Annual proceedings / Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine. Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine (Annu Proc Assoc Adv Automot Med )

Publisher: Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine

Description

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  • Other titles
    Annual proceedings - Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine
  • ISSN
    1540-0360
  • OCLC
    49801362
  • Material type
    Conference publication
  • Document type
    Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publications in this journal

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    ABSTRACT: Case-based hospital billing data from the Health Care Utilization Partnership was used to calculate annual statewide hospital charges for the acute care of traffic injuries in Nebraska. E-codes 810.0 through 819.9 identified traffic injury cases. Admissions and emergency department (ED)-only visits for traffic injuries accrued significantly higher charges than other types of care. Statewide, hospital charges for the acute care of traffic injury totaled more than U.S.dollars 63.8 million in 2004. Of this, 23.2% was charged to public payers (Medicare or Medicaid) and 5.5% was charged to self-pay (generally accepted as bad debt absorbed by the hospital system).
    Annual proceedings / Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine. Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine 11/2007; 51:1-11.
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    ABSTRACT: This study was initiated to quantify the effects of the misuse in LATCH lower webbing. In the short period since the implementation of the LATCH system several cases of potential misuses have been reported. A series of sled tests in frontal impact mode were conducted with various misuse conditions (loose attachment of LATCH lower webbing, misrouting of LATCH lower webbing and child seat back inclination) for both forward and rearward facing child safety seats (FFCSS and RFCSS). Results from these tests are compared and discussed with that of the standard test with no misuse and showed that as the slack in the lower LATCH webbing increased, ATD injury measures exceeded the limits. The FFCSS tests in the reclined condition yielded lower injury values for all except the chest G's when compared to the standard upright test. In the misrouting tests the ATD kinematics depended on the routing pivot point, the lower the pivot point the better the ATD kinematics. Similar findings were also observed in the RFCSS tests. The use of top tether with the FFCSS substantially improved the performance of the Hybrid III 3 year old ATD in spite of misuse conditions and the injury values were lower than the corresponding tests with no top tether. The effective reduction was 37% in the HIC values, 6% in the chest G's, 30% in the head excursion, 22 % in the knee excursion and finally 37 % reduction in the Nij values.
    Annual proceedings / Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine. Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine 11/2007; 51:129-54.
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated whether the rating obtained in the EuroNCAP test procedures correlates with injury protection to vehicle occupants in real crashes using data in the UK Cooperative Crash Injury Study (CCIS) database from 1996 to 2005. Multivariate Poisson regression models were developed, using the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) score by body region as the dependent variable and the EuroNCAP score for that particular body region, seat belt use, mass ratio and Equivalent Test Speed (ETS) as independent variables. Our models identified statistically significant relationships between injury severity and safety belt use, mass ratio and ETS. We could not identify any statistically significant relationships between the EuroNCAP body region scores and real injury outcome except for the protection to pelvis-femur-knee in frontal impacts where scoring "green" is significantly better than scoring "yellow" or "red".
    Annual proceedings / Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine. Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine 11/2007; 51:282-98.
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    ABSTRACT: Side impact pole/tree crashes can have devastating consequences. A series of 53 CIREN cases of narrow-object side impacts were analyzed. Twenty-seven of 53 had serious chest injury and 27 had serious head injury. Unilateral chest trauma led to the examination of residual crush pattern that often demonstrated oblique door intrusion into the occupant thorax space. It was hypothesized that unilateral chest trauma was caused by antero-lateral chest loading. This hypothesis was evaluated by conducting two (PMHS and ES2) vehicle side impact tests into a rigid pole. The PMHS test produced an oblique chest deformation pattern with injuries very similar to the real world trauma: unilateral rib fractures, spleen laceration, pelvic fracture, and a basilar skull fracture. Narrow-object side impacts are severe crash environments that can induce oblique chest loading and unique head trauma. Because the human may be more vulnerable in this type of crash scenario, dummy response and measurements, as well as a re-examination of side injury criteria may be necessary to design appropriate injury-mitigating safety devices.
    Annual proceedings / Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine. Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine 11/2007; 51:419-33.
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    ABSTRACT: Since nearly half of children fatally injured in automobile crashes were restrained, optimizing occupant protection systems for children is essential to reducing morbidity and mortality. Data from the Partners for Child Passenger Safety study were used to compare the differential injury risk between drivers and their child passengers in the same crash, with a focus on vehicle model year. A matched cohort design and conditional logistic regression model were used in the analyses. Overall, injury risk for drivers was higher than for children, but the risk difference was largest for the oldest model year vehicles, particularly for children aged 4-8 in seat belts. While drivers experienced significant benefits in safety with increasing model years, children restrained by safety belts alone derived less safety benefit from newer vehicles.
    Annual proceedings / Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine. Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine 11/2007; 51:113-27.
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    ABSTRACT: A weighted logistic regression with careful selection of crash, vehicle, occupant and injury data and sequentially adjusting the covariants, was used to investigate the predictors of the odds of head/face and neck (HFN) injuries during rollovers. The results show that unbelted occupants have statistically significant higher HFN injury risks than belted occupants. Age, number of quarter-turns, rollover initiation type, maximum lateral deformation adjacent to the occupant, A-pillar and B-pillar deformation are significant predictors of HFN injury odds for belted occupants. Age, rollover leading side and windshield header deformation are significant predictors of HFN injury odds for unbelted occupants. The results also show that the significant predictors are different between head/face (HF) and neck injury odds, indicating the injury mechanisms of HF and neck injuries are different.
    Annual proceedings / Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine. Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine 11/2007; 51:363-79.
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    ABSTRACT: Based on real-world crash data and recent field studies, an ad-hoc group was set up in order to have a better comprehension of the effects of misuse of Child Restraint Systems (CRS) on child protection. A testing programme of 60 single misuse situations was conducted. Test results confirmed that, in frontal impact, children have higher risk of being injured on a number of different body regions when CRS's are misused. This work provides material for educational and training purposes to help parents understand that child restraints need to be correctly fitted in order to provide the level of protection they are designed for.
    Annual proceedings / Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine. Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine 11/2007; 51:207-22.
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    ABSTRACT: This paper presents the potential safety benefits of the experimental French LAVIA Intelligent Speed Adaptation system, according to road network and system mode, based on observed driving speeds, distributions of crash severity and crash injury risk. Results are given for car frontal and side impacts that together, represent 80% of all serious and fatal injuries in France. Of the three system modes tested (advisory, driver select, mandatory), our results suggest that driver select would most significantly reduce serious injuries and death. We estimate this 100% utilization of cars equipped with this type of speed adaptation system would decrease injury rates by 6% to 16% over existing conditions depending on the type of crash (frontal or side) and road environment considered. Some limitations associated with the analysis are also identified. LAVIA is the acronym for Limiteur s'Adaptant à la VItesse Autorisée, a French Intelligent Speed Adaptation (ISA) project that was set up towards the end of 1999. At the time, 1998 French national road safety statistics recorded 8437 road related deaths, a figure which had shown virtually no positive evolution since 1994. Detailed analysis of the contributory factors involved in fatal road crashes highlighted the time-honoured crash and injury causation mechanisms - alcohol, speed and seatbelts. Of the three, excessive speed (over and above the posted speed limit) was a contributory factor in half of all fatal crashes Inappropriate behaviour such as excessive speeding can be dealt with either by legislative or driver-incentive programmes. The first of these two solutions involves the introduction of new legislation and/or the enforcement of existing laws. This is the domain of Public Authorities and will not be discussed in detail here. Alternatively, incentive schemes can involve the implementation of speed related driver assistance systems, categorised according to their voluntary or mandatory character and the degree of autonomy proposed to or imposed on the driver. The LAVIA project set out to address several possible combinations of these two factors. The generic term Intelligent Speed Adaptation (ISA) encompasses a wide range of different technologies aimed at improving road safety by reducing traffic speed and homogenising traffic flow, within the limit of posted speed limits. "Fixed speed limit" systems inform the vehicle of the posted speed limit whereas "variable speed limit" systems take into account certain locations on the road network where a speed below the posted limit is desirable, such as sharp curves, pedestrian crossings or crash black spots. Taken one step further, speed limit systems may also take into account weather and traffic flow conditions. These systems are known as "dynamic speed limit" systems and benefit from real time updates for a specific location. The different ISA systems are generally characterised by the degree of freedom of choice given to the driver in moderating his or her speed. Speed limit technologies may be advisory (informing drivers of the current speed limit and speed limit changes), voluntary (allowing the driver to decide whether or not to implement speed limitation) or mandatory (imposing the current speed limit). The information supplied may be provided by way of the road infrastructure (and associated equipment), may be acquired autonomously by the vehicle or may be based on an interaction between the infrastructure and the vehicle. Even the most basic of these systems should be considered as a very useful driver aid, helping the driver to stay within the posted speed limit, avoiding "unnecessary" speeding fines through inattention, modelling driver behaviour through the long term reduction of speeds and reducing driver workload by limiting visual speedometer controls. Vehicle-based ISA systems should not be confused with internal systems. These latter systems rely upon the driver entering the desired travel speed, which is then maintained by cruise control or set as a maximum value by automatic speed regulators. Although these systems will not be discussed in detail here, it should be noted that the engine management technologies that they employ are a vital component of ISA systems.
    Annual proceedings / Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine. Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine 11/2007; 51:485-505.
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    ABSTRACT: Transdermal ethanol detection is a promising method that could prevent drunk driving if integrated into an ignition interlock system. However, experimental data from previous research has shown significant time delays between alcohol ingestion and detection at the skin which makes real time estimation of blood alcohol concentration via skin measurement difficult. Using a validated model we studied the effects that body weight, metabolic rate and ethanol dose had on the time lag between the blood alcohol concentration and transdermal alcohol concentration. The dose of alcohol ingested was found to have the most significant effect on the skin alcohol lag time; a dose of 15 ml of ethanol resulted in a peak lag time of approximately 33 minutes, while a dose of 60 ml of ethanol resulted in a peak time lag of 53 minutes. The time lag was found to be insensitive to body mass and only moderately sensitive to changes in metabolic rates.
    Annual proceedings / Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine. Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine 02/2007; 51:449-64.
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    ABSTRACT: The US Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard for frontal protection requires vehicle crash tests into a rigid barrier with two belted dummies in the front seats. The standard was recently modified to require two separate 56 Kph frontal tests. In one test the dummies are 50% males. In the other test, the dummies are 5% females. Analysis of crash test data indicates that the 56 Kph test does not encourage technology to reduce chest injuries in lower severity crashes. Tests conducted by Transport Canada provide data from belted 5% female dummies in the front seats of vehicles that were subjected crashes into a rigid barrier at 40 Kph. An analysis of the results showed that for many vehicles, the risks of serious chest injuries were higher in the 40 Kph test than in a 56 Kph test. This paper examines the benefits that would result from a requirement for a low severity (40 Kph) frontal barrier crash test with two belted 5% female dummies and more stringent chest injury requirements. A preliminary benefits analysis for chest deflection allowable in the range of 28 mm. to 36 mm. was conducted. A standard that limits the chest deflection to 34 mm. would reduce serious chest injury by 16% to 24% for the belted population in frontal crashes.
    Annual proceedings / Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine. Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine 02/2007; 51:299-317.