Eye & contact lens (Eye Contact Lens)

Publisher: Contact Lens Association of Ophthalmologists, Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins

Journal description

Dedicated to the medical and surgical management of refractive disorders, Eye and Contact Lens: Science and Clinical Practice is published for ophthalmologists, optometrists, and other eye care specialists. Each quarterly issue provides original peer-reviewed articles and online dialogue on leading developments and practical clinical applications of contact lenses, refractive surgery, cornea, ocular surface disease, glaucoma, and related anterior segment subjects.

Current impact factor: 1.47

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2016
2014 Impact Factor 1.466
2013 Impact Factor 1.679
2012 Impact Factor 1.461
2011 Impact Factor 1.252
2010 Impact Factor 1.022

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 1.50
Cited half-life 6.00
Immediacy index 0.16
Eigenfactor 0.00
Article influence 0.38
Website Eye and Contact Lens: Science and Clinical Practice website
Other titles Eye & contact lens (Online), Eye & contact lens, Eye and contact lens, Journal of the Contact Lens Association of Ophthalmologists
ISSN 1542-233X
OCLC 50854203
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
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    • 12 months embargo
  • Conditions
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    • Pre-print must be removed upon acceptance for publication
    • Post-print may be deposited in personal website or institutional repository
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Must include statement that it is not the final published version
    • Published source must be acknowledged with full citation
    • Set statement to accompany deposit
    • Must link to publisher version
    • NIH authors will have their accepted manuscripts transmitted to PubMed Central on their behalf after a 12 months embargo (see policy for details)
    • Wellcome Trust and HHMI authors will have their accepted manuscripts transmitted to PubMed Central on their behalf after a 6 months embargo (see policy for details)
    • Publisher last reviewed on 19/03/2015
  • Classification

Publications in this journal

  • Eye & contact lens 01/2016;
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: To compare morphologic differences between freehand diamond or femtosecond laser-assisted penetrating and intrastromal arcuate incisions. Methods: Freehand diamond blade, corneal arcuate incisions (180° apart, 60° arc lengths) and 150 kHz femtosecond laser (80% scheimpflug pachymetry depth corneal thickness) arcuate incisions were performed in rabbits. Intrastromal arcuate incisions (100 μm above Descemet's membrane, 100 μm below epithelium) were performed in rabbit corneas (energy 1.2 μJ, spot line separation 3 × 3 μm, 90° side cut angle). Eyes were examined by slit lamp and light microscopy up to 47 days post-procedure. Freehand diamond blade penetrating incisions, and femtosecond laser penetrating and intrastromal arcuate incisions (energy 1.8 μJ, spot line separation 2 × 2 μm) were performed in cadaver eyes. Optical coherence tomography was performed immediately after surgery and the corneas were fixed for light scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Results: The rabbit model showed anterior stromal inflammation with epithelial hyperplasia in penetrating blade and laser penetrating wounds. The laser intrastromal and penetrating incisions showed localized constriction of the stromal layers of the cornea near the wound. In cadaver eyes, penetrating wound morphology was similar between blade and laser whereas intrastromal wounds did not affect the cornea above or below incisions. Conclusion: Penetrating femtosecond laser arcuate incisions have more predictable and controlled outcomes shown by less post-operative scarring than incisions performed with a diamond blade. Intrastromal incisions do not affect uncut corneal layers as demonstrated by histopathology. The femtosecond laser has significant advantages in its ability to make intrastromal incisions which are not achievable by traditional freehand or mechanical diamond blades.
    Eye & contact lens 10/2015; DOI:10.1097/ICL.0000000000000204
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: The diameters of soft contact lenses are conventionally measured at room temperature (RT), however, all soft lenses shrink when raised to eye temperature (ET). The purpose of this study was to evaluate RT to ET shrinkage in a representative sample of contemporary spherical soft contact lenses. Methods: Twenty-four reusable and daily disposable lens types (10 hydrogel and 14 silicone hydrogel) in three powers were measured for total diameter at RT (20°C±1°C) and ET (34°C±1°C). Lens diameter measurements were undertaken after equilibration in ISO saline in a temperature controlled lens analyzer (Optimec Ltd, Malvern, UK). Theoretical changes in base curve radii were also calculated. Results: All lens types reduced in diameter when raised to ET. The largest mean changes with silicone hydrogel and hydrogel lenses were with Avaria (Δ0.33 mm) and SofLens Daily Disposable (Δ0.69 mm), respectively. The smallest mean changes for silicone hydrogel and hydrogel lenses were with 1-DAY ACUVUE TruEye (Δ0.04 mm) and SofLens 38 (Δ0.11 mm), respectively. There was, however, a wide range in change between the different lenses tested. Conclusions: This study has identified the levels of shrinkage in current soft contact lenses. In many cases, these shrinkage levels can be expected to have significant effects on clinical performance.
    Eye & contact lens 10/2015; DOI:10.1097/ICL.0000000000000202
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    ABSTRACT: Slowing the progression of myopia has become a considerable concern for parents of myopic children. At the same time, clinical science is rapidly advancing the knowledge about methods to slow myopia progression. This article reviews the peer-reviewed literature regarding several modalities attempting to control myopia progression. Several strategies have been shown to be ineffective for myopia control, including undercorrection of myopic refractive error, alignment fit gas-permeable contact lenses, outdoor time, and bifocal of multifocal spectacles. However, a recent randomized clinical trial fitted progressing myopic children with executive bifocals for 3 years and found a 39% slowing of myopia progression for bifocal-only spectacles and 50% treatment effect for bifocal spectacles with base-in prism, although there was not a significant difference in progression between the bifocal-only and bifocal plus prism groups. Interestingly, outdoor time has shown to be effective for reducing the onset of myopia but not for slowing the progression of myopic refractive error. More effective methods of myopia control include orthokeratology, soft bifocal contact lenses, and antimuscarinic agents. Orthokeratology and soft bifocal contact lenses are both thought to provide myopic blur to the retina, which acts as a putative cue to slow myopic eye growth. Each of these myopia control methods provides, on average, slightly less than 50% slowing of myopia progression. All studies have shown clinically meaningful slowing of myopia progression, including several randomized clinical trials. The most investigated antimuscarinic agents include pirenzepine and atropine. Pirenzepine slows myopia progression by approximately 40%, but it is not commercially available in the United States. Atropine provides the best myopia control, but the cycloplegic and mydriatic side effects render it a rarely prescribed myopia control agent in the United States. However, low-concentration atropine has been shown to provide effective myopia control with far fewer side effects than 1.0% atropine. Finally, two agents, low-concentration atropine and outdoor time have been shown to reduce the likelihood of myopia onset. Over the past few years, much has been learned about how to slow the progression of nearsightedness in children, but we still have a lot to learn.
    Eye & contact lens 10/2015; DOI:10.1097/ICL.0000000000000207
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate tear osmolarity and tear film parameters in patients with ocular rosacea. Methods: In a single center, 25 eyes of 25 patients with ocular rosacea (group 1), 25 eyes of 25 patients with rosacea without ocular involvement (group 2), and 20 eyes of 20 healthy individuals (group 3) were evaluated using the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire, Schirmer I test, tear film break-up time (TBUT), scoring of ocular surface fluorescein staining using modified Oxford scale, and tear osmolarity. Results: Tear osmolarity values, OSDI and Oxford scale scores were significantly higher in group 1 than in groups 2 and 3 (P<0.001 for all). Schirmer I test and TBUT in group 1 were significantly lower than in groups 2 and 3 (P<0.001 for all). There were no significant differences in OSDI, Schirmer I test, TBUT, Oxford scores, or tear osmolarity between groups 2 and 3 (P=0.629, P=0.175, P=0.713, P=865, and P=0.388, respectively). Conclusions: This study showed that ocular rosacea is associated with tear hyperosmolarity and tear film dysfunction.
    Eye & contact lens 10/2015; DOI:10.1097/ICL.0000000000000211
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Corneal infections, particularly fungal keratitis due to rare fungal species, pose a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge because of difficulty in identification and varying susceptibility profiles. In this study, we report the first case of fungal keratitis because of Exophiala phaeomuriformis. Methods: We report the clinical findings and microbial identification techniques of a case of fungal keratitis due to E. phaeomuriformis. An 84-year-old woman presented with redness, pain, and itching in the left eye for 2 weeks. Slit-lamp biomicroscopy revealed one broken suture from previous penetrating keratoplasty (PKP), black infiltrates at the 4-o'clock position, without an overlying epithelial defect and hypopyon. Microbial identification was based cultures on Sabouraud dextrose agar and DNA sequencing and correlations to laser in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM; Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph 3/Rostock Cornea Module, Heidelberg Engineering) and multiphoton microscopy (Ultima Microscope; Prairie Technologies) images. Results: Slit-lamp biomicroscopy revealed one broken suture from previous PKP, black infiltrates at the 4-o'clock position, without an overlying epithelial defect and hypopyon. Based on a clinical suspicion of fungal keratitis, antifungals and fortified antibiotics were started. However, the patient did not respond to therapy and required urgent PKP. After surgery, the patient was maintained on topical and systemic voriconazole and also topical 2% cyclosporine for 5 months because of possibility of scleral involvement noticed during surgery. At the end of the treatment period, her vision improved from hand motion to 20/40, with no recurrence observed in a follow-up period of 1 year. Results of diagnostic tests were supported by fungal elements in stroma on IVCM. Culture from the infiltrate grew black yeast. DNA sequencing led to the diagnosis of E. phaeomuriformis keratitis. Antifungal susceptibility testing revealed sensitivity to voriconazole. Conclusion: This is, to our knowledge, the first reported case of E. phaeomuriformis fungal keratitis. Diagnostic testing included slit-lamp biomicroscopy, which revealed pigmented infiltrates, culture plates grew black yeast, microscopy showed branched fungal hyphae with budding conidia, and physiological features showed tolerance to high temperatures, nitrate assimilation, and ribosomal DNA sequencing. Collectively, these tests demonstrate unique features seen for this microorganism. High suspicion should be kept with pigmented infiltrates and with dark yeast on culture plates. Prompt and aggressive medical management with voriconazole or therapeutic PKP in nonresponsive cases is essential to prevent irreversible loss of vision.
    Eye & contact lens 10/2015; DOI:10.1097/ICL.0000000000000193

  • Eye & contact lens 10/2015; DOI:10.1097/ICL.0000000000000205
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    ABSTRACT: Background: This article aims to review recent advances in the understanding of epidemiology and risk factors for the development of myopic choroidal neovascularization (CNV) and highlight the diagnostic features of myopic CNV and signs seen on the noninvasive optical coherence tomography technology, which may be particularly useful for the purpose of screening. Choroidal neovascularization is a sight-threatening complication of pathologic myopia. Because myopic CNV frequently affects individuals during their working life, its socioeconomic impact is significant, especially in Asian countries where the prevalence of pathologic myopia is high. Epidemiology: Pathological myopia is the most common cause of CNV in patients less than 50 years old, and it is estimated that 5.2% to 11.3% of individuals with pathologic myopia develop myopic CNV. Risk factors: The risk of developing myopic CNV increases with the severity of myopia and macular changes, such as diffuse atrophy, lacquer cracks, and patchy atrophy, which progress to myopic CNV in a significant proportion. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) may contribute to the development of myopic CNV. Natural course and prognosis: Untreated myopic CNV carries a poor visual prognosis, with an estimated 89% of the patients having marked visual impairment within 5 years of onset. Treatment: Anti-VEGF therapy is efficacious in treating myopic CNV. Although this significantly improves the short-term prognosis of myopic CNV, the long-term visual loss due to the sequela of myopic CNV including macular atrophy and scarring remains.
    Eye & contact lens 10/2015; DOI:10.1097/ICL.0000000000000201
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare all platelet markers, especially plateletcrit (PCT, total platelet mass), in patients with and without ocular pseudoexfoliation (PEX) syndrome. Methods: One hundred six patients with ocular PEX syndrome (study group) and 106 individuals without ocular PEX syndrome (control group) were enrolled in this retrospective case-control study. The biochemical/hematological laboratory results of both the study and control groups were analyzed by a clinician blinded to the group assignments. The main outcome measures were the PCT, platelet count (PLT), mean platelet volume (MPV), and platelet distribution width (PDW). Results: The mean PCT in the study and control groups were 0.206%±0.520% and 0.171%±0.410%, respectively (P<0.001), and the mean PDW in the study and control groups were 16.12%±1.21% and 14.68%±1.40%, respectively (P<0.001). There were no differences in the MPV or mean PLT (P=0.138 and P=0.055, respectively). The PCT cutoff value was 0.180 (area under the receiver operating characteristics curve, 0.706; P<0.001; 65% sensitivity; 74% specificity). Conclusions: The PCT and PDW were significantly higher in patients with than without ocular PEX syndrome. These increased parameters may cause microvascular blood flow resistance and the heightened inflammatory response caused by excessive platelet activity, as with other cardiovascular diseases, and may also decrease aqueous humor outflow in ocular PEX syndrome.
    Eye & contact lens 10/2015; DOI:10.1097/ICL.0000000000000197
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Keratoconjunctivitis sicca occurs in 40% to 90% of patients with ocular chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD). Ocular symptoms can have profound effects in both the visual function and quality of life of patients with GVHD. We report the impact of prosthetic replacement of the ocular surface ecosystem (PROSE) treatment in patients with cGVHD as a clinical network expands. Methods: We queried the BostonSight PROSE manufacturing database from January 2002 to December 2011. Patients treated for ocular cGVHD were reported by age, gender, year, and network site where the treatment was undertaken. The baseline and six-month follow-up scores of visual function using a standardized validated instrument, the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI VFQ-25), were evaluated for a period in 2006 and again in 2010 after network expansion had occurred. Results: A total of 407 patients with a male:female ratio of 226:181, mean age was 51 years with ocular cGVHD underwent PROSE treatment from January 2002 to December 2011. By 2011, 67% of all cases were treated at network clinics. Baseline characteristics of patients treated throughout the network in 2010 were similar to that of 2006 and 2010 cohorts from the main center. There was a significant improvement of 41 points (P<0.001) in composite NEI VFQ score among patients treated across the network in 2010, similar to the improvement of 30 points (P<0.001) seen among the patients treated at the main center in 2010. There was a trend toward lower baseline self-reported general health status (SRGHS) and VFQ scores among patients treated at network clinics, suggesting that expansion of the network allows treatment of sicker patients (lower general health status) or those more severely affected by ocular cGVHD. Conclusions: PROSE treatment of ocular cGVHD has increased in the last decade with the establishment of BostonSight network clinics across the United States. Patients treated at network clinics showed similar levels of baseline visual function and SRGHS, and achieved a similar high level of improvement in visual function as those treated at the main center. Patient-reported measures of functional status are useful in evaluating treatment options for patients with cGVHD. PROSE treatment has significant positive impact on the visual function of patients with ocular cGVHD regardless of whether the patient is treated at the main center or at a network site.
    Eye & contact lens 10/2015; DOI:10.1097/ICL.0000000000000186
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    ABSTRACT: Despite the fact that cosmetic products undergo rigorous testing to ensure they are safe for human use, some users report mild discomfort following their application. The cutaneous changes, such as allergic dermatitis, are well reported, but the ocular changes associated with eye cosmetic use are less so. Some pigmented cosmetic products may accumulate within the lacrimal system and conjunctivae over many years of use, but immediate reports of eye discomfort after application are most common. Changes to the tear film and its stability may occur shortly after application, and contact lens wearers can also be affected by lens spoliation from cosmetic products. Additionally, creams used in the prevention of skin aging are often applied around the eyes, and retinoids present in these formulations can have negative effects on meibomian gland function and may be a contributing factor to dry eye disease. The aim of this review is to summarize current knowledge regarding the impact of cosmetic products on the eye, ocular surface, and tear film.
    Eye & contact lens 09/2015; DOI:10.1097/ICL.0000000000000181
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: To analyze the dynamic relationship between ocular geometrical structure and high-order aberrations (HOAs) in teal-time during accommodation of human eye. Methods: A custom-built spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) system with high-speed and ultra-long scan depth was used to image the anterior segment, whereas a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor was used to detect the whole-eye aberration. A Badal optometer with switched visual targets was integrated with this system to induce 0 and 3.00 D accommodative stimuli. Three young adult subjects were measured and the structural parameters of anterior segment were measured from OCT images and accommodative response and HOAs were calculated and exponentially fitted in real time during the accommodation. Results: The dynamic process from nonaccommodation to 3.00 D accommodation results in reduced pupil diameter, shallower anterior chamber depth, and increased crystalline lens thickness. After an accommodative active time, the RMS of the HOAs changes sharply when an accommodative stimulus is introduced and then tends to be stable. The accommodative response time and velocity are characterized by fitted parameters. The individual differences of changing in HOAs between subjects can be explained by the different sign and changing tendency of certain terms of aberration coefficients in form of Zernike polynomials during the accommodation. Conclusions: Based on the integrated ocular measurement platform including OCT system and wavefront sensor, our research demonstrated how the morphology of the human anterior segment affect the aberration in real time during accommodation. The dynamic relationship between them helps us to deeply understand the mechanism of accommodation.
    Eye & contact lens 09/2015; DOI:10.1097/ICL.0000000000000199
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To report a case of wavelike interface opacities in a patient who underwent Descemet-stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) and was managed conservatively over the course of 7 years. Methods: A 65-year-old woman underwent DSAEK for pseudophakic bullous keratopathy. Textural wavelike opacities were noted in the graft-host interface 6 days postoperatively without evidence of anterior segment inflammation. The patient's vision was also initially limited by the presence of cystoid macular edema (CME). Six months postoperatively, CME had resolved but the patient's vision failed to improve better than 20/80 because of the persistent dense interface opacities. The patient refused to undergo graft exchange despite a suboptimal visual result and she therefore was observed over time. Results: The interface opacities started to regress and her visual acuity improved to 20/30 by 9 months postoperatively. The opacities became gradually less prominent over the next few years, and at 7 years postoperatively, her best-corrected vision was 20/25. Conclusion: In this case, observation of this post-DSAEK complication rather than surgical intervention resulted in a favorable long-term visual outcome.
    Eye & contact lens 09/2015; DOI:10.1097/ICL.0000000000000195
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: To noninvasively investigate regional differences in tear film stability and meibomian glands in patients with aqueous-deficient dry eye. Methods: Forty-nine dry eyes and 31 normal eyes were analyzed. A corneal topographer with a tear film scanning function was used for noninvasive tear film break-up time (NI-TFBUT) measurements and meibomian gland observations. The NI-TFBUT values and location of the first tear film break-up point were recorded in four quadrants. Meibomian gland loss was graded for each eyelid using meiboscores. Lid margin abnormality was scored from zero to four according to the number of existing abnormalities. The NI-TFBUT values and meiboscores were compared between two groups, and regional differences in NI-TFBUT values and meiboscores were analyzed. Also, the correlation between the NI-TFBUT and ocular surface examination results were investigated. Results: The NI-TFBUT values and meiboscores were significantly lower and higher, respectively, for the dry eye group than for the normal group. In the dry eye group, the occurrence rate for first tear film break-up was the highest in the inferior nasal quadrant, and the mean meiboscore was significantly higher for the upper eyelids than for the lower eyelids. The NI-TFBUT and lid margin abnormality scores showed a weak negative correlation, and the NI-TFBUT values and meiboscores showed no correlation. Conclusions: Compared to normal eyes, aqueous-deficient dry eyes show significant regional differences in tear film stability and meibomian glands. Considering these regional differences, the overall observation of the ocular surface, including both upper and lower eyelids, will aid clinicians in understanding this condition better.
    Eye & contact lens 09/2015; DOI:10.1097/ICL.0000000000000191
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    ABSTRACT: Dry eye disease affects a substantial segment of the word population with increasing frequency. It is a multifactorial disease of the ocular surface and tear film, which causes ocular discomfort, visual disturbances, and tear instability with potential damage to the cornea and conjunctiva. Because of its multifactorial etiology, the use of different pharmacological treatment for dry eye treatment has been proposed, which include anti-inflammatory molecules, lubricants or comfort agents, and secretagogues. However, in some cases these pharmacological approaches only relieve symptoms temporarily, and consequently, eye care professionals continue to have difficulties managing dry eye. To improve pharmacological therapy that allows a more efficient and long-term action, effective ocular drug delivery of the currently available drugs for dry eye treatment is required. Contact lenses are emerging as alternative ophthalmic drugs delivery systems that provide an increased residence time of the drug at the eye, thus leading to enhanced bioavailability and more convenient and efficacious therapy. In this article, we reviewed the different techniques used to prepare contact lens-based drug delivery systems and focused on articles that describe the delivery of compounds for dry eye treatment through contact lenses.
    Eye & contact lens 09/2015; DOI:10.1097/ICL.0000000000000184
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: To determine the frequency, clinical characteristics, and visual outcomes of patients who present with high or normal intraocular pressure (IOP) and open globe injuries. Design: Retrospective chart review. Setting: University of Maryland Medical Center, a level 1 trauma center. Patient or study population: All cases of open globe injury presenting to The University of Maryland Medical Center from July 2005 to January 2014. Observation: Demographics, initial physical examination, computed tomography findings, IOP of the affected and unaffected eyes, and follow-up evaluations. Main outcome measures: (1) IOP 10 mm Hg or greater and (2) visual acuity. Results: Of 132 eyes presenting with open globe injury, IOP was recorded in 38 (28%). Mean IOP for the affected and unaffected eyes was 14±10.3 mm Hg and 16.6±4.1 mm Hg, respectively. Twenty-three (59.4%) eyes had IOP greater than 10 mm Hg. Six eyes (16.2%) had IOP greater than 21 mm Hg. Using bivariate analysis, IOP greater than 10 mm Hg was associated with posterior open globe injury (P=0.01), posterior hemorrhage (P=0.04), and intraconal retrobulbar hemorrhage (P=0.05). Adjusting for age, sex, and race, IOP greater than 10 mm Hg was associated with the presence of posterior open globe injury on clinical examination (P=0.04). Higher presenting IOP was found to predict light perception or worse vision (P=0.01). Multivariate analysis showed that poor presenting vision was the best predictor of poor final vision (P<0.01). Conclusions: High IOP does not exclude open globe injury. It is a frequent finding in patients with open globe injuries and may be associated with posterior injury and poor visual prognosis.
    Eye & contact lens 09/2015; DOI:10.1097/ICL.0000000000000188
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To determine the distribution of the anterior chamber angle (ACA) and anterior chamber volume (ACV) in an Iranian population of 40- to 64-year-old people using the Pentacam. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, multistage sampling was used to select 300 clusters, including 6,311 individuals from the city of Shahroud. All selected participants underwent examinations in one place. Optometric examinations, including measurement of visual acuity and refraction, and ophthalmologic examinations, including slit-lamp examination, were performed for all participants. Moreover, all patients underwent imaging with the Pentacam. Results: The mean ACA and ACV was 34.3° (95% confidence interval [CI]: 34.1°-34.5°) and 139 μL (95% CI: 137.7-140.3), respectively. In a multiple linear regression model, the ACA was inversely correlated with age (coefficient=-0.08), lens thickness (coefficient=-1.38), corneal diameter (coefficient=-0.36), and corneal curvature (coefficient=-1.43), and directly correlated with the anterior chamber depth (ACD) (coefficient=6.59). In another model, ACV was inversely correlated with age (coefficient=-0.37), central corneal thickness (coefficient=-0.04), and spherical equivalent (coefficient=-1.15), and directly correlated with the ACD (coefficient=85.67), lens thickness (coefficient=14.15), corneal diameter (coefficient=4.80), corneal curvature (coefficient=18.43), ACA (coefficient=0.65), and intraocular pressure (coefficient=0.23). Conclusion: The findings of this study could be used as a reference for diagnosis and treatment in Iran and the Middle East region. Increase in age and decrease in the ACD were important factors associated with decreased ACA and ACV, although the correlation of other biometric components was also evaluated. Some of these components, such as the corneal curvature and lens thickness, had a significant relationship with these two variables.
    Eye & contact lens 09/2015; DOI:10.1097/ICL.0000000000000192