Annals of Pharmacotherapy Journal Impact Factor & Information

Publisher: SAGE Publications

Journal description

The Annals of Pharmacotherapy was founded in 1967 as an international, independent journal for pharmacists, physicians, nurses, and other healthcare professionals. It continues to be the leading peer-reviewed journal dedicated to the advancement of safe, effective, and economical use of medications in patient care. Article categories include: Original Research, Comprehensive Reviews, Case Reports, Editorials, Visual Observations, International Reports.

Current impact factor: 2.06

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2016
2014 Impact Factor 2.059
2013 Impact Factor 2.923
2012 Impact Factor 2.567
2011 Impact Factor 2.126
2010 Impact Factor 2.166
2009 Impact Factor 2.453
2008 Impact Factor 2.305
2007 Impact Factor 1.985
2006 Impact Factor 2.259
2005 Impact Factor 1.837
2004 Impact Factor 1.739
2003 Impact Factor 1.822
2002 Impact Factor 1.796
2001 Impact Factor 1.729
2000 Impact Factor 1.868
1999 Impact Factor 1.61
1998 Impact Factor 1.276
1997 Impact Factor 1.384
1996 Impact Factor 1.277
1995 Impact Factor 0.969
1994 Impact Factor 0.826
1993 Impact Factor 0.509

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 2.20
Cited half-life 7.70
Immediacy index 0.43
Eigenfactor 0.01
Article influence 0.65
Website The Annals of Pharmacotherapy website
Other titles Annals of pharmacotherapy (Online), Annals of pharmacotherapy, Ann pharmacother
ISSN 1542-6270
OCLC 47647817
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

SAGE Publications

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • Authors retain copyright
    • Pre-print on any website
    • Author's post-print on author's personal website, departmental website, institutional website or institutional repository
    • On other repositories including PubMed Central after 12 months embargo
    • Publisher copyright and source must be acknowledged
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Post-print version with changes from referees comments can be used
    • "as published" final version with layout and copy-editing changes cannot be archived but can be used on secure institutional intranet
    • Must link to publisher version with DOI
    • Publisher last reviewed on 29/07/2015
  • Classification

Publications in this journal

  • Annals of Pharmacotherapy 11/2015; DOI:10.1177/1060028015615881
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The efficacy of vitamin K in lowering an elevated INR in the setting of cirrhosis is not well established. Objectives: The purpose of this investigation is to determine the effect of vitamin K administration on the INR and bleeding eventsamong hospitalized patients with cirrhosis. Methods: This is a retrospective investigation of patients hospitalized at an academic institution from 2010 to 2012. Adults with an ICD9 code supporting cirrhosis were segregated into matched cohorts based on provision of vitamin K. Multivariable logistic regression of factors associated with INR decrease and bleeding events was completed. Results: The final matched cohort (n = 276) contained 130 patients who received vitamin K and 146 who did not receive this therapy. ICU care (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.91; 95% CI = 1.54-5.49; P = 0.01), receipt of a blood product (AOR = 2.40; 95%CI = 1.35-4.24; P = 0.03), and baseline INR > 1.6 (AOR = 1.72; 95% CI = 1.00-2.95; P = 0.05), but not vitamin K administration (AOR = 1.17; 95% CI = 0.66-2.08; P = 0.59), were associated with INR decrease. Bleeding events occurred more frequently among patients with a history of esophageal varices (AOR = 6.35; 95% CI = 1.21-33.4; P = 0.03), but vitamin K administration did not have an impact on these events (AOR = 4.90; 95% CI = 0.56-43.0; P = 0.15). Conclusions: Administration of vitamin K did not affect INR changes or bleeding events in this cohort of hospitalized patients with cirrhosis.
    Annals of Pharmacotherapy 11/2015; DOI:10.1177/1060028015617277
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    ABSTRACT: Background: No previous studies exist examining the impact of a short-term pharmacist-endocrinologist collaborative practice model on glycemic control in complex patients. Objective: Evaluate outcomes associated with a PharmD-Endocrinologist Diabetes Intense Medical Management (DIMM) "tune up" clinic for complex patients. Methods: A retrospective cohort study of 99 patients referred to DIMM clinic versus a comparator group of 56 primary care provider (PCP) patients meeting the same criteria (adult type 2 diabetes patients, glycosylated hemoglobin [A1C] ≥ 8%, follow-up visit within 6 months) in a Veterans Affairs Medical Center. DIMM clinic used a short-term model that coupled personalized clinical care with real-time, patient-specific diabetes education during two to four 60-minute visits over 6 months. PCP patients received usual care. Primary outcome was mean A1C change after 6 months. Secondary measures included fasting blood glucose, lipids, blood pressure, weight, body mass index, and percentage of patients meeting goals. Results: Patients in each group had an average of 8 and were taking 12 to 14 medications daily. Mean A1C (%) improvement in DIMM group was significantly greater at 6 months (-2.4 [SD = 2.1] vs -0.8 [SD = 1.7]; P < 0.001), than PCP group. Percentage meeting A1C goal levels (<7%, <8%, and <9%) was significantly greater at 3 and 6 months compared with baseline in the DIMM group (P < 0.001) versus (only <8%) at 3 and 6 months compared with baseline in PCP group. Conclusions: The DIMM clinic "tune up" model demonstrates a successful collaborative practice which helped complex diabetes patients achieve glycemic control in a 6-month period.
    Annals of Pharmacotherapy 11/2015; DOI:10.1177/1060028015615586
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To review the literature evaluating methotrexate as a treatment option for Crohn's disease (CD) in pediatric patients. Data sources: A search of PubMed electronic database (1966 to August 2015) and secondary resources was performed using the terms methotrexate, Crohn's, and inflammatory bowel disease. Other relevant articles cited within identified articles were also utilized. Study selection and data extraction: Data sources were limited to English-language studies that included children less than 18 years of age. In total, 10 clinical studies met the criteria. Data synthesis: Awareness of the risk of hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma associated with anti-tumor necrosis factor and thiopurine therapies has renewed interest in methotrexate to treat CD in children. According to data from 10 predominantly retrospective studies, children treated with oral or subcutaneous methotrexate once weekly had remission rates of 25% to 53% at 1 year. Adverse effects most often included nausea and vomiting, elevated liver function tests, headache, and hematological toxicity. The evidence to support methotrexate is limited by inconsistent study design and poorly described dosage regimens. It has been most frequently evaluated in patients with prior thiopurine exposure and has not been thoroughly evaluated as first-line therapy. Conclusions: Based on results of retrospective studies, methotrexate is useful in the treatment of pediatric CD in those who fail thiopurine therapy. Remission rates with methotrexate are similar to those for thiopurine therapy, although no studies directly compare these agents. Although preliminary results are promising, prospective studies are needed to assess the use of methotrexate as initial first-line therapy in the pediatric CD population.
    Annals of Pharmacotherapy 10/2015; DOI:10.1177/1060028015613527

  • Annals of Pharmacotherapy 10/2015; DOI:10.1177/1060028015613362
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: To review the pharmacology, efficacy, and safety of daclatasvir in the treatment of patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Data sources: A literature search through EMBASE and PubMed was conducted (January 1966 to August 2015) using the terms BMS-790052, daclatasvir, and hepatitis C. References from retrieved articles were reviewed for any additional material. Additionally, the new drug application and prescribing information were retrieved. Study selection/data extraction: The literature search was limited to human studies published in English. Phase 1, 2, and 3 studies describing the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety of daclatasvir for HCV were identified. Data synthesis: Daclatasvir, a nonstructural 5A protein inhibitor, combined with sofosbuvir, is indicated for adult patients with chronic HCV genotype 3 regardless of treatment or cirrhosis status. The phase III ALLY-3 trial (n = 152) demonstrated that daclatasvir taken once daily with sofosbuvir for 12 weeks was effective at achieving sustained virological response (SVR) rates in treatment-naïve (97%) and treatment-experienced (94%) patients without cirrhosis. Patients with cirrhosis had significantly lower SVR rates (58 and 69%, respectively). The most common adverse drug events associated with daclatasvir and sofosbuvir in ALLY-3 were headache (20%), fatigue (19%), and nausea (12%). Conclusions: Daclatasvir, when combined with sofosbuvir, is an effective agent to treat HCV genotype 3, with SVR rates above 90% for patients without cirrhosis who are treatment naïve or experienced. SVR rates for treatment-naïve or -experienced patients with cirrhosis are not as robust (58%-69%).
    Annals of Pharmacotherapy 10/2015; DOI:10.1177/1060028015610342

  • Annals of Pharmacotherapy 10/2015; DOI:10.1177/1060028015612105
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Medication nonadherence affects health care costs, morbidity, and mortality. Concepts from behavioral economics can guide the development of interventions to improve medication adherence. Objective: To measure the relative effectiveness of 2 behavioral economic-based incentive structures to improve medication adherence. Methods: This randomized controlled trial compared adherence among participants taking antihypertensive or antihyperlipidemic medications randomized to usual care (UC), guaranteed pay-out (GPO) incentives, or lottery incentives. Daily adherence was measured over a 90-day period using electronic caps (Medication Event Monitoring System [MEMS]). The GPO group received $30 up-front in a virtual account, with $0.50 deducted for each missed dose. Lottery group participants were eligible for a weekly $50 drawing, but only if they had taken their medication as prescribed all week. An electronic survey assessed self-reported adherence. Statistical analysis included descriptive statistics, paired t tests, ANOVA, and Pearson's correlations. Results: In all, 36 participants were randomized (UC, n = 11; GPO, n = 14; lottery, n = 11). Mean percentage (±SD) of days adherent during the incentive period was highest in the lottery group (96% ± 5%), followed by the GPO group (94% ± 9%) and the UC group (94% ± 9%). There were no statistically significant differences among groups (P > 0.05). MEMS-measured adherence was not significantly correlated with a patient's self-reported adherence (P > 0.05) at baseline but was correlated at 90-day follow-up (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Although no statistically significant differences in adherence were demonstrated in this small sample of highly adherent participants, larger studies in a more diverse population or with other medications might show otherwise.
    Annals of Pharmacotherapy 10/2015; DOI:10.1177/1060028015609354
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Direct comparisons of inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) to inhaled epoprostenol (iEPO) in patients with acute pulmonary hypertension (PHT) following cardiac surgery are lacking. Objective: To compare the relative efficacy, safety, and cost of iNO versus iEPO in patients with acute PHT following cardiac surgery. Methods: This is a single-center, retrospective, observational, cohort study comparing iNO to iEPO for acute postoperative PHT following cardiac surgery. The primary outcome was reduction of mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) to < 30 mm Hg, 6 hours after ICU admission from the operating room. Secondary outcomes, included ICU and hospital length of stay, duration of mechanical ventilation, bleeding complications, hypotension, in-hospital mortality, and cost. Results: A total of 98 patients met inclusion criteria (iNO, n = 49; iEPO, n = 49). There was no difference in the primary outcome of reduction of mPAP to < 30 mm Hg 6 hours after ICU admission (iNO, 33 [67%] vs iEPO, 35 [71%]; P = 0.83) or in the incidence of adverse events collected (iNO, 10 [20%] vs iEPO, 11 [22%]; P = 1.00). Based on cost estimates, the median cost of iEPO per patient was $363.53 ($226-$864.60) versus $2562.50 ($1875-$8625) for iNO (P < 0.01). Conclusions: The relative efficacy of iEPO appeared to be similar to that of iNO in reducing mPAP following cardiac surgery, in this retrospective review. Significant cost savings were associated with the use of iEPO.
    Annals of Pharmacotherapy 10/2015; DOI:10.1177/1060028015608865
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To review the mechanism of action for PCSK9 monoclonal antibodies and critically evaluate the therapeutic potential of evolocumab and alirocumab in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. Data sources: Ovid MEDLINE search from 1980 to August 2015 using the terms PCSK9, evolocumab, and alirocumab with forward and backward citation tracking. Study selection and data extraction: English-language trials and studies assessing the mechanism, efficacy, or safety of PCSK9 monoclonal antibodies were included. Data synthesis: PCSK9 monoclonal antibodies have a potent ability to reduce low-density lipoprotein (LDL) by almost 50% in controlled trials: -47.49% (95% CI = -69.6% to -25.4%). They have an acceptable safety profile with no significant elevations in Creatine Kinase (CK) (odds ratio [OR] = 0.72; 95% CI = 0.54 to 0.96) or serious adverse events (OR = 1.01; 95% CI = 0.87 to 1.18), and preliminary evidence suggests reductions in myocardial infarction (OR = 0.49; 95% CI = 0.26 to 0.93). Although it is effective in several familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) patient types, it does not work in homozygous patients with dual allele LDL receptor negative polymorphisms or those who are homozygous for autosomal recessive hypercholesterolemia. Conclusions: Although not preferred over statins because of limited clinical trial evidence of cardiovascular event reductions, dosing convenience, and expense, PCSK9 monoclonal antibodies will have a prominent role to play in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia, especially in patients needing large LDL reductions, including patients with many types of FH.
    Annals of Pharmacotherapy 10/2015; DOI:10.1177/1060028015608487
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Pregnancy rates in veterans are an understudied phenomenon. Objective: The objective of this study was to identify predictors of pregnancy within 1 year of starting hormonal contraception among female veterans. Methods: This was a retrospective, cohort study of female veterans from Veterans Affairs facilities within Southern California and Nevada, who newly started hormonal contraception (pill, patch, or ring only) between October 2008 and September 2012. Pregnancy was defined as any event corresponding to a pregnant state using ICD-9 codes. Patients were followed for 1 year post-initiation. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed. Results: The final analysis included a total of 2166 patients. Approximately 5.9% (n = 127) of patients became pregnant during follow-up. Increased odds of pregnancy were associated with the following: mental health disease (odds ratio [OR] 1.69, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.15-2.58), lowest socioeconomic quintile (OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.05-2.09), and Christian faith (OR 1.69, 95% CI 1.31-2.41). Age groups 25 to 34 years (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.38-0.92] and 35 to 44 years (OR 0.32, 95% CI 0.06-0.64) were both associated with decreased odds of pregnancy versus age group 18 to 24 years. Conclusion: This study successfully identified several predictors of pregnancy in female veterans starting a pill, patch, or ring form of hormonal contraception. Female veterans in the lowest socioeconomic quintile, aged 18 to 24 years, diagnosed with a mental health disorder, and of Christian faith were found to be at significantly higher odds of a pregnancy. Identification of these at-risk populations may help clinicians and policy makers choose strategies to identify which patients could benefit the most from more effective long-acting reversible contraception therapy.
    Annals of Pharmacotherapy 09/2015; DOI:10.1177/1060028015607825
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To evaluate the place in therapy of fresh frozen plasma (FFP), C1 esterase concentrate (C1-INH), ecallantide, and icatibant in the management of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor-induced angioedema (ACEI-IA). Data sources: A literature search was performed using PubMed (1946 through August 2015) and Embase (<1966 through August 2015). References from identified articles were reviewed. Study selection and data extraction: Consensus papers, practice guidelines, case reports/series, clinical trials, and meeting abstracts published in English and involving humans were included. Data synthesis: No medications are currently Food and Drug Administration-approved for managing ACEI-IA. Emerging evidence suggests that FFP and medications approved for management of acute attacks of hereditary angioedema, another bradykinin-mediated event, may be effective for use in ACEI-IA. Positive efficacy results were reported with FFP and C1-INH while mixed results have been seen with ecallantide. Off-label icatibant has the most evidence supporting its use in ACEI-IA with rapid symptom resolution (10 minutes to 6 hours) and avoidance of intubation and tracheotomy in several cases. These agents were well-tolerated in ACEI-IA. Conclusion: ACEI-IA is typically a self-limiting event. First-line therapies include ACEI discontinuation, observation, and supportive medications (eg, corticosteroids, antihistamines, and epinephrine). Symptom progression can be life-threatening and may require interventions such as tracheotomy and intubation. Off-label use of FFP and medications approved for hereditary angioedema have resulted in rapid resolution of symptoms and avoidance of intubation. Among these agents, icatibant has the most supporting evidence and has been incorporated into practice guidelines and algorithms as a second-line agent for serious life-threatening ACE-IA.
    Annals of Pharmacotherapy 09/2015; DOI:10.1177/1060028015607037
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) Guideline on the Treatment of Blood Cholesterol recommends high-intensity statin therapy for most patients with established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) versus previously recommended low-density lipoprotein cholesterol targets. The impact of the ACC/AHA guidelines on prescribing patterns in primary care is uncertain. Objective: To describe the prescribing habits of statin therapy in primary care patients with ASCVD before and after the ACC/AHA guidelines were published. Methods: This retrospective observational study evaluated patients with ASCVD who were seen in at least 1 of 8 primary care clinics in the University of Colorado Health system. It received expedited approval by the Colorado Multiple Institutional Review Board. The primary outcome measure was the proportion of patients with established ASCVD prescribed high-intensity statin therapy within 1 year before or after guideline release. Results: In total, 220 patients were included in the analysis with 110 in the before and 110 in the after cohort. For the primary outcome analysis, the rate of high-intensity statin utilization in the before versus after groups was significantly greater (25.5% vs 41.8%, P = 0.01). For ages 76 to 89 years, 36 of 37 and 29 of 30 patients in the before and after groups were receiving moderate- to high-intensity statin therapy (97.3% vs 96.7%, P = 0.99). Subgroup analysis in the after cohort for all ages showed no change in statin therapy for 77% of patients. Conclusions: High-intensity statin prescribing increased in patients with ASCVD after release of the ACC/AHA cholesterol guidelines. Our data indicate that national evidence-based guidelines may influence clinical practice in very high risk patients.
    Annals of Pharmacotherapy 09/2015; DOI:10.1177/1060028015608199
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Hyperkalemia is a potentially life-threatening condition that is common in kidney disease patients. Insulin is used to treat hyperkalemia, but may cause hypoglycemia, especially in kidney disease when insulin may be metabolized more slowly. Objective: We compared the rates of hypoglycemia in patients with low estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using high versus low doses of insulin for hyperkalemia to determine if lower doses of insulin would decrease the incidence of hypoglycemia. Methods: This was a retrospective study of hospitalized patients receiving intravenous insulin for hyperkalemia during a 6-month period. Patients with low eGFR were analyzed based on how much insulin they received: high dose (10 units, n = 78) versus low dose (5 units, n = 71). Postdose nadir blood glucose values were examined for up to 8 hours after the dose. The percentage of hypoglycemia (blood glucose ≤70 mg/dl) and a subset of severe hypoglycemia (blood glucose <50 mg/dl) were then reported for each dose group. Results: A total of 149 doses were identified in patients with low eGFR. The rates of hypoglycemia were 16.7% and 19.7% (P = 0.79), respectively, among high-dose (n = 78) and low-dose (n = 71) groups. Rates of severe hypoglycemia were 8.9% and 7.0%, respectively (P = 0.90). More than 28% of hypoglycemic episodes with high doses occurred after 4 hours (median = 2.5 hours) compared with 14.3% with low doses (median = 2.38 hours). Conclusion: There was no difference in the rate of hypoglycemia or severe hypoglycemia between high or low doses of insulin in patients with low eGFR. We recommend monitoring up to 6 hours after insulin use in hyperkalemia.
    Annals of Pharmacotherapy 09/2015; DOI:10.1177/1060028015607559
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To review available evidence evaluating dexmedetomidine in alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) while identifying gaps in evidence for its use in this setting. Data sources: A MEDLINE search (1966-August 2015) to identify English-language articles evaluating the efficacy and safety of dexmedetomidine in alcohol withdrawal. Key words included alcohol, withdrawal, delirium tremens, and dexmedetomidine. Additional references were identified from a review of literature citations. Study selection and data extraction: All English-language observational studies, retrospective reviews, and clinical trials were included. Case reports and case series describing the use of dexmedetomidine in 10 or fewer patients were excluded. Data synthesis: One randomized, controlled trial, 1 prospective observational study, and 6 retrospective reviews were identified. The only randomized, controlled trial identified showed that the addition of dexmedetomidine decreases benzodiazepine requirements more than placebo in the first 24 hours after initiation compared with the 24 hours prior to initiation (-56.8 mg vs -8 mg; P = 0.037). Overall, dexmedetomidine appears to lower benzodiazepine requirements in patients with AWS and decreases the sympathomimetic response seen in these patients. There was no convincing evidence that dexmedetomidine improves clinical endpoints in patients with AWS, such as need for mechanical ventilation or intensive care unit or hospital length of stay. Conclusions: Dexmedetomidine reduces hypertension and tachycardia in AWS and also reduces benzodiazepine requirements; however, the impact of these findings on important clinical endpoints is yet to be determined. Dexmedetomidine may be useful as adjunctive therapy; however, it cannot be recommended as a single agent in the management of AWS.
    Annals of Pharmacotherapy 09/2015; DOI:10.1177/1060028015607038
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To evaluate the effect of prenatal acetaminophen exposure on the future development of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children. Data sources: Literature searches of MEDLINE (1975 to June 2015), International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (1975 to June 2015), and Cochrane Database (publications through June 2015) for prospective clinical trials assessing the relationship of prenatal acetaminophen exposure and the development of attention deficit disorders or hyperactivity. Study selection and data extraction: Studies comparing self-reported maternal acetaminophen use during pregnancy to development of ADHD or ADHD-like behaviors in offspring between the ages of 3 and 12 years. Data synthesis: Four studies examining the effects of prenatal acetaminophen exposure on subsequent ADHD behaviors were identified. Of these, one early study found no link to ADHD behaviors while the other studies found statistically significant correlations with the most prominent being a study finding a higher risk for using ADHD medications (hazard ratio = 1.29; 95% CI, 1.15-1.44) or having ADHD-like behaviors at age 7 years as determined by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (risk ratio = 1.13; 95% CI, 1.01-1.27) in children whose mothers used acetaminophen during pregnancy. Conclusion: While there does appear to be a mild correlation between prenatal acetaminophen use and the development of ADHD symptoms in children, current data do not provide sufficient evidence that prenatal acetaminophen exposure leads to development of ADHD symptoms late in life. Acetaminophen is a preferred option for pain management during pregnancy when compared with other medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or opioids for pyretic or pain relief.
    Annals of Pharmacotherapy 09/2015; DOI:10.1177/1060028015606469
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To evaluate the existing data regarding the use of cranberry products for the prevention of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in pediatric patients. Data sources: A literature search of Medline databases from 1966 to June 2015 was conducted. Study selection and data extraction: The databases were searched using the terms "pediatrics," "children," "cranberry," "cranberry juice," and "urinary tract infections." The identified trials were then searched for additional references applicable to this topic. Data synthesis: A total of 8 clinical trials were identified that examined the use of cranberry products, mostly juice, for the prevention of UTIs in children. Three trials examined the use in otherwise healthy children. Five trials examined the use in pediatric patients with underlying urogenital abnormalities of which 2 compared cranberry to antibiotics. In healthy pediatric patients, cranberry use was associated with a reduction in the overall number of UTIs and a decrease in the number of antibiotic days per year for UTI treatment. In patients with urogenital abnormalities, results were conflicting, with some studies showing no reduction in UTIs compared with placebo, but others demonstrating a significant reduction. However, cranberry products had similar efficacy when compared with both cefaclor and trimethoprim. All studies used a wide variety of doses and frequencies of cranberry, making specific product recommendations difficult. Conclusions: Cranberry appears effective for the prevention of UTIs in otherwise healthy children and is at least as effective as antibiotics in children with underlying urogenital abnormalities. However, recommendations for cranberry dosing and frequency cannot be confidently made at this time. Larger, well-designed trials are recommended.
    Annals of Pharmacotherapy 09/2015; DOI:10.1177/1060028015606729
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The University HealthSystem Consortium (UHC), a national hospital engagement network (HEN), establishes health-system metrics to assess and improve quality of care. In 2012, a metric for inpatient anticoagulant hemorrhage was developed. The utility of this metric to improve anticoagulation care has not been assessed. Objective: To identify opportunities to improve anticoagulation safety through the use of a HEN metric for inpatient anticoagulant-associated hemorrhage. Methods: This was a single-center, retrospective, observational study of metric identified patients with presumed inpatient anticoagulant hemorrhage. Records were reviewed to confirm anticoagulant hemorrhage and identify bleed site and severity. A structured process was used to assess bleed preventability and subsequently identify opportunities for improving care. Each bleed was reviewed by 2 investigators. Results: Anticoagulant hemorrhage was confirmed in 85.9% (61/71) with heparin infusion the most common anticoagulant. Patients were primarily medical, with a mean age of 72.7 ± 15 years. The most common bleed sites were gastrointestinal (24.6%) and retroperitoneal (21.3%). Major bleeding occurred in 60.7% (37/61). Anticoagulant hemorrhage was preventable in 18% (11/61) of cases with heparin protocol noncompliance the most common cause of a preventable bleed. Several opportunities for improving heparin infusion therapy were recognized and protocol changes were implemented. Conclusions: The UHC metric accurately captures inpatient anticoagulant-associated hemorrhage the majority of time. The UHC metric on anticoagulant-associated hemorrhage can be a useful part of a health system's overall plan for the safe use of anticoagulants in the hospital setting.
    Annals of Pharmacotherapy 09/2015; DOI:10.1177/1060028015606470
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Tapentadol (TAP) and tramadol (TRA) provide pain relief through similar monoaminergic and opioid agonist properties. Objective: To compare clinical effects and medical outcomes between TAP and TRA exposures reported to the National Poison Data System of the American Association of Poison Control Centers. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted analyzing national data for single medication TAP or TRA cases reported from June 2009 through December 2011. Case outcomes, dichotomized as severe versus mild; clinical effects; and use of naloxone were compared. Results: There were 217 TAP and 8566 TRA cases. Significantly more severe outcomes were associated with TAP exposures for an all-age comparison (relative risk [RR] = 1.24; 95% CI = 1.04-1.48), and for the <6-year-old age group (RR = 5.76; 95% CI = 2.20-15.11). Patients with TAP exposures had significantly greater risk of respiratory depression (RR = 5.56; 95% CI = 3.50-8.81), coma (RR = 4.16; 95% CI = 2.33-7.42), drowsiness/lethargy (RR = 1.38; 95% CI = 1.15-1.66), slurred speech (RR = 3.51; 95% CI = 1.98-6.23), hallucination/delusion (RR = 7.25; 95% CI = 3.61-14.57), confusion (RR = 2.54; 95% CI = 1.56-4.13) and use of naloxone (RR = 3.80; 95% CI = 2.96-4.88). TRA exposures had significantly greater risk of seizures (RR = 7.94; 95% CI = 2.99-20.91) and vomiting (RR = 1.96; 95% CI = 1.07-3.60). Conclusion: TAP was associated with significantly more toxic clinical effects and severe outcomes consistent with an opioid agonist. TRA was associated with significantly higher rates of seizures and vomiting.
    Annals of Pharmacotherapy 09/2015; DOI:10.1177/1060028015604631