Annals of Pharmacotherapy Journal Impact Factor & Information

Publisher: SAGE Publications

Journal description

The Annals of Pharmacotherapy was founded in 1967 as an international, independent journal for pharmacists, physicians, nurses, and other healthcare professionals. It continues to be the leading peer-reviewed journal dedicated to the advancement of safe, effective, and economical use of medications in patient care. Article categories include: Original Research, Comprehensive Reviews, Case Reports, Editorials, Visual Observations, International Reports.

Current impact factor: 2.06

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2016
2014 Impact Factor 2.059
2013 Impact Factor 2.923
2012 Impact Factor 2.567
2011 Impact Factor 2.126
2010 Impact Factor 2.166
2009 Impact Factor 2.453
2008 Impact Factor 2.305
2007 Impact Factor 1.985
2006 Impact Factor 2.259
2005 Impact Factor 1.837
2004 Impact Factor 1.739
2003 Impact Factor 1.822
2002 Impact Factor 1.796
2001 Impact Factor 1.729
2000 Impact Factor 1.868
1999 Impact Factor 1.61
1998 Impact Factor 1.276
1997 Impact Factor 1.384
1996 Impact Factor 1.277
1995 Impact Factor 0.969
1994 Impact Factor 0.826
1993 Impact Factor 0.509

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 2.20
Cited half-life 7.70
Immediacy index 0.43
Eigenfactor 0.01
Article influence 0.65
Website The Annals of Pharmacotherapy website
Other titles Annals of pharmacotherapy (Online), Annals of pharmacotherapy, Ann pharmacother
ISSN 1542-6270
OCLC 47647817
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

SAGE Publications

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • Authors retain copyright
    • Pre-print on any website
    • Author's post-print on author's personal website, departmental website, institutional website or institutional repository
    • On other repositories including PubMed Central after 12 months embargo
    • Publisher copyright and source must be acknowledged
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Post-print version with changes from referees comments can be used
    • "as published" final version with layout and copy-editing changes cannot be archived but can be used on secure institutional intranet
    • Must link to publisher version with DOI
    • Publisher last reviewed on 29/07/2015
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • Kimberly B Garza · Justin K Owensby · Kimberly Braxton Lloyd · Elizabeth A Wood · Richard A Hansen
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Medication nonadherence affects health care costs, morbidity, and mortality. Concepts from behavioral economics can guide the development of interventions to improve medication adherence. Objective: To measure the relative effectiveness of 2 behavioral economic-based incentive structures to improve medication adherence. Methods: This randomized controlled trial compared adherence among participants taking antihypertensive or antihyperlipidemic medications randomized to usual care (UC), guaranteed pay-out (GPO) incentives, or lottery incentives. Daily adherence was measured over a 90-day period using electronic caps (Medication Event Monitoring System [MEMS]). The GPO group received $30 up-front in a virtual account, with $0.50 deducted for each missed dose. Lottery group participants were eligible for a weekly $50 drawing, but only if they had taken their medication as prescribed all week. An electronic survey assessed self-reported adherence. Statistical analysis included descriptive statistics, paired t tests, ANOVA, and Pearson's correlations. Results: In all, 36 participants were randomized (UC, n = 11; GPO, n = 14; lottery, n = 11). Mean percentage (±SD) of days adherent during the incentive period was highest in the lottery group (96% ± 5%), followed by the GPO group (94% ± 9%) and the UC group (94% ± 9%). There were no statistically significant differences among groups (P > 0.05). MEMS-measured adherence was not significantly correlated with a patient's self-reported adherence (P > 0.05) at baseline but was correlated at 90-day follow-up (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Although no statistically significant differences in adherence were demonstrated in this small sample of highly adherent participants, larger studies in a more diverse population or with other medications might show otherwise.
    Annals of Pharmacotherapy 10/2015; DOI:10.1177/1060028015609354
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To review the mechanism of action for PCSK9 monoclonal antibodies and critically evaluate the therapeutic potential of evolocumab and alirocumab in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. Data sources: Ovid MEDLINE search from 1980 to August 2015 using the terms PCSK9, evolocumab, and alirocumab with forward and backward citation tracking. Study selection and data extraction: English-language trials and studies assessing the mechanism, efficacy, or safety of PCSK9 monoclonal antibodies were included. Data synthesis: PCSK9 monoclonal antibodies have a potent ability to reduce low-density lipoprotein (LDL) by almost 50% in controlled trials: -47.49% (95% CI = -69.6% to -25.4%). They have an acceptable safety profile with no significant elevations in Creatine Kinase (CK) (odds ratio [OR] = 0.72; 95% CI = 0.54 to 0.96) or serious adverse events (OR = 1.01; 95% CI = 0.87 to 1.18), and preliminary evidence suggests reductions in myocardial infarction (OR = 0.49; 95% CI = 0.26 to 0.93). Although it is effective in several familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) patient types, it does not work in homozygous patients with dual allele LDL receptor negative polymorphisms or those who are homozygous for autosomal recessive hypercholesterolemia. Conclusions: Although not preferred over statins because of limited clinical trial evidence of cardiovascular event reductions, dosing convenience, and expense, PCSK9 monoclonal antibodies will have a prominent role to play in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia, especially in patients needing large LDL reductions, including patients with many types of FH.
    Annals of Pharmacotherapy 10/2015; DOI:10.1177/1060028015608487
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Pregnancy rates in veterans are an understudied phenomenon. Objective: The objective of this study was to identify predictors of pregnancy within 1 year of starting hormonal contraception among female veterans. Methods: This was a retrospective, cohort study of female veterans from Veterans Affairs facilities within Southern California and Nevada, who newly started hormonal contraception (pill, patch, or ring only) between October 2008 and September 2012. Pregnancy was defined as any event corresponding to a pregnant state using ICD-9 codes. Patients were followed for 1 year post-initiation. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed. Results: The final analysis included a total of 2166 patients. Approximately 5.9% (n = 127) of patients became pregnant during follow-up. Increased odds of pregnancy were associated with the following: mental health disease (odds ratio [OR] 1.69, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.15-2.58), lowest socioeconomic quintile (OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.05-2.09), and Christian faith (OR 1.69, 95% CI 1.31-2.41). Age groups 25 to 34 years (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.38-0.92] and 35 to 44 years (OR 0.32, 95% CI 0.06-0.64) were both associated with decreased odds of pregnancy versus age group 18 to 24 years. Conclusion: This study successfully identified several predictors of pregnancy in female veterans starting a pill, patch, or ring form of hormonal contraception. Female veterans in the lowest socioeconomic quintile, aged 18 to 24 years, diagnosed with a mental health disorder, and of Christian faith were found to be at significantly higher odds of a pregnancy. Identification of these at-risk populations may help clinicians and policy makers choose strategies to identify which patients could benefit the most from more effective long-acting reversible contraception therapy.
    Annals of Pharmacotherapy 09/2015; DOI:10.1177/1060028015607825
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To evaluate the place in therapy of fresh frozen plasma (FFP), C1 esterase concentrate (C1-INH), ecallantide, and icatibant in the management of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor-induced angioedema (ACEI-IA). Data sources: A literature search was performed using PubMed (1946 through August 2015) and Embase (<1966 through August 2015). References from identified articles were reviewed. Study selection and data extraction: Consensus papers, practice guidelines, case reports/series, clinical trials, and meeting abstracts published in English and involving humans were included. Data synthesis: No medications are currently Food and Drug Administration-approved for managing ACEI-IA. Emerging evidence suggests that FFP and medications approved for management of acute attacks of hereditary angioedema, another bradykinin-mediated event, may be effective for use in ACEI-IA. Positive efficacy results were reported with FFP and C1-INH while mixed results have been seen with ecallantide. Off-label icatibant has the most evidence supporting its use in ACEI-IA with rapid symptom resolution (10 minutes to 6 hours) and avoidance of intubation and tracheotomy in several cases. These agents were well-tolerated in ACEI-IA. Conclusion: ACEI-IA is typically a self-limiting event. First-line therapies include ACEI discontinuation, observation, and supportive medications (eg, corticosteroids, antihistamines, and epinephrine). Symptom progression can be life-threatening and may require interventions such as tracheotomy and intubation. Off-label use of FFP and medications approved for hereditary angioedema have resulted in rapid resolution of symptoms and avoidance of intubation. Among these agents, icatibant has the most supporting evidence and has been incorporated into practice guidelines and algorithms as a second-line agent for serious life-threatening ACE-IA.
    Annals of Pharmacotherapy 09/2015; DOI:10.1177/1060028015607037
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) Guideline on the Treatment of Blood Cholesterol recommends high-intensity statin therapy for most patients with established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) versus previously recommended low-density lipoprotein cholesterol targets. The impact of the ACC/AHA guidelines on prescribing patterns in primary care is uncertain. Objective: To describe the prescribing habits of statin therapy in primary care patients with ASCVD before and after the ACC/AHA guidelines were published. Methods: This retrospective observational study evaluated patients with ASCVD who were seen in at least 1 of 8 primary care clinics in the University of Colorado Health system. It received expedited approval by the Colorado Multiple Institutional Review Board. The primary outcome measure was the proportion of patients with established ASCVD prescribed high-intensity statin therapy within 1 year before or after guideline release. Results: In total, 220 patients were included in the analysis with 110 in the before and 110 in the after cohort. For the primary outcome analysis, the rate of high-intensity statin utilization in the before versus after groups was significantly greater (25.5% vs 41.8%, P = 0.01). For ages 76 to 89 years, 36 of 37 and 29 of 30 patients in the before and after groups were receiving moderate- to high-intensity statin therapy (97.3% vs 96.7%, P = 0.99). Subgroup analysis in the after cohort for all ages showed no change in statin therapy for 77% of patients. Conclusions: High-intensity statin prescribing increased in patients with ASCVD after release of the ACC/AHA cholesterol guidelines. Our data indicate that national evidence-based guidelines may influence clinical practice in very high risk patients.
    Annals of Pharmacotherapy 09/2015; DOI:10.1177/1060028015608199
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Hyperkalemia is a potentially life-threatening condition that is common in kidney disease patients. Insulin is used to treat hyperkalemia, but may cause hypoglycemia, especially in kidney disease when insulin may be metabolized more slowly. Objective: We compared the rates of hypoglycemia in patients with low estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using high versus low doses of insulin for hyperkalemia to determine if lower doses of insulin would decrease the incidence of hypoglycemia. Methods: This was a retrospective study of hospitalized patients receiving intravenous insulin for hyperkalemia during a 6-month period. Patients with low eGFR were analyzed based on how much insulin they received: high dose (10 units, n = 78) versus low dose (5 units, n = 71). Postdose nadir blood glucose values were examined for up to 8 hours after the dose. The percentage of hypoglycemia (blood glucose ≤70 mg/dl) and a subset of severe hypoglycemia (blood glucose <50 mg/dl) were then reported for each dose group. Results: A total of 149 doses were identified in patients with low eGFR. The rates of hypoglycemia were 16.7% and 19.7% (P = 0.79), respectively, among high-dose (n = 78) and low-dose (n = 71) groups. Rates of severe hypoglycemia were 8.9% and 7.0%, respectively (P = 0.90). More than 28% of hypoglycemic episodes with high doses occurred after 4 hours (median = 2.5 hours) compared with 14.3% with low doses (median = 2.38 hours). Conclusion: There was no difference in the rate of hypoglycemia or severe hypoglycemia between high or low doses of insulin in patients with low eGFR. We recommend monitoring up to 6 hours after insulin use in hyperkalemia.
    Annals of Pharmacotherapy 09/2015; DOI:10.1177/1060028015607559
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To review available evidence evaluating dexmedetomidine in alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) while identifying gaps in evidence for its use in this setting. Data sources: A MEDLINE search (1966-August 2015) to identify English-language articles evaluating the efficacy and safety of dexmedetomidine in alcohol withdrawal. Key words included alcohol, withdrawal, delirium tremens, and dexmedetomidine. Additional references were identified from a review of literature citations. Study selection and data extraction: All English-language observational studies, retrospective reviews, and clinical trials were included. Case reports and case series describing the use of dexmedetomidine in 10 or fewer patients were excluded. Data synthesis: One randomized, controlled trial, 1 prospective observational study, and 6 retrospective reviews were identified. The only randomized, controlled trial identified showed that the addition of dexmedetomidine decreases benzodiazepine requirements more than placebo in the first 24 hours after initiation compared with the 24 hours prior to initiation (-56.8 mg vs -8 mg; P = 0.037). Overall, dexmedetomidine appears to lower benzodiazepine requirements in patients with AWS and decreases the sympathomimetic response seen in these patients. There was no convincing evidence that dexmedetomidine improves clinical endpoints in patients with AWS, such as need for mechanical ventilation or intensive care unit or hospital length of stay. Conclusions: Dexmedetomidine reduces hypertension and tachycardia in AWS and also reduces benzodiazepine requirements; however, the impact of these findings on important clinical endpoints is yet to be determined. Dexmedetomidine may be useful as adjunctive therapy; however, it cannot be recommended as a single agent in the management of AWS.
    Annals of Pharmacotherapy 09/2015; DOI:10.1177/1060028015607038
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To evaluate the effect of prenatal acetaminophen exposure on the future development of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children. Data sources: Literature searches of MEDLINE (1975 to June 2015), International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (1975 to June 2015), and Cochrane Database (publications through June 2015) for prospective clinical trials assessing the relationship of prenatal acetaminophen exposure and the development of attention deficit disorders or hyperactivity. Study selection and data extraction: Studies comparing self-reported maternal acetaminophen use during pregnancy to development of ADHD or ADHD-like behaviors in offspring between the ages of 3 and 12 years. Data synthesis: Four studies examining the effects of prenatal acetaminophen exposure on subsequent ADHD behaviors were identified. Of these, one early study found no link to ADHD behaviors while the other studies found statistically significant correlations with the most prominent being a study finding a higher risk for using ADHD medications (hazard ratio = 1.29; 95% CI, 1.15-1.44) or having ADHD-like behaviors at age 7 years as determined by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (risk ratio = 1.13; 95% CI, 1.01-1.27) in children whose mothers used acetaminophen during pregnancy. Conclusion: While there does appear to be a mild correlation between prenatal acetaminophen use and the development of ADHD symptoms in children, current data do not provide sufficient evidence that prenatal acetaminophen exposure leads to development of ADHD symptoms late in life. Acetaminophen is a preferred option for pain management during pregnancy when compared with other medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or opioids for pyretic or pain relief.
    Annals of Pharmacotherapy 09/2015; DOI:10.1177/1060028015606469
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To evaluate the existing data regarding the use of cranberry products for the prevention of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in pediatric patients. Data sources: A literature search of Medline databases from 1966 to June 2015 was conducted. Study selection and data extraction: The databases were searched using the terms "pediatrics," "children," "cranberry," "cranberry juice," and "urinary tract infections." The identified trials were then searched for additional references applicable to this topic. Data synthesis: A total of 8 clinical trials were identified that examined the use of cranberry products, mostly juice, for the prevention of UTIs in children. Three trials examined the use in otherwise healthy children. Five trials examined the use in pediatric patients with underlying urogenital abnormalities of which 2 compared cranberry to antibiotics. In healthy pediatric patients, cranberry use was associated with a reduction in the overall number of UTIs and a decrease in the number of antibiotic days per year for UTI treatment. In patients with urogenital abnormalities, results were conflicting, with some studies showing no reduction in UTIs compared with placebo, but others demonstrating a significant reduction. However, cranberry products had similar efficacy when compared with both cefaclor and trimethoprim. All studies used a wide variety of doses and frequencies of cranberry, making specific product recommendations difficult. Conclusions: Cranberry appears effective for the prevention of UTIs in otherwise healthy children and is at least as effective as antibiotics in children with underlying urogenital abnormalities. However, recommendations for cranberry dosing and frequency cannot be confidently made at this time. Larger, well-designed trials are recommended.
    Annals of Pharmacotherapy 09/2015; DOI:10.1177/1060028015606729
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The University HealthSystem Consortium (UHC), a national hospital engagement network (HEN), establishes health-system metrics to assess and improve quality of care. In 2012, a metric for inpatient anticoagulant hemorrhage was developed. The utility of this metric to improve anticoagulation care has not been assessed. Objective: To identify opportunities to improve anticoagulation safety through the use of a HEN metric for inpatient anticoagulant-associated hemorrhage. Methods: This was a single-center, retrospective, observational study of metric identified patients with presumed inpatient anticoagulant hemorrhage. Records were reviewed to confirm anticoagulant hemorrhage and identify bleed site and severity. A structured process was used to assess bleed preventability and subsequently identify opportunities for improving care. Each bleed was reviewed by 2 investigators. Results: Anticoagulant hemorrhage was confirmed in 85.9% (61/71) with heparin infusion the most common anticoagulant. Patients were primarily medical, with a mean age of 72.7 ± 15 years. The most common bleed sites were gastrointestinal (24.6%) and retroperitoneal (21.3%). Major bleeding occurred in 60.7% (37/61). Anticoagulant hemorrhage was preventable in 18% (11/61) of cases with heparin protocol noncompliance the most common cause of a preventable bleed. Several opportunities for improving heparin infusion therapy were recognized and protocol changes were implemented. Conclusions: The UHC metric accurately captures inpatient anticoagulant-associated hemorrhage the majority of time. The UHC metric on anticoagulant-associated hemorrhage can be a useful part of a health system's overall plan for the safe use of anticoagulants in the hospital setting.
    Annals of Pharmacotherapy 09/2015; DOI:10.1177/1060028015606470
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Tapentadol (TAP) and tramadol (TRA) provide pain relief through similar monoaminergic and opioid agonist properties. Objective: To compare clinical effects and medical outcomes between TAP and TRA exposures reported to the National Poison Data System of the American Association of Poison Control Centers. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted analyzing national data for single medication TAP or TRA cases reported from June 2009 through December 2011. Case outcomes, dichotomized as severe versus mild; clinical effects; and use of naloxone were compared. Results: There were 217 TAP and 8566 TRA cases. Significantly more severe outcomes were associated with TAP exposures for an all-age comparison (relative risk [RR] = 1.24; 95% CI = 1.04-1.48), and for the <6-year-old age group (RR = 5.76; 95% CI = 2.20-15.11). Patients with TAP exposures had significantly greater risk of respiratory depression (RR = 5.56; 95% CI = 3.50-8.81), coma (RR = 4.16; 95% CI = 2.33-7.42), drowsiness/lethargy (RR = 1.38; 95% CI = 1.15-1.66), slurred speech (RR = 3.51; 95% CI = 1.98-6.23), hallucination/delusion (RR = 7.25; 95% CI = 3.61-14.57), confusion (RR = 2.54; 95% CI = 1.56-4.13) and use of naloxone (RR = 3.80; 95% CI = 2.96-4.88). TRA exposures had significantly greater risk of seizures (RR = 7.94; 95% CI = 2.99-20.91) and vomiting (RR = 1.96; 95% CI = 1.07-3.60). Conclusion: TAP was associated with significantly more toxic clinical effects and severe outcomes consistent with an opioid agonist. TRA was associated with significantly higher rates of seizures and vomiting.
    Annals of Pharmacotherapy 09/2015; DOI:10.1177/1060028015604631
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Fentanyl is commonly used in preterm infants. Relatively little is known regarding the neurodevelopmental outcomes of preterm infants exposed to fentanyl. Objective: To investigate the association between cumulative fentanyl dose and brain injury and diameters in a cohort of preterm infants. Methods: Data on demographics, perinatal course, and neonatal course, including total fentanyl exposure prior to term equivalent age, were retrospectively evaluated for 103 infants born at ≤30 weeks gestational age (mean gestational age 26.9 ± 1.8 weeks) who underwent magnetic resonance imaging at term equivalent age. Magnetic resonance images were evaluated for brain injury and regional brain diameters. Developmental testing was conducted at term equivalent and 2 years of age. Results: Seventy-eight infants (76%) received fentanyl (median cumulative dose 3 µg/kg, interquartile range 1-441 µg/kg). Cumulative fentanyl dose in the first week of life correlated with the incidence of cerebellar hemorrhage after correction for covariates (odds ratio 2.1, 95% confidence interval 1.1-4.1). Cumulative fentanyl dose before term equivalent age correlated with reductions in transverse cerebellar diameter after correction for covariates, including the presence of cerebellar hemorrhage (r = 0.461, P = 0.002). No correlation was detected between cumulative fentanyl dose and development at 2 years of age. Conclusions: Higher cumulative fentanyl dose in preterm infants correlated with a higher incidence of cerebellar injury and lower cerebellar diameter at term equivalent age. Our findings must be taken with caution, but emphasize the need for future prospective trials examining the risks and benefits of commonly used analgesic agents in preterm infants.
    Annals of Pharmacotherapy 09/2015; DOI:10.1177/1060028015606732
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To review the evidence for discontinuing primary and secondary Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) prophylaxis in HIV-infected patients with a CD4 count <200 cells/mm(3). Data sources: We conducted a literature search in MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, and the International Aids Society Library (up to August 2015) using the following key search terms: Pneumocystis jirovecii, pneumonia, human immunodeficiency virus, primary prophylaxis, secondary prophylaxis, and discontinuation. Study selection and data extraction: All English-language studies that evaluated discontinuation of primary and/or secondary PJP prophylaxis in HIV-infected patients with CD4 count <200 cells/mm(3) were included. Data synthesis: Five studies were identified, which varied in design, sample size, outcomes, and duration of follow-up. Three studies examined discontinuation of primary and secondary PJP prophylaxis; 1 study evaluated discontinuing primary PJP prophylaxis; and 1 study evaluated stopping secondary PJP prophylaxis. Two out of the 5 studies pooled data for all opportunistic infections. Overall, there was a low incidence of PJP among HIV-infected patients who discontinued primary PJP prophylaxis and were well controlled on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Conclusions: Discontinuation of primary PJP prophylaxis appears to be safe in patients on combination ART with a suppressed HIV viral load and a CD4 count >100 cells/mm(3). Additional data are needed to support the safety of discontinuing secondary PJP prophylaxis. Decisions to discontinue PJP prophylaxis in patients with a CD4 count <200 cells/mm(3) should be done on an individual patient basis, taking into consideration clinical factors, including ongoing adherence to ART.
    Annals of Pharmacotherapy 09/2015; DOI:10.1177/1060028015605113
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Problematic prescription drug labeling has been cited as a root cause of patient misunderstanding, medication errors, and nonadherence. Although numerous studies have recently been conducted to identify and test labeling best practices, the last systematic review on this topic was conducted a decade ago. The objective of this review was, therefore, to examine, summarize, and update best practices for conveying written prescription medication information and instructions to patients. Data sources: English-language articles published from June 2005 to June 2015 were identified in MEDLINE and CINAHL by searching the following text words: 'medication OR prescription OR drug' AND 'label OR leaflet OR brochure OR pamphlet OR medication guide OR medication insert OR drug insert OR medication information OR drug information OR instructions' AND 'patient OR consumer.' Reference mining and secondary searches were also performed. Study selection and data extraction: A total of 31 articles providing evidence on how to improve written, prescription drug labeling for patient use were selected. Two reviewers independently screened articles, rated their quality, and abstracted data. Data synthesis: Identified best practices included the use of plain language, improved formatting and organization, and more explicit instructions to improve patient comprehension. The use of icons had conflicting findings, and few studies tested whether practices improved knowledge or behaviors with patients' actual prescribed regimens. Conclusions: Future studies are needed to determine how specific modifications and improvements in drug labeling can enhance patient knowledge and behavior in actual use. Synthesizing best practices across all patient materials will create a more useful, coordinated system of prescription information.
    Annals of Pharmacotherapy 09/2015; DOI:10.1177/1060028015602272
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    ABSTRACT: There is little information on the impact of statins on hospital length of stay (LOS) or readmission among patients with sepsis. The objective of this study is to evaluate the association between statin use and LOS and all-cause readmissions among sepsis patients hospitalized in the medical unit. The design was a retrospective propensity score-matched study of adult patients with a primary diagnosis of sepsis from 2007 to 2013. Information was extracted from the electronic health record. Sepsis patients were identified using ICD-9CM codes. Propensity scores estimated the probability that a patient would be on statins, and patients who were on statins were then matched with those who were not, within ±0.05. Additional greedy matching criteria were organ dysfunction (yes/no) and all patient refined diagnosis-related group (APR-DRG) medical/surgical. The primary outcome was LOS, and the secondary outcomes were all-cause readmission at 30, 60, and 90 days, adjusted for age, sex, modified Deyo-Charlson comorbidity index, APR-DRG severity of illness (SOI), and APR-DRG medical/surgical, as appropriate. Patients taking statins had a shorter LOS than patients not taking statins, 8.7 ± 3.7 and 10.3 ± 2.7 days, respectively (P value = 0.018). There was no significant difference (P> 0.05) in all cause readmissions between statin and nonstatin patients. Presence of comorbidities and SOI were significant factors for 60- and 90-day readmissions. The use of statins among patients admitted with primary sepsis in the medical unit was associated with shorter length of hospital stay. However, it did not affect frequency of readmissions. © The Author(s) 2015.
    Annals of Pharmacotherapy 09/2015; DOI:10.1177/1060028015603072
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    ABSTRACT: Health information technologies, such as computerized clinical decision support (CDS) systems, are being utilized increasingly in pediatric health care institutions as a means of medication error prevention. Most studies have suggested a positive impact of CDS on medication safety, but others have identified complexities that have prevented full optimization of these systems. Recent studies regarding the implementation of pediatric dosing alerts have illustrated the complexities that can be associated with the design, implementation, and refinement of CDS systems. Although CDS dosing alerts have likely improved the safety of medication use in pediatric patients, it is important to be aware of certain limitations of the dosing alert systems. A collaborative effort is required to optimize the effectiveness of CDS dosing alerts. © The Author(s) 2015.
    Annals of Pharmacotherapy 09/2015; DOI:10.1177/1060028015604632
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    ABSTRACT: The pediatric population displays its own pharmacological characteristics, making children vulnerable to adverse drug reactions (ADRs). To determine the incidence of ADRs among the pediatric emergency department (PED) population. This is a descriptive, noncontrolled, prospective, and single-center study, during 4 consecutive months in the PED of Nantes University Hospital. Setting up active gathering of data on ADRs enabled 121 reports of 11 095 consultations at the emergency department, which corresponds to an ADR incidence of 1.09%. Digestive and cutaneous reactions made up the majority of reactions judged as being nonserious (53%) and were mainly found in children between 2 -11 years old. Of the serious ADRs, 25% were found in the 12-15-year-old age range because of the drug overdose. The main medications administered, which were responsible for the majority of the ADRs, were an equimolar mix of oxygen and nitrogen monoxide, amoxicillin, and acetaminophen. Three means of collecting data were possible: collecting files data, oral communication, or filling a form, the last being the most used method. This active data gathering shows the incidence and nature of the adverse effects as well as the age distribution in the PED population. It highlights the considerable misuse of medications among young teenagers and the high incidence of overmedication in the younger age group. This work also revealed the need for a better reporting system. Future joint studies should be carried out between clinical and pharmacological departments to optimize communication and the correct use of medications in children. © The Author(s) 2015.
    Annals of Pharmacotherapy 08/2015; DOI:10.1177/1060028015602904
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    ABSTRACT: To review palbociclib, a novel small-molecule inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases 4 and 6, and its current place in therapy for the treatment of hormone receptor (HMR)-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (Her2)-negative advanced breast cancer. Four phase I trials, 2 phase II trials, and 1 phase III trial were identified from May 2004 to May 2015 using PubMed, American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) abstracts, and European Society of Medical Oncology (ESMO) abstracts. In the first-line setting, the phase II PALbociclib: Ongoing trials in the Management of breast cAncer (PALOMA)-1 trial randomized patients to receive letrozole alone or letrozole plus palbociclib 125 mg daily for 3 weeks, followed by 1 week off, as initial therapy for advanced breast cancer. The investigator-assessed median progression-free survival (PFS) was 20. 2 months for the combination versus 10.2 months for letrozole alone (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.488; 95% CI = 0.319-0.748; 1-sided P = 0.0004). The ensuing Food and Drug Administration approval of palbociclib was given a "breakthrough therapy" designation, where preliminary evidence suggests substantial improvement over existing therapies for a serious or life-threatening disease. A confirmatory phase III trial, PALOMA-2, is under way. In patients who were previously treated with endocrine therapy for advanced breast cancer, the phase III PALOMA-3 trial randomized patients to fulvestrant plus palbociclib versus fulvestrant plus placebo. The investigator-assessed median PFS at the time of a preplanned analysis was 9.2 months with palbociclib-fulvestrant compared with 3.8 months with placebo-fulvestrant (HR = 0.42; 95% CI = 0.32-0.56; P < 0.001). Palbociclib, the first-in-class CDK4/6 inhibitor, significantly extended PFS in combination with endocrine therapy in the first and subsequent lines of treatment for HMR-positive, Her2-negative advanced breast cancer. © The Author(s) 2015.
    Annals of Pharmacotherapy 08/2015; DOI:10.1177/1060028015602273
  • Annals of Pharmacotherapy 08/2015; DOI:10.1177/1060028015601140