Eukaryotic Cell Journal Impact Factor & Information

Publisher: American Society for Microbiology, American Society for Microbiology

Journal description

Eukaryotic Cell (EC) focuses on eukaryotic microbiology and presents reports of basic research on simple eukaryotic microorganisms such as yeasts, fungi, algae, protozoa, and social amoebae. The journal also covers viruses of these organisms and their organelles and their interactions with other living systems, where the focus is on the eukaryotic cell.

Current impact factor: 3.18

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2016
2013 / 2014 Impact Factor 3.179
2012 Impact Factor 3.586
2011 Impact Factor 3.604
2010 Impact Factor 3.395
2009 Impact Factor 3.806
2008 Impact Factor 3.83
2007 Impact Factor 3.399
2006 Impact Factor 3.707
2005 Impact Factor 4.303
2004 Impact Factor 3.954
2003 Impact Factor 3.267

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 3.77
Cited half-life 5.40
Immediacy index 0.65
Eigenfactor 0.02
Article influence 1.32
Website Eukaryotic Cell website
Other titles Eukaryotic cell (Online), Eukaryotic cell
ISSN 1535-9786
OCLC 47259667
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

American Society for Microbiology

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • Author's pre-print on recognised non profit pre-print archives
    • Author's post-print on funder's repositories, institutional repository or subject-based repositories
    • Non-commercial
    • Publisher's version/PDF may be used
    • Publisher's version/PDF may be used on author's personal website or employers website
    • Recommended that author's post-prints submitted to PubMed or institutional repositories are made available 6 months after publication
    • Publisher last contacted on 21/05/2015
  • Classification

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In prior studies of exocyst-mediated late secretion in Candida albicans, we have determined that Sec6 contributes to cell wall integrity, secretion, and filamentation. A conditional mutant lacking SEC6 expression exhibits markedly reduced lateral hyphal branching. In addition, lack of the related t-SNAREs Sso2 and Sec9 also leads to defects in secretion and filamentation. To further understand the role of the exocyst in the fundamental processes of polarized secretion and filamentation in C. albicans, we studied the exocyst subunit Sec15. Since Saccharomyces cerevisiae SEC15 is essential for viability, we generated a C. albicans conditional mutant strain in which SEC15 was placed under the control of a tetracycline-regulated promoter. In the repressed state, cell death occurred after 5 hours in the tetR-SEC15 strain. Prior to this timepoint, the tetR-SEC15 mutant was markedly defective in Sap and lipase secretion, and demonstrated increased sensitivity to zymolyase and chitinase. Notably, tetR-SEC15 mutant hyphae were characterized by a hyper-branching phenotype, in direct contrast to strain tetR-SEC6 which had minimal lateral branching. We further studied localization of the Spitzenkörper, polarisome, and exocyst in the tetR-SEC15 and tetR-SEC6 mutants during filamentation. Mlc1-GFP (marking the Spitzenkörper), Spa2-GFP (the polarisome) and Exo70-GFP (exocyst) localization was normal in the tetR-SEC6 mutant, whereas these structures were mislocalized in the tetR-SEC15 mutant. Following alleviation of gene repression by removing doxycycline, first Spitzenkörper, then polarisome and finally exocyst localization were recovered sequentially. These results indicate that the exocyst subunits Sec15 and Sec6 have distinct roles in mediating polarized secretion and filamentation in C. albicans.
    Eukaryotic Cell 10/2015; DOI:10.1128/EC.00147-15
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    ABSTRACT: Enzymes play key roles in fungal pathogenesis. Manipulation of enzyme expression or activity can significantly alter the infection process, and enzyme expression profiles can be a hallmark of disease. Hence, enzymes are worthy targets for better understanding pathogenesis and identifying new options for combatting fungal infections. Advances in genomics, proteomics, transcriptomics and mass spectrometry have enabled the identification and characterization of new fungal enzymes. This review focuses on recent development in the virulence-associated enzymes from Cryptococcus neoformans . The enzymatic suite of C. neoformans has evolved for environmental survival but several of these enzymes play a dual role in colonizing the mammalian host. We also discuss new therapeutic and diagnostic strategies that could be based on the underlying enzymology.
    Eukaryotic Cell 10/2015; DOI:10.1128/EC.00103-15
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    ABSTRACT: Ubc9p is the sole E2-conjugating enzyme for SUMOylation and its proper function is required for regulating key nuclear events such as transcription, DNA repair and mitosis. In Tetrahymena thermophila the genome is separated into a diploid germline micronucleus (MIC) that divides by mitosis and a polyploid somatic macronucleus (MAC) that divides amitotically. This unusual nuclear organization provides novel opportunities for the study of SUMOylation and Ubc9p function. We identified the UBC9 gene and demonstrated that its complete deletion from both the MIC and MAC genome is lethal. Rescue of the lethal phenotype with a GFP-UBC9 fusion gene driven by a metallothionein promoter generated a cell line with CdCl 2 -dependent expression of GFP-Ubc9p. Depletion of Ubc9p in vegetative cells resulted in the loss of MICs but MACs continued to divide. In contrast, expression of a catalytically inactive Ubc9p resulted in the accumulation of multiple MICs. Critical roles for Ubc9p were also identified during the sexual life cycle of Tetrahymena . Cell lines that were depleted for Ubc9p did not form mating pairs and therefore could not complete any of the subsequent stages of conjugation including meiosis and macronuclear development. Mating between cells expressing the catalytically inactive Ubc9p resulted in arrest during macronuclear development, consistent with our observation that Ubc9p accumulates in the developing macronucleus. The results demonstrate important roles for Ubc9p in mitosis and the sexual life cycle.
    Eukaryotic Cell 10/2015; DOI:10.1128/EC.00115-15
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    ABSTRACT: Using confocal microscopy, we observed ring-like organelles, similar in size to nuclei, in the hyphal tip of the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa . These organelles contained a subset of vacuolar proteins. We hypothesize that they are novel prevacuolar compartments (PVCs). We examined the location of several vacuolar enzymes and of fluorescent compounds that target the vacuole. Vacuolar membrane proteins, such as the vacuolar-ATPase (VMA-1) and the polyphosphate polymerase (VTC-4), were observed in the PVCs. A pigment produced by adenine auxotrophs, used to visualize vacuoles also accumulated in PVCs. Soluble enzymes of the vacuolar lumen, alkaline phosphatase and carboxypeptidase Y, were not observed in PVCs. The fluorescent molecule carboxy-DFFDA accumulated in vacuoles and in a subset of PVCs, suggesting maturation of PVCs from the tip to distal regions. Three of the nine Rab-GTPases in N. crassa, RAB-2, RAB-4 and RAB-7, localized to the PVCs. RAB-2 and RAB-4, which have similar amino acid sequences, are present in filamentous fungi but not in yeasts, and no function has previously been reported for these Rab-GTPases in fungi. PCVs are highly pleomorphic, producing tubular projections that subsequently became detached. Dynein and dynactin formed globular clusters enclosed inside the lumen of PVCs. The size, structure, dynamic behavior and protein composition of the PVCs appears to be significantly different from the well-studied prevacuolar compartment of yeasts.
    Eukaryotic Cell 10/2015; DOI:10.1128/EC.00128-15
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    ABSTRACT: The wall proteome and the secretome of the fungal pathogen Candida albicans help it to thrive in multiple niches of the human body. Mass spectrometry has allowed researchers to study the dynamics of both subproteomes. Here we discuss some major responses of the secretome to host-related environmental conditions. Three β-1,3-glucan-modifying enzymes, Mp65, Sun41, and Tos1, are consistently found in high amounts in culture supernatants, suggesting that they are needed for construction and expansion of the cell wall β-1,3-glucan layer, and thus correlate with growth and might serve as diagnostic biomarkers. The genes ENG1 , CHT3 , and SCW11 , which encode an endoglucanase, the major chitinase, and a β-1,3-glucan-modifying enzyme, respectively, are periodically expressed and peak in M/G1. The corresponding protein abundances in the medium correlate with the degree of cell separation during single-yeast-cell, pseudohyphal, and hyphal growth. We also discuss the observation that cells treated with fluconazole, or other agents causing cell surface stress, form pseudohyphal aggregates. Fluconazole-treated cells secrete abundant amounts of the transglucosylase Phr1, which is involved in the accumulation of β-1,3-glucan in biofilms, raising the question whether this is a general response to cell surface stress. Other abundant secretome proteins also contribute to biofilm formation, emphasizing the important role of secretome proteins in this mode of growth. Finally, we discuss the relevance of these observations to therapeutic intervention. Together, these data illustrate that C. albicans actively adapts its secretome to environmental conditions, thus promoting its survival in widely divergent niches of the human body.
    Eukaryotic Cell 10/2015; DOI:10.1128/EC.00142-15
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    ABSTRACT: Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis are highly related species that share the same main developmental programs. In C. albicans it has been demonstrated that the biofilms formed by strains heterozygous and homozygous at the mating type locus (MTL) differ functionally, but studies rarely identify the MTL configuration. This becomes a particular problem in studies of C. dubliniensis given that one third of natural strains are MTL-homozygous. For that reason, we have analyzed MTL-homozygous strains of C. dubliniensis for their capacity to switch from white to opaque, for the stability of the opaque phenotype, CO2 induction of switching, pheromone induction of adhesion, the effects of minority opaque cells on biofilm thickness and dry weight, and biofilm architecture, by comparison with C. albicans. Our results reveal that C. dubliniensis strains switch to opaque at lower average frequencies, exhibit far lower level of opaque phase stability, are not stimulated to switch by high CO2, exhibit more variability in biofilm architecture, and most notably, form mature biofilm composed predominately of pseudohyphae rather than true hyphae. Therefore, while several traits of MTL-homozygous strains of C. dubliniensis appear to be degenerating or have been lost, others, most notably several related to biofilm formation, have been conserved. Within this context, the possibility is considered that C. dubliniensis is transitioning from a hypha-dominated to pseudohyphae-dominated biofilm and that aspects of C. dubliniensis colonization may provide insights into the selective pressures that are involved.
    Eukaryotic Cell 10/2015; DOI:10.1128/EC.00146-15
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    ABSTRACT: In the light of multidrug resistance (MDR) among pathogenic microbes and cancer cells, membrane transporters have gained profound clinical significance. Chemotherapeutic failure, by far has been mainly attributed to the robust and diverse array of these proteins, omnipresent in every stratum of the living world. Candida albicans, one of the major fungal pathogen affecting immune-compromised patients, too develops MDR during the course of chemotherapy. The pivotal membrane transporters which C. albicans has exploited for the purpose as one of the strategies to develop MDR belongs either to ATP Binding Cassette (ABC) or Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS) proteins. ABC transporter Candida drug resistance 1 protein (Cdr1p) is a major player among these transporters which enables the pathogen to outplay the battery of antifungals encountered by it. The promiscuous Cdr1 protein fulfils the quintessential need of a model to study molecular mechanisms of multidrug transporter regulation and structure-function analyses of asymmetric ABC transporters. Herein, with this review, we highlight the research of two decades with Cdr1p which has provided a platform to study its structure-function and regulatory circuitry for a better understanding of MDR not only in yeast but also in other organisms.
    Eukaryotic Cell 09/2015; DOI:10.1128/EC.00137-15
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    ABSTRACT: Entamoeba histolytica, a microaerophilic protozoan parasite, possesses mitosomes. Mitosomes are mitochondrion-related organelles that have largely lost typical mitochondrial functions, such as the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation. The biological roles of Entamoeba mitosomes have been a long-standing enigma. We previously demonstrated that sulfate activation, which is not generally compartmentalized to mitochondria, is a major function of E. histolytica mitosomes. Sulfate activation cooperates with cytosolic enzymes, sulfotransferases (SULTs), for the synthesis of sulfolipids, one of which is cholesteryl sulfate. Notably, cholesteryl sulfate plays an important role in encystation, an essential process in the Entamoeba life cycle. These findings provided a biological role for Entamoeba mitosomes; however, they simultaneously raised a new question of how the reactions of the pathway, separated by the mitosomal membranes, cooperate. Here, we demonstrated that E. histolytica mitochondrial carrier family (EhMCF) has the capacity to exchange 3' -phosphoadenosine 5' -phosphosulfate (PAPS) with ATP. We also confirmed the cytosolic localization of all the E. histolytica SULTs, suggesting that in Entamoeba, PAPS, which is produced through mitosomal sulfate activation, is translocated to the cytosol and becomes a substrate for SULTs. Conversely, ATP, which is produced through cytosolic pathways, is translocated into the mitosomes and is a necessary substrate for sulfate activation. Collectively, we suggest that EhMCF functions as a PAPS/ATP antiporter and plays a crucial role in linking the mitosomal sulfate-activation pathway to cytosolic SULTs for the production of sulfolipids.
    Eukaryotic Cell 09/2015; 14(11). DOI:10.1128/EC.00130-15
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    ABSTRACT: As a successful commensal and pathogen of humans, Candida albicans encounters a wide range of environmental conditions. Among them, ambient pH, which changes frequently and affects many biological processes in this species, is an important factor, and the ability to adapt to pH changes is tightly linked with pathogenesis and morphogenesis. In this study, we report that pH has a profound effect on white-opaque switching and sexual mating in C. albicans. Acidic pH promotes white-to-opaque switching under certain culture conditions but represses sexual mating. The Rim101-mediated pH sensing pathway is involved in the control of pH-regulated white-opaque switching and mating response. Phr2 and Rim101 could play a major role in acidic pH-induced opaque cell formation. Despite the fact that the cAMP signaling pathway does not play a major role in pH-regulated white-opaque switching and mating, white and opaque cells of the cyr1/cyr1 mutant, which is defective in producing cAMP, show distinct growth defects under acidic and alkaline conditions. We further discover that acidic pH conditions repress sexual mating due to the failure of activation of the Ste2-mediated α-pheromone response pathway in opaque " A: " cells. The effects of pH changes on phenotypic switching and sexual mating could involve a balance of host adaptation and sexual reproduction in C. albicans. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
    Eukaryotic Cell 09/2015; 14(11). DOI:10.1128/EC.00123-15
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    ABSTRACT: Candida albicans is associated with humans as both a harmless commensal organism and a pathogen. Cph2 is a transcription factor whose DNA binding domain is similar to mammalian sterol response element binding proteins (SREBPs). SREBPs are master regulators of cellular cholesterol levels, and are highly conserved from fungi to mammals. However, ergosterol biosynthesis is regulated by the zinc finger transcription factor Upc2 in C. albicans and several other yeasts. Cph2 is not necessary for ergosterol biosynthesis, but important for colonization in the murine gastrointestinal tract. Here we demonstrate that Cph2 is a membrane-associated transcription factor that is processed to release the N-terminal DNA binding domain like SREBPs; but its cleavage is not regulated by cellular levels of ergosterol or oxygen. ChIP-Seq shows that Cph2 binds to the promoters of HMS1 and other components of the regulatory circuit for GI tract colonization. In addition, 50% of Cph2 targets are also bound by Hms1 and other factors of the regulatory circuit. Several common targets function at the head of the glycolysis pathway. Thus, Cph2 is an integral part of the regulatory circuit for GI colonization that regulates glycolytic flux. RNA-seq shows a significant overlap in genes differentially regulated by Cph2 and hypoxia, and Cph2 is important for optimal expression of some hypoxia-responsive genes in glycolysis and the citric acid cycle. We suggest that Cph2 and Upc2 regulate hypoxia-responsive expression in different pathways, consistent with a synthetic lethal defect of the cph2 upc2 double mutant in hypoxia. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
    Eukaryotic Cell 09/2015; 14(11). DOI:10.1128/EC.00102-15
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    ABSTRACT: Candida albicans is the leading cause of fungal infections; but it is also a member of the human microbiome, an ecosystem of thousands of microbial species potentially influencing the outcome of host-fungal interactions. Accordingly, antibacterial therapy raises the risk of candidiasis, yet the underlying mechanism is currently not fully understood. We hypothesize the existence of bacterial-derived metabolites that normally control C. albicans growth and of fungal resistance mechanisms against these metabolites. Among the most abundant microbiota-derived metabolites found on human mucosal surfaces are weak organic acids (WOAs), such as acetic, propionic, butyric and lactic acid. Here we used quantitative growth assays to investigate the dose-dependent fungistatic property of WOAs on C. albicans growth and found it to occur at physiologically relevant concentrations and pH. This effect was conserved across distantly related fungal species both inside and outside the CTG clade. We next screened a library of transcription factor mutants and identified several genes required for resistance of C. albicans to one or more WOAs. A single gene, MIG1, previously known for its role in glucose repression, conferred resistance against all four tested acids. Consistent with glucose being an upstream activator of Mig1p, presence of this carbon source was required for WOA resistance in wild-type C. albicans. Conversely, a MIG1-complemented strain completely restored the glucose-dependent resistance against WOAs. We conclude that Mig1p plays a central role in orchestrating a transcriptional programme to fight against the fungistatic effect of this class of highly abundant metabolites produced by the GI microbiota. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
    Eukaryotic Cell 08/2015; 14(10). DOI:10.1128/EC.00129-15
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    ABSTRACT: Eisosomes are among the few remaining eukaryotic cellular differentiations that lack defined function(s). These trough-shaped invaginations of the plasma membrane have been largely studied in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, where their associated proteins, including two BAR-domain proteins, have been identified and homologues have been found throughout the fungal radiation. Using quick-freeze deep-etch electron-microscopy to generate high-resolution replicas of membrane fracture faces without the use of chemical fixation, we report that eisosomes are also present in a subset of red and green microalgae as well as in the cysts of the ciliate Euplotes. Eisosome assembly is closely correlated with both the presence and the nature of cell walls. Microalgal eisosomes vary extensively in topology and internal organization. Unlike fungi, their convex fracture faces can carry lineage-specific arrays of intramembranous particles, and their concave fracture faces usually display fine striations, also seen in fungi, that are pitched at lineage-specific angles and, in some cases, adopt a broader banded patterning. The conserved genes that encode fungal eisosome-associated proteins are not found in sequenced algal genomes, but we have identified genes encoding two algal lineage-specific families of predicted BAR-domain proteins, called Green-BAR and Red-BAR, that are candidate eisosome organizers. We propose a model for eisosome formation wherein 1) positively-charged recognition patches first establish contact with target membrane regions and 2) a (partial) unwinding of the coiled-coil conformation of the BAR domains then allows interactions between the hydrophobic faces of their amphipathic helices and the lipid phase of the inner membrane leaflet, generating the striated patterns. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
    Eukaryotic Cell 08/2015; 14(10). DOI:10.1128/EC.00106-15
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    ABSTRACT: The global regulatory veA gene governs development and secondary metabolism in numerous fungal species, including Aspergillus flavus. This is especially relevant since A. flavus infects crops of agricultural importance worldwide, contaminating them with potent mycotoxins. The most well-known are aflatoxins, cytotoxic and carcinogenic polyketide compounds. The production of aflatoxins, and the expression of genes implicated in the production of these mycotoxins, are veA-dependent. The genes responsible for the synthesis of aflatoxins are clustered, a signature common for genes involved in fungal secondary metabolism. Studies of the A. flavus genome revealed many gene clusters possibly connected to the synthesis of secondary metabolites. Many of these metabolites are still unknown, or the association between a known metabolite with a particular gene cluster has not yet been established. In the present transcriptome study we show that veA is necessary for the expression of a large number of genes. Twenty-eight out of the predicted 56 secondary metabolite gene clusters include at least one gene that is differentially expressed depending on presence or absence of veA. One of the clusters under the influence of veA is cluster 39. Absence of veA results in a down-regulation of the five genes found within this cluster. Interestingly, our results indicate that the cluster is mainly expressed in sclerotia. Chemical analysis of sclerotial extracts revealed that cluster 39 is responsible for the production of aflavarin. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
    Eukaryotic Cell 07/2015; 14(10). DOI:10.1128/EC.00092-15