Risk Analysis

Publisher: Society for Risk Analysis, Blackwell Publishing

Description

  • Impact factor
    2.28
  • 5-year impact
    2.47
  • Cited half-life
    8.50
  • Immediacy index
    0.78
  • Eigenfactor
    0.01
  • Article influence
    0.86
  • Other titles
    Risk analysis (Online), Risk analysis
  • ISSN
    1539-6924
  • OCLC
    45175725
  • Material type
    Document, Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Blackwell Publishing

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author cannot archive a post-print version
  • Restrictions
    • Some journals impose embargoes typically of 6 or 12 months, occasionally of 24 months
    • no listing of affected journals available as yet
  • Conditions
    • See Wiley-Blackwell entry for articles after February 2007
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • On author's server, institutional server or subject-based server
    • Server must be non-commercial
    • Publisher copyright and source must be acknowledged with set statement ("The definitive version is available at www.blackwell-synergy.com")
    • Articles in some journals can be made Open Access on payment of additional charge
    • 'Blackwell Publishing' is an imprint of 'Wiley'
  • Classification
    ​ yellow

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Perceptions of institutions that manage hazards are important because they can affect how the public responds to hazard events. Antecedents of trust judgments have received far more attention than antecedents of attributions of responsibility for hazard events. We build upon a model of retrospective attribution of responsibility to individuals to examine these relationships regarding five classes of institutions that bear responsibility for food safety: producers (e.g., farmers), processors (e.g., packaging firms), watchdogs (e.g., government agencies), sellers (e.g., supermarkets), and preparers (e.g., restaurants). A nationally representative sample of 1,200 American adults completed an Internet-based survey in which a hypothetical scenario involving contamination of diverse foods with Salmonella served as the stimulus event. Perceived competence and good intentions of the institution moderately decreased attributions of responsibility. A stronger factor was whether an institution was deemed (potentially) aware of the contamination and free to act to prevent or mitigate it. Responsibility was rated higher the more aware and free the institution. This initial model for attributions of responsibility to impersonal institutions (as opposed to individual responsibility) merits further development. © 2014 Society for Risk Analysis.
    Risk Analysis 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: A game-theoretic model is developed where an infrastructure of N targets is protected against terrorism threats. An original threat score is determined by the terrorist's threat against each target and the government's inherent protection level and original protection. The final threat score is impacted by the government's additional protection. We investigate and verify the effectiveness of countermeasures using empirical data and two methods. The first is to estimate the model's parameter values to minimize the sum of the squared differences between the government's additional resource investment predicted by the model and the empirical data. The second is to develop a multivariate regression model where the final threat score varies approximately linearly relative to the original threat score, sectors, and threat scenarios, and depends nonlinearly on the additional resource investment. The model and method are offered as tools, and as a way of thinking, to determine optimal resource investments across vulnerable targets subject to terrorism threats. © 2014 Society for Risk Analysis.
    Risk Analysis 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Since motor vehicles are a major air pollution source, urban designs that decrease private automobile use could improve air quality and decrease air pollution health risks. Yet, the relationships among urban form, air quality, and health are complex and not fully understood. To explore these relationships, we model the effects of three alternative development scenarios on annual average fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) concentrations in ambient air and associated health risks from PM2.5 exposure in North Carolina's Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill area. We integrate transportation demand, land-use regression, and health risk assessment models to predict air quality and health impacts for three development scenarios: current conditions, compact development, and sprawling development. Compact development slightly decreases (-0.2%) point estimates of regional annual average PM2.5 concentrations, while sprawling development slightly increases (+1%) concentrations. However, point estimates of health impacts are in opposite directions: compact development increases (+39%) and sprawling development decreases (-33%) PM2.5 -attributable mortality. Furthermore, compactness increases local variation in PM2.5 concentrations and increases the severity of local air pollution hotspots. Hence, this research suggests that while compact development may improve air quality from a regional perspective, it may also increase the concentration of PM2.5 in local hotspots and increase population exposure to PM2.5 . Health effects may be magnified if compact neighborhoods and PM2.5 hotspots are spatially co-located. We conclude that compactness alone is an insufficient means of reducing the public health impacts of transportation emissions in automobile-dependent regions. Rather, additional measures are needed to decrease automobile dependence and the health risks of transportation emissions. © 2014 Society for Risk Analysis.
    Risk Analysis 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: A comprehensive methodology for economic consequence analysis with appropriate models for risk analysis of process systems is proposed. This methodology uses loss functions to relate process deviations in a given scenario to economic losses. It consists of four steps: definition of a scenario, identification of losses, quantification of losses, and integration of losses. In this methodology, the process deviations that contribute to a given accident scenario are identified and mapped to assess potential consequences. Losses are assessed with an appropriate loss function (revised Taguchi, modified inverted normal) for each type of loss. The total loss is quantified by integrating different loss functions. The proposed methodology has been examined on two industrial case studies. Implementation of this new economic consequence methodology in quantitative risk assessment will provide better understanding and quantification of risk. This will improve design, decision making, and risk management strategies. © 2014 Society for Risk Analysis.
    Risk Analysis 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The current research proposes that situationally activated anxiety—whether incidental or integral—impairs decision making. In particular, we theorize that anxiety drives decision makers to more heavily emphasize subjective anecdotal information in their decision making, at the expense of more factual statistical information—a deleterious heuristic called the anecdotal bias. Four studies provide consistent support for this assertion. Studies 1A and 1B feature field experiments that demonstrate the role of incidental anxiety in enhancing the anecdotal bias in a choice context. Study 2 builds on these findings, manipulating individuals’ incidental anxiety and showing how this affects the anecdotal bias in the context of message evaluations. Study 2 also provides direct evidence that only high-arousal negative emotions such as anxiety/worry enhance the anecdotal bias, not just any negative emotion (e.g., sadness). While the first three studies examine how incidental anxiety impacts choice, the last study demonstrates the effect of integral anxiety on decision making, manipulating anxiety by intensifying participants’ perceived risk. Our results show that—consistent with findings from our first three studies—the anecdotal bias is enhanced when anxiety is heightened by individuals’ perception of risk.
    Risk Analysis 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Federal and other regulatory agencies often use or claim to use a weight of evidence (WoE) approach in chemical evaluation. Their approaches to the use of WoE, however, differ significantly, rely heavily on subjective professional judgment, and merit improvement. We review uses of WoE approaches in key articles in the peer-reviewed scientific literature, and find significant variations. We find that a hypothesis-based WoE approach, developed by Lorenz Rhomberg et al., can provide a stronger scientific basis for chemical assessment while improving transparency and preserving the appropriate scope of professional judgment. Their approach, while still evolving, relies on the explicit specification of the hypothesized basis for using the information at hand to infer the ability of an agent to cause human health impacts or, more broadly, affect other endpoints of concern. We describe and endorse such a hypothesis-based WoE approach to chemical evaluation.
    Risk Analysis 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Many risk scholars recognize the importance of including ethical considerations in risk management. Risk ethics can provide in-depth ethical analysis so that ethical considerations can be part of risk-related decisions, rather than an afterthought to those decisions. In this article, I present a brief sketch of the field of risk ethics. I argue that risk ethics has a bias toward technological hazards, thereby overlooking the risks that stem from natural and semi-natural hazards. In order to make a contribution to the field of risk research, risks ethics should broaden its scope to include natural and semi-natural hazards and develop normative distribution criteria that can support decision making on such hazards.
    Risk Analysis 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Drought-induced water shortage and salinization are a global threat to agricultural production. With climate change, drought risk is expected to increase as drought events are assumed to occur more frequently and to become more severe. The agricultural sector's adaptive capacity largely depends on farmers’ drought risk perceptions. Understanding the formation of farmers’ drought risk perceptions is a prerequisite to designing effective and efficient public drought risk management strategies. Various strands of literature point at different factors shaping individual risk perceptions. Economic theory points at objective risk variables, whereas psychology and sociology identify subjective risk variables. This study investigates and compares the contribution of objective and subjective factors in explaining farmers’ drought risk perception by means of survey data analysis. Data on risk perceptions, farm characteristics, and various other personality traits were collected from farmers located in the southwest Netherlands. From comparing the explanatory power of objective and subjective risk factors in separate models and a full model of risk perception, it can be concluded that farmers’ risk perceptions are shaped by both rational and emotional factors. In a full risk perception model, being located in an area with external water supply, owning fields with salinization issues, cultivating drought-/salt-sensitive crops, farm revenue, drought risk experience, and perceived control are significant explanatory variables of farmers’ drought risk perceptions.
    Risk Analysis 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Two forms of single-hit infection dose-response models have previously been developed to assess available data from human feeding trials and estimate the norovirus dose-response relationship. The mechanistic interpretations of these models include strong assumptions that warrant reconsideration: the first study includes an implicit assumption that there is no immunity to Norwalk virus among the specific study population, while the recent second study includes assumptions that such immunity could exist and that the nonimmune have no defensive barriers to prevent infection from exposure to just one virus. Both models addressed unmeasured virus aggregation in administered doses. In this work, the available data are reanalyzed using a generalization of the first model to explore these previous assumptions. It was hypothesized that concurrent estimation of an unmeasured degree of virus aggregation and important dose-response parameters could lead to structural nonidentifiability of the model (i.e., that a diverse range of alternative mechanistic interpretations yield the same optimal fit), and this is demonstrated using the profile likelihood approach and by algebraic proof. It is also demonstrated that omission of an immunity parameter can artificially inflate the estimated degree of aggregation and falsely suggest high susceptibility among the nonimmune. The currently available data support the assumption of immunity within the specific study population, but provide only weak information about the degree of aggregation and susceptibility among the nonimmune. The probability of infection at low and moderate doses may be much lower than previously asserted, but more data from strategically designed dose-response experiments are needed to provide adequate information.
    Risk Analysis 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We use hedonic property models to estimate the changes in implicit flood risk premium following a large flood event. Previous studies have used flood hazard maps to proxy flood risk. In addition to knowing whether a property lies in the floodplain, we use a unique data set with the flood inundation map. We find that the price discount for properties in the inundated area is substantially larger than in comparable properties in the floodplain that did not get inundated. This suggests that, in addition to capturing an information effect, the larger discount in inundated properties reflects potential uninsurable flood damages, and supports a hypothesis that homeowners respond better to what they have visualized (“seeing is believing”).
    Risk Analysis 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The concept of “risk policy” is used with increasing frequency by decisionmakers, researchers, and the media. However, there is no precise, generally accepted definition of what is covered by policies in this area. Based on a scoping review of the literature published in key journals in the sector, we have identified the main characteristics of public risk policies drawn up and implemented in the United States. The sample comprised 21 articles published in six multidisciplinary journals between 2000 and 2010.
    Risk Analysis 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Layered defenses are necessary for protecting the public from terrorist attacks. Designing a system of such defensive measures requires consideration of the interaction of these countermeasures. In this article, we present an analysis of a layered security system within the lower Manhattan area. It shows how portfolios of security measures can be evaluated through portfolio decision analysis. Consideration is given to the total benefits and costs of the system. Portfolio diagrams are created that help communicate alternatives among stakeholders who have differing views on the tradeoffs between security and economic activity.
    Risk Analysis 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Sanding joint compounds is a dusty activity and exposures are not well characterized. Until the mid 1970s, asbestos-containing joint compounds were used by some people such that sanding could emit dust and asbestos fibers. We estimated the distribution of 8-h TWA concentrations and cumulative exposures to respirable dusts and chrysotile asbestos fibers for four worker groups: (1) drywall specialists, (2) generalists, (3) tradespersons who are bystanders to drywall finishing, and (4) do-it-yourselfers (DIYers). Data collected through a survey of experienced contractors, direct field observations, and literature were used to develop prototypical exposure scenarios for each worker group. To these exposure scenarios, we applied a previously developed semi-empirical mathematical model that predicts area as well as personal breathing zone respirable dust concentrations. An empirical factor was used to estimate chrysotile fiber concentrations from respirable dust concentrations. On a task basis, we found mean 8-h TWA concentrations of respirable dust and chrysotile fibers are numerically highest for specialists, followed by generalists, DIYers, and bystander tradespersons; these concentrations are estimated to be in excess of the respective current but not historical Threshold Limit Values. Due to differences in frequency of activities, annual cumulative exposures are highest for specialists, followed by generalists, bystander tradespersons, and DIYers. Cumulative exposure estimates for chrysotile fibers from drywall finishing are expected to result in few, if any, mesothelioma or excess lung cancer deaths according to recently published risk assessments. Given the dustiness of drywall finishing, we recommend diligence in the use of readily available source controls. © 2014 Society for Risk Analysis.
    Risk Analysis 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Few global threats rival global climate change in scale and potential consequence. The principal international authority assessing climate risk is the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Through repeated assessments the IPCC has devoted considerable effort and interdisciplinary competence to articulating a common characterization of climate risk and uncertainties. We have reviewed the assessment and its foundation for the Fifth Assessment Reports published in 2013 and 2014, in particular the guidance note for lead authors of the fifth IPCC assessment report on consistent treatment of uncertainties. Our analysis shows that the work carried out by the ICPP is short of providing a theoretically and conceptually convincing foundation on the treatment of risk and uncertainties. The main reasons for our assessment are: (i) the concept of risk is given a too narrow definition (a function of consequences and probability/likelihood); and (ii) the reports lack precision in delineating their concepts and methods. The goal of this article is to contribute to improving the handling of uncertainty and risk in future IPCC studies, thereby obtaining a more theoretically substantiated characterization as well as enhanced scientific quality for risk analysis in this area. Several suggestions for how to improve the risk and uncertainty treatment are provided.
    Risk Analysis 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: U.S. Environment Protection Agency benchmark doses for dichotomous cancer responses are often estimated using a multistage model based on a monotonic dose-response assumption. To account for model uncertainty in the estimation process, several model averaging methods have been proposed for risk assessment. In this article, we extend the usual parameter space in the multistage model for monotonicity to allow for the possibility of a hormetic dose-response relationship. Bayesian model averaging is used to estimate the benchmark dose and to provide posterior probabilities for monotonicity versus hormesis. Simulation studies show that the newly proposed method provides robust point and interval estimation of a benchmark dose in the presence or absence of hormesis. We also apply the method to two data sets on carcinogenic response of rats to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin.
    Risk Analysis 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The National Research Council 2009 “Silver Book” panel report included a recommendation that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) should increase all of its chemical carcinogen (CC) potency estimates by ∼7-fold to adjust for a purported median-vs.-mean bias that I recently argued does not exist (Bogen KT. “Does EPA underestimate cancer risks by ignoring susceptibility differences?,” Risk Analysis, 2014; 34(10):1780–1784). In this issue of the journal, my argument is critiqued for having flaws concerning: (1) intent, bias, and conservatism of EPA estimates of CC potency; (2) bias in potency estimates derived from epidemiology; and (3) human-animal CC-potency correlation. However, my argument remains valid, for the following reasons. (1) EPA's default approach to estimating CC risks has correctly focused on bounding average (not median) individual risk under a genotoxic mode-of-action (MOA) assumption, although pragmatically the approach leaves both inter-individual variability in CC–susceptibility, and widely varying CC-specific magnitudes of fundamental MOA uncertainty, unquantified. (2) CC risk estimates based on large epidemiology studies are not systematically biased downward due to limited sampling from broad, lognormal susceptibility distributions. (3) A good, quantitative correlation is exhibited between upper-bounds on CC-specific potency estimated from human vs. animal studies (n = 24, r = 0.88, p = 2 × 10−8). It is concluded that protective upper-bound estimates of individual CC risk that account for heterogeneity in susceptibility, as well as risk comparisons informed by best predictions of average-individual and population risk that address CC-specific MOA uncertainty, should each be used as separate, complimentary tools to improve regulatory decisions concerning low-level, environmental CC exposures.
    Risk Analysis 10/2014; 34(10).
  • Risk Analysis 10/2014; 34(10).
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    ABSTRACT: This article presents methodological solutions aimed at presenting the spatial distribution of flood risk and quality of spatial management (land use), indicating both those areas used reasonably and those requiring modification. The purpose was to identify key risk areas and risk-free areas from the point of view of human security and activity on the floodplains, based on the examples of the vicinities of Wroclaw and Raciborz in the Odra Valley, Poland. Due to recent climate change, Poland has suffered the effects of severe flooding (e.g., 1997, 2001, 2010). The analyses conducted were motivated by the European Parliament and Council's recently implemented Directive 2007/60/WE, as well as by the demand for studies for local spatial planning. The analysis indicates that reasonably developed areas do not account for the majority of those studied, making up 36% of the Wroclaw area and 15% of the Raciborz area.
    Risk Analysis 10/2014;