Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) (CELL CYCLE )

Publisher: Landes Bioscience


Cell Cycle is not just about cell division. We cover topics from man to virus, from DNA to RNA, from ageing to development, from cell senescence to stem cells, from adhesion to autophagy, from cancer to immunity, from neurobiology to molecular therapeutics, from theoretical biology to therapy.

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    Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.: Online)
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Landes Bioscience

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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In the mammalian genome, each histone family contains multiple replication-dependent paralogs, which are found in clusters where their transcription is thought to be coupled to the cell cycle. Here, we wanted to interrogate the transcriptional regulation of these paralogs during retinal development and aging. We employed deep sequencing, quantitative PCR, in situ hybridization (ISH), and microarray analysis, which revealed that replication-dependent histone genes were not only transcribed in progenitor cells but also in differentiating neurons. Specifically, by ISH analysis we found that different histone genes were actively transcribed in a subset of neurons between postnatal day 7 and 14. Interestingly, within a histone family, not all paralogs were transcribed at the same level during retinal development. For example, expression of Hist1h1b was higher embryonically, while that of Hist1h1c was higher postnatally. Finally, expression of replication-dependent histone genes was also observed in the aging retina. Moreover, transcription of replication-dependent histones was independent of rapamycin-mediated mTOR pathway inactivation. Overall, our data suggest the existence of variant nucleosomes produced by the differential expression of the replication-dependent histone genes across retinal development. Also, the expression of a subset of replication-dependent histone isotypes in senescent neurons warrants re-examining these genes as “replication-dependent.” Thus, our findings underscore the importance of understanding the transcriptional regulation of replication-dependent histone genes in the maintenance and functioning of neurons.
    Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) 08/2014; 13(16).
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The human DNA damage response (DDR) triggers profound changes in gene expression, whose nature and regulation remain uncertain. Although certain micro (mi)RNA species, including miR34, miR-18, miR-16, and miR-143, have been implicated in the DDR, there is as yet no comprehensive description of genome-wide changes in the expression of miRNAs triggered by DNA breakage in human cells. We have used next-generation sequencing (NGS), combined with rigorous integrative computational analyses, to describe genome-wide changes in the expression of miRNAs during the human DDR. The changes affect 150 of 1523 miRNAs known in miRBase v18 from 4–24h after the induction of DNA breakage, in cell type-dependent patterns. The regulatory regions of the most highly regulated miRNA species are enriched in conserved binding sites for p53. Indeed, genome-wide changes in miRNA expression during the DDR are markedly altered in TP53-/- cells compared to otherwise isogenic controls. The expression levels of certain damage-induced, p53-regulated miRNAs in cancer samples correlate with patient survival. Our work reveals genome-wide and cell type-specific alterations in miRNA expression during the human DDR, which are regulated by the tumor suppressor protein p53. These findings provide a genomic resource to identify new molecules and mechanisms involved in the DDR, and to examine their role in tumor suppression and the clinical outcome of cancer patients.
    Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) 08/2014; 13(16).
  • Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) 06/2014; 13(14).
  • Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) 06/2014; 13(14).
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The RECQ protein family of helicases has critical roles in protecting and stabilizing the genome. Three of the 5 known members of the human RecQ family are genetically linked with cancer susceptibility syndromes, but the association of the most abundant human RecQ homolog, RECQ1, with cellular transformation is yet unclear. RECQ1 is overexpressed in a variety of human cancers, indicating oncogenic functions. Here, we assessed genome-wide changes in gene expression upon knockdown of RECQ1 in HeLa and MDA-MB-231 cells. Pathway analysis suggested that RECQ1 enhances the expression of multiple genes that play key roles in cell migration, invasion, and metastasis, including EZR, ITGA2, ITGA3, ITGB4, SMAD3, and TGFBR2. Consistent with these results, silencing RECQ1 significantly reduced cell migration and invasion. In comparison to genome-wide annotated promoter regions, the promoters of genes downregulated upon RECQ1 silencing were significantly enriched for a potential G4 DNA forming sequence motif. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated binding of RECQ1 to the G4 motifs in the promoters of select genes downregulated upon RECQ1 silencing. In breast cancer patients, the expression of a subset of RECQ1-activated genes positively correlated with RECQ1 expression. Moreover, high RECQ1 expression was associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer. Collectively, our findings identify a novel function of RECQ1 in gene regulation and indicate that RECQ1 contributes to tumor development and progression, in part, by regulating the expression of key genes that promote cancer cell migration, invasion and metastasis.
    Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) 06/2014; 13(15).
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    ABSTRACT: Mutations of tumor suppressor Nf1 gene deregulate Ras-mediated signaling, which confers the predisposition for developing benign or malignant tumors. Inhibition of protein kinase C (PKC) was shown to be in synergy with aberrant Ras for the induction of apoptosis in various types of cancer cells. However, it has not been investigated whether loss of PKC is lethal for Nf1-deficient cells. In this study, using HMG (3-hydroxy-3-methylgutaryl, a PKC inhibitor), we demonstrate that the inhibition of PKC by HMG treatment triggered a persistently mitotic arrest, resulting in the occurrence of mitotic catastrophe in Nf1-deficient ST8814 cells. However, the introduction of the Nf1 effective domain gene into ST8814 cells abolished this mitotic crisis. In addition, HMG injection significantly attenuated the growth of the xenografted ST8814 tumors. Moreover, Chk1 was phosphorylated, accompanied with the persistent increase of cyclin B1 expression in HMG-treated ST8814 cells. The knockdown of Chk1 by the siRNA prevented the Nf1-deficient cells from undergoing HMG-mediated mitotic arrest as well as mitotic catastrophe. Thus, our data suggested that the suppression of PKC activates the Chk1-mediated mitotic exit checkpoint in Nf1-deficient cells, leading to the induction of apoptosis via mitotic catastrophe. Collectively, the study indicates that targeting PKC may be a potential option for developing new strategies to treat Nf1-deficiency-related diseases.
    Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) 06/2014; 13(15).
  • Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) 03/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Elimination of uniparental chromosomes occurs frequently in interspecific hybrid cells. For example, human chromosomes are always eliminated during clone formation when human cells are fused with mouse cells. However, the underlying mechanisms are still elusive. Here, we show that the elimination of human chromosomes in human-mouse hybrid cells is accompanied by continued cell division at the presence of DNA damage on human chromosomes. Deficiency in DNA damage repair on human chromosomes occurs after .
    Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) 03/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Oncogenic mutation or misregulation of small GTPases in the Ras and Rho families can promote unregulated cell cycle progression in cancer. Post-translational modification by prenylation of these GTPases allows them to signal at the cell membrane. Splice variants of SmgGDS, named SmgGDS-607 and SmgGDS-558, promote the prenylation and membrane trafficking of multiple Ras and Rho family members, which makes SmgGDS a potentially important regulator of the cell cycle. Surprisingly little is known about how SmgGDS-607 and SmgGDS-558 affect cell cycle-regulatory proteins in cancer, even though SmgGDS is overexpressed in multiple types of cancer. To examine the roles of SmgGDS splice variants in the cell cycle, we compared the effects of the RNAi-mediated depletion of SmgGDS-558 vs. SmgGDS-607 on cell cycle progression and the expression of cyclin D1, p27, and p21 in pancreatic, lung, and breast cancer cell lines. We show for the first time that SmgGDS promotes proliferation of pancreatic cancer cells, and we demonstrate that SmgGDS-558 plays a greater role than SmgGDS-607 in cell cycle progression as well as promoting cyclin D1 and suppressing p27 expression in multiple types of cancer. Silencing both splice variants of SmgGDS in the cancer cell lines produces an alternative signaling profile compared to silencing SmgGDS-558 alone. We also show that loss of both SmgGDS-607 and SmgGDS-558 simultaneously decreases tumorigenesis of NCI-H1703 non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) xenografts in mice. These findings indicate that SmgGDS promotes cell cycle progression in multiple types of cancer, making SmgGDS a valuable target for cancer therapeutics.
    Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) 01/2014; 13(6).
  • Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) 07/2013;
  • Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) 07/2013; 12(13).
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Aurora kinases play important functions in mitosis. They are overexpressed in many cancers and are targets for anticancer therapy. Inhibition of Aurora B results in cytokinesis failure and polyploidization, leading to activation of the p53 tumor suppressor and its target genes, including p21. The pathways that mediate p21 activation after Aurora B inhibition are not well understood. In this study, we identified a role for the p38 MAP kinase in activation of p21 when Aurora B is inhibited. We show that p38 is required for the acute cell cycle arrest in G 1 and to prevent endoreduplication when Aurora B is inhibited. Stabilization of p53 occurs independently of p38, and recruitment of p53 to the p21 promoter also does not require p38. Instead, enrichment of the elongating form of RNA PolII at the distal region of the p21 gene is strongly reduced when p38 is blocked, indicating that p38 acts in transcriptional elongation of p21. Thus, our results identify an unexpected role of p38 in cell cycle regulation in response to Aurora B inhibition, by promoting the transcriptional elongation of the cell cycle inhibitor p21.
    Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) 06/2013; 12(13):2051-2060.

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