%; p = .01) and lower mean peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak/kg; p = .014). The BRI at the anaerobic threshold and at Wpeak was elevated in patients with the highest CNS values (p < .001). The modified CNS correlates moderately with Wpeak (R = -0.443; p = .007) and BRI (R = -0.419; p = .011). Stepwise multiple linear regression showed that RV/TLC was the best predictor of Wpeak/pred (%; B = -0.165;  = -0.494; R2 = .244; p = .002). Children with CF who have high modified CNS exhibit decreased exercise tolerance and ventilatory inefficacy during progressive effort.
    Pediatric exercise science 08/2014; 26(3):259-265.
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    ABSTRACT: In patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), physical capacity (PC) has been correlated with mortality risk. In turn, PC is dependent on genetic factors. This study examines several polymorphisms associated with PC and health -related phenotype traits (VO2peak, FEV1, FVC, PImax and muscular strength) in a group of children with CF (n=66, primary purpose). The same analyses were also performed in a control group of healthy children (n=113, secondary purpose). The polymorphisms determined were classified as muscle function polymorphisms (ACE rs1799752; AGT rs699; ACTN3 rs1815739; PTK2 rs7843014 and rs7460; MSTN rs1805086; TRHR rs7832552; NOS3 rs2070744) or energy metabolism polymorphisms (PPARGC1A rs8192678; NRF1 rs6949152; NRF2 rs12594956; TFAM rs1937; PPARD rs2267668; ACSL1 rs6552828). No significant polymorphism/phenotype correlations were detected in children with CF, with marginal associations being observed between NOS3 rs2070744 and VO2peak and FEV1, as well as between PPARGC1A rs8192678 and FEV1. Overall, similar findings were observed in the control group, i.e., no major associations. The PC-related polymorphisms examined seem to have no effects on the PC or health of children with CF.
    Pediatric exercise science 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to determine the effects of a single High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) session on salivary cortisol (SC) levels, physiological responses and performance in trained boys and men. Twenty-three boys (11.5±0.8 years) and 25 men (29.7±4.6 years) performed HIIT (four consecutive Wingate Anaerobic Tests). SC in boys and men increased after HIIT from 5.55±3.3 nmol/l to 15.13±9.7 nmol/l (+173%) and from 7.07±4.7 nmol/l to 19.19±12.7 nmol/l (+171%), respectively (p<0.01). Pre-test SC as well as post-test changes were comparable in both groups (both p<0.01). Peak blood lactate concentration was significantly lower in boys (12.6±3.5 mmol/l) than in men (16.3±3.1 mmol/l; p<0.01). Throughout the HIIT, mean heart rates in boys were higher (p<0.001) but relative peak oxygen uptake (ml·min-1·kg-1; p<0.05) and performance were lower (p<0.001) in boys than in men. HIIT in young athletes is associated with a higher activation of the hormonal stress axis than other types of exercise regimes as described in the literature. This study is the first to show a pronounced SC increase to HIIT in trained boys accompanied by elevated levels of blood lactate concentrations and heart rate suggesting a high cardio-respiratory, metabolic and hormonal response to HIIT in 11-year-old boys.
    Pediatric exercise science 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to examine the influence of age and degree of maturity on the comparison and relationship between lactate minimum intensity (LM) and critical speed (CS) throughout childhood and adolescence in swimmers. Fourty-six male swimmers aged between 10 and 18 years were divided into three age groups according to the pubertal stages and training status. Maximal efforts of 100 and 400 m, and the LM protocol with 200 m performances were executed. CS was determined with a three distances combination (100, 200, and 400 m). The one-way and mixed Anova for repeated measures, Bland-Altman, Pearson correlation, percentage difference and effect size were used to compare and examine the relationship between variables in each age group. The results revealed that LM and CS had differences in the comparison with one another throughout childhood and adolescence in swimmers, because CS clearly underestimated LM in the 10 to 12.6, while overestimating it in the 15.4 to 18-year age swimmers. Thus, coaches and swimmers must be aware of the age-dependency of CS for indices of aerobic endurance measurements in the initial ages of systematized swimming training.
    Pediatric exercise science 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Although physical activity is primarily considered for its effects on energy expenditure for prevention and treatment of both overweight and obesity, its role in the regulation and control of energy balance seems more complex. Not only does physical activity affect energy expenditure, it also leads to modifications in energy intake and appetite that have been identified in children and that should be considered for weight loss. It also appears that it may not systematically favor increased energy expenditure due to individual differences in compensatory responses. This brief paper summarizes the pediatric evidence regarding those potential compensatory responses to physical activity and suggests that these compensatory responses of increasing physical activity levels may depend on children's adiposity status.
    Pediatric exercise science 04/2014;