JAMA Pediatrics (Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med )

Publisher: American Medical Association, American Medical Association


The Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine is a monthly, peer-reviewed journal for physicians and other professionals who contribute to the health of children and adolescents. The Archives provides an open forum for dialogue on a full range of clinical, scientific, advocacy, and humanistic issues relevant to the care of pediatric patients from infancy through young adulthood. The Archives is a vehicle for increased attention to adolescent health, the education of pediatric health care professionals, and disease prevention and health promotion. The Archives publishes original studies, editorials, reviews by experts, practice commentaries, case quizzes, and updates on clinical science and practice management. The "Pediatric Forum" provides our readers with opportunities to express their views. Archives incorporates AJDC, the oldest journal in US pediatric literature, which originated in 1911.

  • Impact factor
  • 5-year impact
  • Cited half-life
  • Immediacy index
  • Eigenfactor
  • Article influence
  • Website
    Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine website
  • Other titles
    Archives of pediatrics & adolescent medicine (Online), Archives of pediatrics & adolescent medicine, Archives of pediatrics and adolescent medicine
  • ISSN
  • OCLC
  • Material type
    Document, Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

American Medical Association

  • Pre-print
    • Author cannot archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author cannot archive a post-print version
  • Restrictions
    • 12 months embargo
  • Conditions
    • If funded by a not-for-profit organisation, on a not-for-profit publicly accessible repository
    • Must link to publisher version
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
  • Classification
    ​ white

Publications in this journal

  • JAMA Pediatrics 01/2015;
  • JAMA Pediatrics 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) affects hemodynamics, survival, and neurological outcomes following pediatric cardiopulmonary arrest (CPA). Most health care professionals fail to perform CPR within established American Heart Association guidelines. To determine whether "just-in-time" (JIT) CPR training with visual feedback (VisF) before CPA or real-time VisF during CPA improves the quality of chest compressions (CCs) during simulated CPA. Prospective, randomized, 2 × 2 factorial-design trial with explicit methods (July 1, 2012, to April 15, 2014) at 10 International Network for Simulation-Based Pediatric Innovation, Research, & Education (INSPIRE) institutions running a standardized simulated CPA scenario, including 324 CPR-certified health care professionals assigned to 3-person resuscitation teams (108 teams). Each team was randomized to 1 of 4 permutations, including JIT training vs no JIT training before CPA and real-time VisF vs no real-time VisF during simulated CPA. The proportion of CCs with depth exceeding 50 mm, the proportion of CPR time with a CC rate of 100 to 120 per minute, and CC fraction (percentage CPR time) during simulated CPA. The quality of CPR was poor in the control group, with 12.7% (95% CI, 5.2%-20.1%) mean depth compliance and 27.1% (95% CI, 14.2%-40.1%) mean rate compliance. JIT training compared with no JIT training improved depth compliance by 19.9% (95% CI, 11.1%-28.7%; P < .001) and rate compliance by 12.0% (95% CI, 0.8%-23.2%; P = .037). Visual feedback compared with no VisF improved depth compliance by 15.4% (95% CI, 6.6%-24.2%; P = .001) and rate compliance by 40.1% (95% CI, 28.8%-51.3%; P < .001). Neither intervention had a statistically significant effect on CC fraction, which was excellent (>89.0%) in all groups. Combining both interventions showed the highest compliance with American Heart Association guidelines but was not significantly better than either intervention in isolation. The quality of CPR provided by health care professionals is poor. Using novel and practical technology, JIT training before CPA or real-time VisF during CPA, alone or in combination, improves compliance with American Heart Association guidelines for CPR that are associated with better outcomes. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT02075450.
    JAMA Pediatrics 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In 2009, Washington State enacted legislation outlining the medical care of children and adolescents with concussion (ie, the Lystedt Law), with all other states and Washington, DC passing legislation by January 2014. To evaluate the effect of concussion laws on health care utilization rates from January 1, 2006, through June 30, 2012, in states with and without legislation. For commercially insured children aged 12 to 18 years from all 50 states and DC from January 1, 2006, through June 30, 2009, we examined the following: (1) prelegislation trends in concussion-related health care utilization from January 1, 2006, through June 30, 2009, (2) postlegislation trends in states without concussion legislation, and (3) the effect of state concussion laws on trends in states with concussion legislation in effect by means of negative binomial multivariable estimation with state and time fixed effects. Concussion diagnosis. Emergency department and related health care utilization rates for concussion. Between academic school years 2008-2009 and 2011-2012, states with legislation experienced a 92% increase in concussion-related health care utilization, while states without legislation had a 75% overall increase in concussion-related health care utilization during the same period. In the multivariable fixed-effects models, controlling for differences across states, rates of treated concussion in states without legislation were 7% higher in the 2009-2010 school year, 20% higher in the 2010-2011 school year, and 34% higher in the 2011-2012 school year compared with the prelegislation trends (2005-2009) (all P < .01). During the same period, states with concussion laws demonstrated a 10% higher concussion-related health care utilization rate compared with states without laws (P < .01). Increased health care utilization rates among children with concussion in the United States are both directly and indirectly related to concussion legislation. A portion of the increased rates (60%) in states without legislation is attributable to an ongoing upward trend demonstrated before enactment of the first state law in 2009. The remaining 40% increase in these states is thought to have resulted from elevated awareness brought about by heightened local and national media attention. Concussion legislation has had a seemingly positive effect on health care utilization, but the overall increase can also be attributed to increased injury awareness.
    JAMA Pediatrics 12/2014;
  • JAMA Pediatrics 12/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Postdischarge treatment of acute osteomyelitis in children requires weeks of antibiotic therapy, which can be administered orally or intravenously via a peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC). The catheters carry a risk for serious complications, but limited evidence exists on the effectiveness of oral therapy. To compare the effectiveness and adverse outcomes of postdischarge antibiotic therapy administered via the PICC or the oral route. We performed a retrospective cohort study comparing PICC and oral therapy for the treatment of acute osteomyelitis. Among children hospitalized from January 1, 2009, through December 31, 2012, at 36 participating children's hospitals, we used discharge codes to identify potentially eligible participants. Results of medical record review confirmed eligibility and defined treatment group allocation and study outcomes. We used within- and across-hospital propensity score-based full matching to adjust for confounding by indication. Postdischarge administration of antibiotics via the PICC or the oral route. The primary outcome was treatment failure. Secondary outcomes included adverse drug reaction, PICC line complication, and a composite of all 3 end points. Among 2060 children and adolescents (hereinafter referred to as children) with osteomyelitis, 1005 received oral antibiotics at discharge, whereas 1055 received PICC-administered antibiotics. The proportion of children treated via the PICC route varied across hospitals from 0 to 100%. In the across-hospital (risk difference, 0.3% [95% CI, -0.1% to 2.5%]) and within-hospital (risk difference, 0.6% [95% CI, -0.2% to 3.0%]) matched analyses, children treated with antibiotics via the oral route (reference group) did not experience more treatment failures than those treated with antibiotics via the PICC route. Rates of adverse drug reaction were low (<4% in both groups) but slightly greater in the PICC group in across-hospital (risk difference, 1.7% [95% CI, 0.1%-3.3%]) and within-hospital (risk difference, 2.1% [95% CI, 0.3%-3.8%]) matched analyses. Among the children in the PICC group, 158 (15.0%) had a PICC complication that required an emergency department visit (n = 96), a rehospitalization (n = 38), or both (n = 24). As a result, the PICC group had a much higher risk of requiring a return visit to the emergency department or for hospitalization for any adverse outcome in across-hospital (risk difference, 14.6% [95% CI, 11.3%-17.9%]) and within-hospital (risk difference, 14.0% [95% CI, 10.5%-17.6%]) matched analyses. Given the magnitude and seriousness of PICC complications, clinicians should reconsider the practice of treating otherwise healthy children with acute osteomyelitis with prolonged intravenous antibiotics after hospital discharge when an equally effective oral alternative exists.
    JAMA Pediatrics 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome and is considered the most common form of chronic liver disease in children. Several factors contribute to NAFLD development, including race/ethnicity, genetic factors, environmental exposures, and alterations in the gut microbiome. The histologic spectrum of NAFLD ranges from simple steatosis to the more aggressive nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Fibrosis and eventually cirrhosis can develop from NAFLD during childhood. Diagnosing advanced disease is challenging and may require a liver biopsy, highlighting the urgent need for reliable, noninvasive markers of disease severity. The mainstay of treatment for NAFLD remains lifestyle modifications and weight loss. Probiotics and ω-3 fatty acids may ameliorate disease progression. Recent data have suggested that vitamin E may be considered as a NASH-specific therapy in children, and there are several ongoing human studies evaluating different therapeutic targets for NAFLD. We provide an up-to-date review of the risk factors, diagnosis, and treatment to manage this common disease in children.
    JAMA Pediatrics 12/2014;
  • JAMA Pediatrics 12/2014;
  • JAMA Pediatrics 12/2014;
  • JAMA Pediatrics 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Many adolescents and young adults use alternative tobacco products, such as water pipes and snus, instead of cigarettes. To assess whether prior water pipe tobacco smoking and snus use among never smokers are risk factors for subsequent cigarette smoking. We conducted a 2-wave national longitudinal study in the United States among 2541 individuals aged 15 to 23 years old. At baseline (October 25, 2010, through June 11, 2011), we ascertained whether respondents had smoked cigarettes, smoked water pipe tobacco, or used snus. At the 2-year follow-up (October 27, 2012, through March 31, 2013), we determined whether baseline non-cigarette smokers had subsequently tried cigarette smoking, were current (past 30 days) cigarette smokers, or were high-intensity cigarette smokers. We fit multivariable logistic regression models among baseline non-cigarette smokers to assess whether baseline water pipe tobacco smoking and baseline snus use were associated with subsequent cigarette smoking initiation and current cigarette smoking, accounting for established sociodemographic and behavioral risk factors. We fit similarly specified multivariable ordinal logistic regression models to assess whether baseline water pipe tobacco smoking and baseline snus use were associated with high-intensity cigarette smoking at follow-up. Water pipe tobacco smoking and the use of snus at baseline. Among baseline non-cigarette smokers, cigarette smoking initiation, current (past 30 days) cigarette smoking at follow-up, and the intensity of cigarette smoking at follow-up. Among 1596 respondents, 1048 had never smoked cigarettes at baseline, of whom 71 had smoked water pipe tobacco and 20 had used snus at baseline. At follow-up, accounting for behavioral and sociodemographic risk factors, baseline water pipe tobacco smoking and snus use were independently associated with cigarette smoking initiation (adjusted odds ratios: 2.56; 95% CI, 1.46-4.47 and 3.73; 95% CI, 1.43-9.76, respectively), current cigarette smoking (adjusted odds ratios: 2.48; 95% CI, 1.01-6.06 and 6.19; 95% CI, 1.86-20.56, respectively), and higher intensity of cigarette smoking (adjusted proportional odds ratios: 2.55; 95% CI, 1.48-4.38 and 4.45; 95% CI, 1.75-11.27, respectively). Water pipe tobacco smoking and the use of snus independently predicted the onset of cigarette smoking and current cigarette smoking at follow-up. Comprehensive Food and Drug Administration regulation of these tobacco products may limit their appeal to youth and curb the onset of cigarette smoking.
    JAMA Pediatrics 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Increasing evidence suggests that autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and many forms of developmental delay (DD) originate during fetal development. Preeclampsia may trigger aberrant neurodevelopment through placental, maternal, and fetal physiologic mechanisms. To determine whether preeclampsia is associated with ASD and/or DD. The Childhood Autism Risks from Genetics and the Environment (CHARGE) study is a population-based, case-control investigation of ASD and/or DD origins. Children from 20 California counties aged 24 to 60 months at the time of recruitment and living in catchment areas with a biological parent fluent in English or Spanish were enrolled from January 29, 2003, through April 7, 2011. Children with ASD (n = 517) and DD (n = 194) were recruited through the California Department of Developmental Services, the Medical Investigation of Neurodevelopmental Disorders (MIND) Institute, and referrals. Controls with typical development (TD) (n = 350) were randomly selected from birth records and frequency matched on age, sex, and broad geographic region. Physicians diagnosing preeclampsia were masked to neurodevelopmental outcome, and those assessing neurodevelopmental function were masked to preeclampsia status. Preeclampsia and placental insufficiency were self-reported and abstracted from medical records. The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule and Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised were used to confirm ASD, whereas children with DD and TD were confirmed by Mullen Scales of Early Learning and Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales and were free of autistic symptoms. Hypotheses were formulated before data collection. Children with ASD were twice as likely to have been exposed in utero to preeclampsia as controls with TD after adjustment for maternal educational level, parity, and prepregnancy obesity (adjusted odds ratio, 2.36; 95% CI, 1.18-4.68); risk increased with greater preeclampsia severity (test for trend, P = .02). Placental insufficiency appeared responsible for the increase in DD risk associated with severe preeclampsia (adjusted odds ratio, 5.49; 95% CI, 2.06-14.64). Preeclampsia, particularly severe disease, is associated with ASD and DD. Faulty placentation manifests in the mother as preeclampsia with vascular damage, enhanced systemic inflammation, and insulin resistance; in the placenta as oxygen and nutrient transfer restriction and oxidative stress; and in the fetus as growth restriction and progressive hypoxemia. All are potential mechanisms for neurodevelopmental compromise.
    JAMA Pediatrics 12/2014;
  • JAMA Pediatrics 12/2014;
  • JAMA Pediatrics 12/2014; 168(12):1172.
  • JAMA Pediatrics 12/2014; 168(12):1167.
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    ABSTRACT: Birth to a teenaged mother is associated with adverse health and social outcomes. Adolescents at risk for pregnancy may not receive needed reproductive health services at primary care visits. To review services provided at outpatient visits in the year prior to pregnancy among adolescents in a US Midwestern integrated health care delivery system. Retrospective medical record review of continuously insured adolescents aged 15 to 19 years experiencing pregnancy in a nonprofit Minnesota health care organization. Primary care visits in the year prior to pregnancy. Adolescents experiencing a pregnancy with stable insurance coverage had an estimated average of 2.7 primary care visits in the 12 months prior to becoming pregnant. Medical record review revealed that 57% did not have documentation of sexual activity and 47% did not have documentation of reproductive health counseling. These rates varied by health care professional type and visit type. Only 35% had contraception prescribed within 12 months of becoming pregnant and only 1 had a long-acting contraceptive prescribed. Our data highlight the need for primary care professionals to review health behaviors and pregnancy risk at all adolescent encounters.
    JAMA Pediatrics 12/2014; 168(12):e142809.
  • JAMA Pediatrics 12/2014; 168(12):1167-8.
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    ABSTRACT: Cerebral white matter (WM) damage has been reported in childhood obesity and in metabolic syndrome (MetS) but mechanisms remain unclear. To ascertain whether adolescents with MetS have retinal vessel alterations and if the anticipated reductions in retinal arteriolar diameter are associated with diminished cerebral WM microstructural integrity and to test a model for vascular etiology of the WM abnormalities. Cross-sectional study of the brain correlates of obesity and related metabolic disease in youths. This study was conducted at the Brain, Obesity, and Diabetes Laboratory, New York University School of Medicine, New York. Thirty-nine obese adolescents with MetS and 51 matched adolescents without MetS received comprehensive endocrine, neuropsychological, retinal vessel, and diffusion tensor imaging-based cerebral WM evaluations. Retinal arteriolar diameter, cerebral WM microstructural integrity, waist circumference, and insulin resistance. Obese adolescents with MetS had significant reductions in retinal arteriolar diameter relative to adolescents without MetS (mean [SD] central retinal arteriolar equivalent, 182.35 [16.10] vs 198.62 [19.03] μm, respectively; P < .001). The greater the number of MetS criteria present, the greater the reduction was in retinal arteriolar diameter (β = -8.61; ∆r2 = 0.335; ∆F1,83 = 70.79; P < .001). We found that abdominal obesity (waist circumference) was the strongest MetS component related to reductions in retinal arteriolar diameter (rp[85] = -0.661; P < .001), and importantly, for the first time to our knowledge, we demonstrated that its effect was partially mediated by comorbid insulin resistance (indirect effect = -0.1355 [95% CI, -0.2471 to -0.0593]; Z = -2.56; P = .01). Consistent with our prior report of nondiabetic adolescents with MetS, we also uncovered cerebral WM microstructural damage. These subtle WM changes were associated with reductions in retinal arteriolar diameter, a proxy for cerebral microvascular health (3150 voxels or 3.15 cm3; P < .001). Importantly, some of the WM regions showing lower microstructural integrity also demonstrated associations with retinal arteriolar diameter, suggesting that the observed WM pathology is likely vascular in nature. We document, for the first time to our knowledge, the associations between retinal vessel alterations and subclinical WM pathology among obese adolescents with MetS. This suggests that the subtle WM pathology in adolescents with MetS may have a vascular origin. Future work should include direct assessments of cerebral microvascular health.
    JAMA Pediatrics 12/2014; 168(12):e142815.