Technology in cancer research & treatment (TECHNOL CANCER RES T )

Description

Technology in Cancer Research and Treatment welcomes manuscripts from active investigators involved in technologies devoted to early diagnosis, treatment, and palliation of cancer. The Journal will include both experimental and theoretical investigations. Among the topics that will be covered are MRI, including functional MRI, spiral CT, PET, optical spectroscopy, computer-aided reconstruction of tumors, computer-aided drug design, stereotactic radiosurgery, cryosurgery, brachytherapy, electroporation, photodynamic therapy, gene therapy, cancer vaccine, proteomics, and genomics, as they impact cancer research and treatment. Special emphasis will be given to non-invasive techniques. The Journal publishes original articles, express communications, opinion pieces, and timely reviews.

  • Impact factor
    1.94
    Hide impact factor history
     
    Impact factor
  • 5-year impact
    2.09
  • Cited half-life
    5.70
  • Immediacy index
    0.42
  • Eigenfactor
    0.00
  • Article influence
    0.59
  • Website
    Technology in Cancer Research and Treatment website
  • Other titles
    Technology in cancer research & treatment (Print), Technology in cancer research & treatment, Technology in cancer research and treatment
  • ISSN
    1533-0346
  • OCLC
    45625094
  • Material type
    Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Journal / Magazine / Newspaper, Internet Resource

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study is to compare the new and conventional tomotherapy treatment techniques and to evaluate dosimetric differences between them. A dosimetric analysis was performed by comparing planning target volume (PTV) median dose, 95% of PTV dose coverage, Paddick conformity index (CI), homogeneity index (HI), whole-body integral dose, and OAR median doses. The beam on time (BOT) and the effect of different jaw sizes and pitch values was studied. The study results indicated that the PTV dose coverage for all the techniques was comparable. Treatment plans using dynamic jaw reduced OAR doses to structures located at the treatment field edge compared to fixed jaw plans. The HT-3DCRT plans resulted in higher OAR doses to kidney, liver, and lung compared to the other techniques, and TD-IMRT provided the best dose sparing to liver compared to other techniques. Whole-body integral dose differences were found to be insignificant among the techniques. BOT was found to be higher for fixed jaw treatment plan compared to dynamic jaw plan and comparable between all treatment techniques with 5-cm dynamic jaw. In studying effect of jaw size, better OAR sparing and HI were found for 2.5-cm jaw but at the expense of doubling of BOT as compared to 5-cm jaw. There was no significant improvement found in OAR sparing when the pitch value was increased. Increasing the pitch from 0.2 to 0.43, the CI was improved, HI improved only for 5-cm jaw size, and BOT decreased to approximately half of its original time.
    Technology in cancer research & treatment 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a relatively new modality for anticancer treatment and although the interest has increased greatly in the recent years, it is still far from clinical routine. As PDT consists of administering a nontoxic photosensitizing chemical and subsequently illuminating the tumor with visible light, the treatment is not subject to dose-limiting toxicity, which is the case for established anticancer treatments like radiation therapy or chemotherapy. This makes PDT an attractive adjuvant therapy in a combined modality treatment regimen, as PDT provides an antitumor immune response through its ability to elicit the release of damage-associated molecular patterns and tumor antigens, thus providing an increased antitumor efficacy, potentially without increasing the risk of treatment-related toxicity. There is great interest in the elicited immune response after PDT and the potential of combining PDT with other forms of treatment to provide potent antitumor vaccines. This review summarizes recent studies investigating PDT as part of combined modality treatment, hopefully providing an accessible overview of the current knowledge that may act as a basis for new ideas or systematic evaluations of already promising results.
    Technology in cancer research & treatment 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: This article proposes quantitative analysis tools and digital phantoms to quantify intrinsic errors of deformable image registration (DIR) systems and establish quality assurance (QA) procedures for clinical use of DIR systems utilizing local and global error analysis methods with clinically realistic digital image phantoms. Landmark-based image registration verifications are suitable only for images with significant feature points. To address this shortfall, we adapted a deformation vector field (DVF) comparison approach with new analysis techniques to quantify the results. Digital image phantoms are derived from data sets of actual patient images (a reference image set, R, a test image set, T). Image sets from the same patient taken at different times are registered with deformable methods producing a reference DVFref. Applying DVFref to the original reference image deforms T into a new image R'. The data set, R', T, and DVFref, is from a realistic truth set and therefore can be used to analyze any DIR system and expose intrinsic errors by comparing DVFref and DVFtest. For quantitative error analysis, calculating and delineating differences between DVFs, 2 methods were used, (1) a local error analysis tool that displays deformation error magnitudes with color mapping on each image slice and (2) a global error analysis tool that calculates a deformation error histogram, which describes a cumulative probability function of errors for each anatomical structure. Three digital image phantoms were generated from three patients with a head and neck, a lung and a liver cancer. The DIR QA was evaluated using the case with head and neck.
    Technology in cancer research & treatment 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) potentially leads to a more favorite dose distribution compared to 3-dimensional or conventional tangential radiotherapy (RT) for breast cancer after conservative surgery or mastectomy. The aim of this study was to compare dosimetric parameters of the planning target volume (PTV) and organs at risk (OARs) among helical tomotherapy (HT), inverse-planned IMRT (IP-IMRT), and forward-planned field in field (FP-FIF) IMRT techniques after breast-conserving surgery. Computed tomography scans from 20 patients (12 left sided and 8 right sided) previously treated with T1N0 carcinoma were selected for this dosimetric planning study. We designed HT, IP-IMRT, and FP-FIF plans for each patient. Plans were compared according to dose-volume histogram analysis in terms of PTV homogeneity and conformity indices (HI and CI) as well as OARs dose and volume parameters. Both HI and CI of the PTV showed statistically significant difference among IP-IMRT, FP-FIF, and HT with those of HT were best (P < .05). Compared to FP-FIF, IP-IMRT showed smaller exposed volumes of ipsilateral lung, heart, contralateral lung, and breast, while HT indicated smaller exposed volumes of ipsilateral lung but larger exposed volumes of contralateral lung and breast as well as heart. In addition, HT demonstrated an increase in exposed volume of ipsilateral lung (except for fraction of lung volume receiving >30 Gy and 20 Gy), heart, contralateral lung, and breast compared with IP-IMRT. For breast cancer radiotherapy (RT) after conservative surgery, HT provides better dose homogeneity and conformity of PTV compared to IP-IMRT and FP-FIF techniques, especially for patients with supraclavicular lymph nodes involved. Meanwhile, HT decreases the OAR volumes receiving higher doses with an increase in the volumes receiving low doses, which is known to lead to an increased rate of radiation-induced secondary malignancies. Hence, composite factors including dosimetric advantage, clinical effect, and economic burden should be taken into comprehensive consideration when choosing an RT technique in clinical practice.
    Technology in cancer research & treatment 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In recent years, over 1000 reports have been published on the association between hepatic diseases and gene mutations which may result in pathogenic amino acids. Most of the studies focus on the hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The aim was to systematically examine the published literature on the association between the mutations of arginine, serine, and threonine and hepatic diseases, particularly HCC. The Biosciences information service database was systematically searched before July 10, 2012. Of the initially selected 471 publications, 112 articles were included in this study. Meta-analyses were conducted for 3 amino acids. Risk ratios were used to analyze the association between amino acids and liver diseases. We analyze the literature on the association between gene mutations and hepatic diseases, especially in patients with HCC. Full-text articles were analyzed by 4 independent researchers. Some amino acid mutations were found only in people with liver diseases-not in the general population. Arginine and threonine mutations occurred more frequently in patients with hepatic diseases, compared to the normal population. There is a statistically significant association between arginine mutations and the risk of HCC and serine mutations and the risk of HCC.
    Technology in cancer research & treatment 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Radiographic changes occur in over half of patients treated with stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) to the lung, correlating histopathologically with injury. We quantified radiographic density changes (ie, fibrosis) at 3, 6, and 12 months and investigated the relationship between these volumes and clinical and dosimetric parameters. The study population consisted of patients treated with SBRT to the lung for stage I primary lung cancers (n = 39) or oligometastatic lesions (n = 17). Fractionation schemes included 3 fractions of 12, 14, or 18 gray (Gy) and 4 fractions of 12 or 12.5 Gy prescribed to cover 95% of the planning target volume (PTV). Planning computed tomography (CT) scans were rigidly registered to follow-up CT scans obtained at intervals of 3, 6, and 12 months. Fibrotic volumes were contoured on the follow-up scans. Associations between the volume of fibrosis and clinical and dosimetric parameters were investigated using univariate linear regression. Scans were available for 65 and 47 lesions at 6 and 12 months, respectively. Age, years since quitting smoking, and GOLD Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease score were significantly associated with increasing volume of fibrosis (P < .05). Total dose, dose per fraction, PTV, and volumetric parameters (V0-V55) were also significantly associated with increasing volumes of fibrosis (P < .01). For dosimetric parameters, the effect was largest for V55. Age, significant smoking history, and GOLD score were significantly associated with increasing volumes of fibrosis following SBRT. In a multivariate model adjusted for age and smoking history, V10 through V50 and PTV size remained significant predictors of fibrotic volume. Further, there is a strong dose-response relationship between the volume of lung exposed to a certain dose and the fibrotic volume. The predominant kinetic patterns of fibrosis demonstrate peaking fibrotic volumes at 6 and 12 months. These results provide insight for expectations of fibrosis after SBRT.
    Technology in cancer research & treatment 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We describe the rationale and implementation of a method for analyzing in-room positron emission tomography (PET) data to verify the proton beam range. The method is based on analyzing distal PET surfaces after passive scattering proton beam delivery. Typically in vivo range verification is done by comparing measured and predicted PET distribution for a single activity level at a selected activity line along the beam passage. In the method presented here, we suggest using a middle point method based on dual PET activity levels to minimize the uncertainty due to local variations in the PET activity. Furthermore, we introduce 2-dimensional (2D) PET activity level surfaces based on 3-dimensional maps of the PET activities along the beam passage. This allows determining not only average range differences but also range difference distributions as well as root mean square deviations (RMSDs) for a more comprehensive range analysis. The method is demonstrated using data from 8 patients who were scanned with an in-room PET scanner. For each of the 8 patients, the average range difference was less than 5 mm and the RMSD was 4 to 11 mm between the measured and simulated PET activity level surfaces for single-field treatments. An ongoing protocol at our institution allows the use of a single field for patients being imaged for the PET range verification study at 1 fraction during their treatment course. Visualizing the range difference distributions using the PET surfaces offers a convenient visual verification of range uncertainties in 2D. Using the distal activity level surfaces of simulated and measured PET distributions at the middle of 25% and 50% activity level is a robust method for in vivo range verification.
    Technology in cancer research & treatment 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Magnetic resonance (MR)-based modalities aid breast cancer detection without exposure to ionizing radiation. Magnetic resonance imaging is very sensitive but costly and insufficiently specific. Molecular imaging through magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) can provide information about key metabolites. Here, the measured/encoded time signals cannot be interpreted directly, necessitating mathematics for mapping to the more manageable frequency domain. Conventional applications of MRS are hampered by data analysis via the fast Fourier transform (FFT) and postprocessing by fitting techniques. Most in vivo MRS studies on breast cancer rely upon estimations of total choline (tCHO). These have yielded only incremental improvements in diagnostic accuracy. In vitro studies reveal richer metabolic information for identifying breast cancer, particularly in closely overlapping components of tCHO. Among these are phosphocholine (PC), a marker of malignant transformation of the breast. The FFT cannot assess these congested spectral components. This can be done by the fast Padé transform (FPT), a high-resolution, quantification-equipped method, which we presently apply to noisy MRS time signals consistent with those encoded in breast cancer. The FPT unequivocally and robustly extracted the concentrations of all physical metabolites, including PC. In sharp contrast, the FFT produced a rough envelope spectrum with a few distorted peaks and key metabolites absent altogether. As such, the FFT has poor resolution for these typical MRS time signals from breast cancer. Hence, based on Fourier-estimated envelope spectra, tCHO estimates are unreliable. Using even truncated time signals, the FPT clearly distinguishes noise from true metabolites whose concentrations are accurately extracted. The high resolution of the FPT translates directly into shortened examination time of the patient. These capabilities strongly suggest that by applying the FPT to time signals encoded in vivo from the breast, MRS will, at last, fulfill its potential to become a clinically reliable, cost-effective method for breast cancer detection, including screening/surveillance.
    Technology in cancer research & treatment 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate visibility, artifacts, and distortions of various commercial markers in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computer tomography (CT), and ultrasound imaging used for radiotherapy planning and treatment guidance.
    Technology in cancer research & treatment 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Ovarian cancer is the most common cause of death among gynecological malignancies. We discuss different types of clinical and nonclinical features that are used to study and analyze the differences between benign and malignant ovarian tumors. Computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) systems of high accuracy are being developed as an initial test for ovarian tumor classification instead of biopsy, which is the current gold standard diagnostic test. We also discuss different aspects of developing a reliable CAD system for the automated classification of ovarian cancer into benign and malignant types. A brief description of the commonly used classifiers in ultrasound-based CAD systems is also given.
    Technology in cancer research & treatment 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the differences between dose distributions calculated with the pencil beam (PB) and X-ray voxel Monte Carlo (MC) algorithms for patients with lung cancer using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) or HybridArc techniques. The 2 algorithms were compared in terms of dose-volume histograms, under normal and deep inspiration breath hold, and in terms of the tumor control probability (TCP). The dependence of the differences in tumor volume and location was investigated. Dosimetric validation was performed using Gafchromic EBT3 (International Specialty Products, ISP, Wayne, NJ). Forty-five Computed Tomography (CT) data sets were used for this study; 40 Gy at 8 Gy/fraction was prescribed with 5 noncoplanar 6-MV IMRT beams or 3 to 4 dynamic conformal arcs with 3 to 5 IMRT beams distributed per arc. The plans were first calculated with PB and then recalculated with MC. The difference between the mean tumor doses was approximately 10% ± 4%; these differences were even larger under deep inspiration breath hold. Differences between the mean tumor dose correlated with tumor volume and path length of the beams. The TCP values changed from 99.87% ± 0.24% to 96.78% ± 4.81% for both PB- and MC-calculated plans (P = .009). When a fraction of hypoxic cells was considered, the mean TCP values changed from 76.01% ± 5.83% to 34.78% ± 18.06% for the differently calculated plans (P < .0001). When the plans were renormalized to the same mean dose at the tumor, the mean TCP for oxic cells was 99.05% ± 1.59% and for hypoxic cells was 60.20% ± 9.53%. This study confirms that the MC algorithm adequately accounts for inhomogeneities. The inclusion of the MC in the process of IMRT optimization could represent a further step in the complex problem of determining the optimal treatment plan.
    Technology in cancer research & treatment 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this work is to investigate the efficacy of using multi-resolution nonuniform dose voxel geometry in Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. An in-house MC code based on the dose planning method MC code was developed in C++ to accommodate the nonuniform dose voxel geometry package since general purpose MC codes use their own coupled geometry packages. We devised the package in a manner that the entire calculation volume was first divided into a coarse mesh and then the coarse mesh was subdivided into nonuniform voxels with variable voxel sizes based on density difference. We name this approach as multi-resolution subdivision (MRS). It generates larger voxels in small density gradient regions and smaller voxels in large density gradient regions. To take into account the large dose gradients due to the beam penumbra, the nonuniform voxels can be further split using ray tracing starting from the beam edges. The accuracy of the implementation of the algorithm was verified by comparing with the data published by Rogers and Mohan. The discrepancy was found to be 1% to 2%, with a maximum of 3% at the interfaces. Two clinical cases were used to investigate the efficacy of nonuniform voxel geometry in the MC code. Applying our MRS approach, we started with the initial voxel size of 5 × 5 × 3 mm(3), which was further divided into smaller voxels. The smallest voxel size was 1.25 × 1.25 × 3 mm(3). We found that the simulation time per history for the nonuniform voxels is about 30% to 40% faster than the uniform fine voxels (1.25 × 1.25 × 3 mm(3)) while maintaining similar accuracy.
    Technology in cancer research & treatment 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of dose rate (DR) on lung tissue. The rats included in the study were randomly grouped into 3 groups: Group (G) 1 was defined as control group, and in this group rats were sham irradiated. G2 was the group receiving a single dose of 12 Gy in DR of 300 monitor unit (MU)/min. G3 was the group receiving a single dose of 12 Gy in DR of 600 MU/min. Radiotherapy (RT) was applied under general anesthesia with 6-MV photon beams to both lungs. At the 6th and 16th week of the RT, animals from each group were killed for light and electron microscopy evaluation. We evaluated the scores of each group in the 6th and the 16th week and found that in G2, there were significant increases in the perivascular fibrosis (P = .018), interstitial fibrosis (P = .002), total inflammation (P = .040), and total fibrosis (P = .003) scores. In G3, we found statistically significant increases in perivascular fibrosis (P = .001), interstitial fibrosis (P = .002), and total fibrosis scores (P = .029). There was no significant difference in the total inflammation score in G3 (P = .225). When we compare G2 and G3 in the 6th week, we found significant increase in the interstitial thickening (P = .039) and total inflammation (P = .035) scores in G3.Dose rate per fraction may have an impact on normal tissue toxicity. The prominent effect of increased DR in lung tissue is fibrosis which should be kept in mind, especially in cases where higher doses per fraction are used.
    Technology in cancer research & treatment 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Image registration techniques based on anatomical features can serve to automate patient alignment for intracranial radiosurgery procedures in an effort to improve the accuracy and efficiency of the alignment process as well as potentially eliminate the need for implanted fiducial markers. To explore this option, four two-dimensional (2D) image registration algorithms were analyzed: the phase correlation technique, mutual information (MI) maximization, enhanced correlation coefficient (ECC) maximization, and the iterative closest point (ICP) algorithm. Digitally reconstructed radiographs from the treatment planning computed tomography scan of a human skull were used as the reference images, while orthogonal digital x-ray images taken in the treatment room were used as the captured images to be aligned. The accuracy of aligning the skull with each algorithm was compared to the alignment of the currently practiced procedure, which is based on a manual process of selecting common landmarks, including implanted fiducials and anatomical skull features. Of the four algorithms, three (phase correlation, MI maximization, and ECC maximization) demonstrated clinically adequate (ie, comparable to the standard alignment technique) translational accuracy and improvements in speed compared to the interactive, user-guided technique; however, the ICP algorithm failed to give clinically acceptable results. The results of this work suggest that a combination of different algorithms may provide the best registration results. This research serves as the initial groundwork for the translation of automated, anatomy-based 2D algorithms into a real- world system for 2D-to-2D image registration and alignment for intracranial radiosurgery. This may obviate the need for invasive implantation of fiducial markers into the skull and may improve treatment room efficiency and accuracy.
    Technology in cancer research & treatment 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Establishing a new bio-mathematical model, named quantitative LQ-based (qLQB) model, that can evaluate the radio-toxicity of lung. We assume that each Function Subunit (FSU) of lung is equal and representative in functional status. Based on the Linear-Quadratic model (LQ model), we had derived a model to calculate the ratio/percent (R/P) between damaged cell/FSU and entire cell/FSU of lung for radiation dose response. We can analyse radiation pneumonia probability (RPP) based on the R/P. Forty-five 3D plans from forty-five randomly selected lung cancer patients were generated using the ELEKTA precise 2.12 treatment planning system. The qLQB was tested against the widely used Lyman-Kutcher-Burman model (LKB model). There was no distinct statistical difference in analyzing RPP between using the qLQB model and the LKB model (p = 0.412). The proposed qLQB model was found to be efficient and reliable for analyzing RPP.
    Technology in cancer research & treatment 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and benefits of using high-dose-rate three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) combined with active breathing control (ABC) for stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) of patients with early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Eight patients with early-stage NSCLC underwent CT scans under standard free-breathing (FB) and moderately deep inspiration breath-hold (mDIBH) with ABC. Two high-dose-rate 3D-CRT plans (1000 Mu/min) were designed based on the CT scans with FB and mDIBH. The maximal dose (D1%), minimal dose (D99%), conformity index (CI), and homogeneity index (HI) of the planning target volume (PTV), and dose-volume indices of the organs at risk between each plan were compared. The mean PTV volume decreased from 158.04 cm(3) with FB to 76.90 cm(3) with mDIBH (p < 0.05). When mDIBH was used, increases in the affected lung volume (by 47%), contralateral lung volume (by 55%), and total lung volume (by 50%) were observed compared to FB (p < 0.05). The V5-V40 of the affected lung (Vx represented the percentage volume of organs receiving at least the x Gy), V5-V40 and the mean dose for the total lung, V5-V40 and mean dose of the chest wall, and the maximum dose of the spinal cord were less for mDIBH than FB (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences in CI, HI, D1%, or D99% for the PTV between the plans. In conclusion, high-dose-rate 3D-CRT combined with ABC reduced the radiation dose to the lungs and chest wall without affecting the dose distribution in SBRT of early-stage NSCLC patients.
    Technology in cancer research & treatment 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Luteolin (39, 49, 5, 7-tetrahydroxyflavone) is a natural flavonoid that exists in several types of vegetables, fruits, and medicinal herbs that inhibits tumorigenesis in different types of cancer. In this study, we demonstrate luteolin-mediated regulation of cell apoptosis in a gastric cancer cell line through inhibition of the apoptosis regulatory protein Bcl-2. MTT and flow cytometric analysis indicate that luteolin inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in gastric cancer cells. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) revealed that miR-34a expression is downregulated in the majority of human primary gastric cancer tissues (8/12, 66.7%), compared with adjacent, pair-matched non-tumor tissues. Target analysis indicated that micro RNA (miR)-34a directly regulates Bcl-2, and miR-34a overexpression decreased Bcl-2 protein level in gastric cancer cells. We also found that luteolin upregulates miR-34a expression and downregulates Bcl-2 expression. Furthermore, anti-miR-34a oligonucleotides (AMO) partly reverse luteolin-induced Bcl-2 downregulation in gastric cancer cells. Based on these results, we can draw the conclusion that luteolin partly decreases Bcl-2 expression through upregulating miR-34a expression. This study shows for the first time that the miR-34a pathway plays an important role in luteolin-induced apoptosis in gastric cancer cells.
    Technology in cancer research & treatment 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The incidence of colorectal carcinoma is still growing in the Czech Republic and also all around the world. With success of oncological treatment is also growing a number of potential patients with liver metastases, who can profit from surgical therapy. The aim of this study was to confirm on porcine models that this method by using new surgical device is effective and safe for patients who have to undergo liver resection. The primary hypothesis of the study was to evaluate whether this new device is able to consistently produce homogeneous and predictable areas of coagulation necrosis without the Pringle maneuver of vascular inflow occlusion. The secondary hypothesis of the study was to compare the standard linear radiofrequency device and a new semi-spherical bipolar device for liver ablation and resection in a hepatic porcine model. Twelve pigs were randomly divided into two groups. Each pig underwent liver resection from both liver lobes in the marginal, thinner part of liver parenchyma. The pigs in first group were operated with standard using device and in the second group we used new developed semi-spherical device. We followed blood count in 0th, 14th and 30th day from operation. 14th day from resection pigs underwent diagnostic laparoscopy to evaluate of their state, and 30th day after operation were all pigs euthanized and subjected to histopathological examination. Histopathological evaluation of thermal changes at the resection margin showed strong thermal alteration in both groups. Statistical analysis of collected dates did not prove any significant (p < 0.05) differences between standard using device and our new surgical tool. We proved safety of new designed semi-spherical surgical. This device can offer the possibility of shortening the ablation time and operating time, which is benefit for patients undergoing the liver resection.
    Technology in cancer research & treatment 06/2014;