Clinical Proteomics (Clin Proteonomics )

Publisher: Humana Press, Springer Verlag


The field of molecular medicine is moving beyond genomics to proteomics, the goal being the characterization of the cellular circuitry and the understanding of the impact of disease and therapy on cellular networks. Clinical proteomics is the application of proteomic technologies and informatic tools to clinical material. The translational nature of this technology provides unique challenges and unbounded opportunities that promise to transform the way disease is detected, treated, and managed.

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    Clinical Proteomics website
  • Other titles
    Clinical proteomics (Online), Clinical proteomics
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  • Document type
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Springer Verlag

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Publications in this journal

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    ABSTRACT: Conventional proteomic approaches have thus far been unable to identify novel serum biomarkers for ovarian cancer that are more sensitive and specific than the current clinically used marker, CA-125. Because endogenous peptides are smaller and may enter the circulation more easily than proteins, a focus on the low-molecular-weight region may reveal novel biomarkers with enhanced sensitivity and specificity. In this study, we deciphered the peptidome of ascites fluid from 3 ovarian cancer patients and 3 benign individuals (ascites fluid from patients with liver cirrhosis). Following ultrafiltration of the ascites fluids to remove larger proteins, each filtrate was subjected to solid phase extraction and fractionated using strong cation exchange chromatography. The resultant fractions were analyzed using an Orbitrap mass spectrometer. We identified over 2000 unique endogenous peptides derived from 259 proteins. We then catalogued over 777 peptides that were found only in ovarian cancer ascites. Our list of peptides found in ovarian cancer specimens includes fragments derived from the proteins vitronectin, transketolase and haptoglobin. Peptidomics may uncover previously undiscovered disease-specific endogenous peptides that warrant further investigation as biomarkers for ovarian cancer.
    Clinical Proteomics 04/2014; 11(1):13.
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    ABSTRACT: Transthyretin (TTR), an abundant protein in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), contains a free, oxidation-prone cysteine residue that gives rise to TTR isoforms. These isoforms may reflect conditions in vivo. Since increased oxidative stress has been linked to neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) it is of interest to characterize CSF-TTR isoform distribution in AD patients and controls. Here, TTR isoforms are profiled directly from CSF by an optimized immunoaffinity-mass spectrometry method in 76 samples from patients with AD (n = 37), mild cognitive impairment (MCI, n = 17)), and normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH, n = 15), as well as healthy controls (HC, n = 7). Fractions of three specific oxidative modifications (S-cysteinylation, S-cysteinylglycinylation, and S-glutathionylation) were quantitated relative to the total TTR protein. Results were correlated with diagnostic information and with levels of CSF AD biomarkers tau, phosphorylated tau, and amyloid beta1-42 peptide. Preliminary data highlighted the high risk of artifactual TTR modification due to ex vivo oxidation and thus the samples for this study were all collected using strict and uniform guidelines. The results show that TTR is significantly more modified on Cys(10) in the AD and MCI groups than in controls (NPH and HC) (p <= 0.0012). Furthermore, the NPH group, while having normal TTR isoform distribution, had significantly decreased amyloid beta peptide but normal tau values. No obvious correlations between levels of routine CSF biomarkers for AD and the degree of TTR modification were found. AD and MCI patients display a significantly higher fraction of oxidatively modified TTR in CSF than the control groups of NPH patients and HC. Quantitation of CSF-TTR isoforms thus may provide diagnostic information in patients with dementia symptoms but this should be explored in larger studies of including prospective studies of MCI patients. The development of methods for simple, robust, and reproducible inhibition of in vitro oxidation during CSF sampling and sample handling is highly warranted. In addition to the diagnostic information the possibility of using TTR as a CSF oxymeter is of potential value in studies monitoring disease activity and developing new drugs for neurodegenerative diseases.
    Clinical Proteomics 03/2014; 11(1):12.
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    ABSTRACT: Neurotrauma or injuries to the central nervous system (CNS) are a serious public health problem worldwide. Approximately 75% of all traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) are concussions or other mild TBI (mTBI) forms. Evaluation of concussion injury today is limited to an assessment of behavioral symptoms, often with delay and subject to motivation. Hence, there is an urgent need for an accurate chemical measure in biofluids to serve as a diagnostic tool for invisible brain wounds, to monitor severe patient trajectories, and to predict survival chances. Although a number of neurotrauma marker candidates have been reported, the broad spectrum of TBI limits the significance of small cohort studies. Specificity and sensitivity issues compound the development of a conclusive diagnostic assay, especially for concussion patients. Thus, the neurotrauma field currently has no diagnostic biofluid test in clinical use.Content: We discuss the challenges of discovering new and validating identified neurotrauma marker candidates using proteomics-based strategies, including targeting, selection strategies and the application of mass spectrometry (MS) technologies and their potential impact to the neurotrauma field. Many studies use TBI marker candidates based on literature reports, yet progress in genomics and proteomics have started to provide neurotrauma protein profiles. Choosing meaningful marker candidates from such 'long lists' is still pending, as only few can be taken through the process of preclinical verification and large scale translational validation. Quantitative mass spectrometry targeting specific molecules rather than random sampling of the whole proteome, e.g., multiple reaction monitoring (MRM), offers an efficient and effective means to multiplex the measurement of several candidates in patient samples, thereby omitting the need for antibodies prior to clinical assay design. Sample preparation challenges specific to TBI are addressed. A tailored selection strategy combined with a multiplex screening approach is helping to arrive at diagnostically suitable candidates for clinical assay development. A surrogate marker test will be instrumental for critical decisions of TBI patient care and protection of concussion victims from repeated exposures that could result in lasting neurological deficits.
    Clinical Proteomics 03/2014; 11(1):11.
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    ABSTRACT: O-linked beta-D-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) modification (O-GlcNAcylation) onto serine and threonine residues of proteins is an important post-translational modification (PTM), which is involved in many crucial biological processes including transcription, translation, proteasomal degradation, and signal transduction. Aberrant protein O-GlcNAcylation is directly linked to the pathological progression of chronic diseases including diabetes, cancer, and neurodegenerative disorders. Identification, site mapping, and quantification of O-GlcNAc proteins are a prerequisite to decipher their functions. In this review, we mainly focus on technological developments regarding O-GlcNAc protein profiling. Specifically, on one hand, we show how these techniques are being used for the comprehensive characterization of certain targeted proteins in which biologists are most interested. On the other hand, we present several newly developed approaches for O-GlcNAcomic profiling as well as how they provide us with a systems perspective to crosstalk amongst different PTMs and complicated biological events. Promising technical trends are also highlighted to evoke more efforts by diverse laboratories, which would further expand our understanding of the physiological and pathological roles of protein O-GlcNAcylation in chronic diseases.
    Clinical Proteomics 03/2014; 11(1):8.
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    ABSTRACT: Numerous formaldehyde-fixed and paraffin-embedded clinical tissues have been created in the past decades and stored in pathological depositories at hospitals as well as in clinical laboratories worldwide. In addition to the archived tissues, formaldehyde-fixation is also mandatory for preparing proteomics samples from diseased patients or animal models in order to inactivate contagious agents. Protein extraction from formaldehyde-fixed tissues is hampered by the Schiff base formation between the amino groups of proteins and formaldehyde. Although achievement of the highest extraction efficiency of proteins from the formaldehyde-fixed tissues is essential for obtaining maximum proteomics information, no attention has been paid to the concentration dependence of tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane on the extraction efficacy. We suspected that the concentration of tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane affects the protein extraction efficiency because of its property as a primary amine that reverses the Schiff base formation between the primary amines of proteins and formaldehyde. Thus we pursued optimization of the component and protocol of protein extraction buffer to achieve better extraction efficiency of proteins from formaldehyde-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissues. In order to simulate protein extraction from diseased tissues we made formaldehyde-fixed and paraffin-embedded samples from mouse liver slices and investigated the protein extraction efficiency and speed by changing the concentration of the protein extraction buffer component tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane under various extraction conditions. We find, as expected, that tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane significantly affects the performance of protein extraction from the formaldehyde-fixed and paraffin-embedded samples both in the extraction yield and in the extraction speed. We recommend the concentration of tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane in protein extraction buffer to be higher than 300 mM when extraction is conducted for 90 min at 90[degree sign]C to achieve the most efficient protein extraction in a shorter time. The information will be essential for performing the most efficient protein extraction from formaldehyde-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue samples for proteomics analysis.
    Clinical Proteomics 02/2014; 11(1):4.
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    ABSTRACT: Experts agree that one of the more promising strategies in cancer management is early detection coupled with early intervention. In this study, we evaluated an early cancer detection strategy of cancer presence based on serum levels of the cancer-specific transcript variants of ENOX2 in serum coupled with an ENOX2-targeted nutraceutical preparation of green tea concentrate plus Capsicum (Capsol-T(R)) as a strategy of Curative Prevention(R) involving early detection coupled with early intervention in early stage cancer when in its most susceptible and manageable stages.Experimental design: One hundred ten (110) subjects were tested for cancer presence using the ONCOblot(R) Tissue of Origin 2-D gel/western blot protocol for detection of serum presence of transcription variants of the ENOX2 protein. Subjects testing positive for ENOX2 received 350 mg of Capsol-T(R) in capsule form every 4 h including during the night for periods of at least 3 to 6 months or longer after which they were again tested for ENOX2 presence using the ONCOblot(R) Tissue of Origin Cancer Test protocol. Of the 110 subjects, both male and female, ages 40 to 84, with no evidence of clinical symptoms of cancer, 40% were positive for ENOX2 presence in the ONCOblot(R) Tissue of Origin Cancer Test. After completion of 3 to 17 months of Capsol-T(R) use, 94% of subjects subsequently tested negative for ENOX2 presence. Oral Capsol-T(R) is well tolerated and, for ENOX2 presence in serum in the absence of clinical cancer symptoms, is consistently effective in reducing the serum ENOX2 levels to below detectable limits.
    Clinical Proteomics 01/2014; 11(1):2.
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    ABSTRACT: Plasma renin activity (PRA) is an essential analytical tool for screening and diagnosis of secondary forms of hypertension. Typically, PRA is measured by competitive radioimmunoassay, but there are significant drawbacks to this technique including non-specificity, long analysis times, narrow calibration range, and the requirement for radionucleotides. In this paper, we report a method for plasma renin activity determination by immuno-MALDI mass spectrometry detection. This method overcomes the issues of non-specificity and long analytical times present with RIA, and does not require the use of radionucleotides. As an initial methodological evaluation, plasma renin activity results obtained by radioimmunoassay, LC/ESI-MS/MS, and immuno-MALDI on 64 samples from an outpatient primary aldosteronism screening program have been compared. A strong correlation was found between immuno-MALDI and radioimmunoassay (R2 = 0.9412, 62/64 within the 95% CI of the Bland-Altman plot), and iMALDI and LC/ESI-MS/MS (R2 = 0.9471, 62/64 within the 95% CI of the Bland-Altman plot). Technical replicates showed a 4.8% CV, while inter- and intra-day replicates showed CVs of 17.3% and 17.2% respectively. We have developed an assay capable of measuring PRA without the use of radionucleotides. This immuno-MALDI approach affords the specificity of MS while avoiding the long analytical run times and technical problems associated with HPLC. With the use of robotic sample preparation to optimize precision, this assay should be adaptable to clinical environments.
    Clinical Proteomics 12/2013; 10(1):20.