Technology in cancer research & treatment (TECHNOL CANCER RES T )


Technology in Cancer Research and Treatment welcomes manuscripts from active investigators involved in technologies devoted to early diagnosis, treatment, and palliation of cancer. The Journal will include both experimental and theoretical investigations. Among the topics that will be covered are MRI, including functional MRI, spiral CT, PET, optical spectroscopy, computer-aided reconstruction of tumors, computer-aided drug design, stereotactic radiosurgery, cryosurgery, brachytherapy, electroporation, photodynamic therapy, gene therapy, cancer vaccine, proteomics, and genomics, as they impact cancer research and treatment. Special emphasis will be given to non-invasive techniques. The Journal publishes original articles, express communications, opinion pieces, and timely reviews.

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    Technology in cancer research & treatment (Print), Technology in cancer research & treatment, Technology in cancer research and treatment
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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Luteolin (39, 49, 5, 7-tetrahydroxyflavone) is a natural flavonoid that exists in several types of vegetables, fruits, and medicinal herbs that inhibits tumorigenesis in different types of cancer. In this study, we demonstrate luteolin-mediated regulation of cell apoptosis in a gastric cancer cell line through inhibition of the apoptosis regulatory protein Bcl-2. MTT and flow cytometric analysis indicate that luteolin inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in gastric cancer cells. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) revealed that miR-34a expression is downregulated in the majority of human primary gastric cancer tissues (8/12, 66.7%), compared with adjacent, pair-matched non-tumor tissues. Target analysis indicated that micro RNA (miR)-34a directly regulates Bcl-2, and miR-34a overexpression decreased Bcl-2 protein level in gastric cancer cells. We also found that luteolin upregulates miR-34a expression and downregulates Bcl-2 expression. Furthermore, anti-miR-34a oligonucleotides (AMO) partly reverse luteolin-induced Bcl-2 downregulation in gastric cancer cells. Based on these results, we can draw the conclusion that luteolin partly decreases Bcl-2 expression through upregulating miR-34a expression. This study shows for the first time that the miR-34a pathway plays an important role in luteolin-induced apoptosis in gastric cancer cells.
    Technology in cancer research & treatment 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Establishing a new bio-mathematical model, named quantitative LQ-based (qLQB) model, that can evaluate the radio-toxicity of lung. We assume that each Function Subunit (FSU) of lung is equal and representative in functional status. Based on the Linear-Quadratic model (LQ model), we had derived a model to calculate the ratio/percent (R/P) between damaged cell/FSU and entire cell/FSU of lung for radiation dose response. We can analyse radiation pneumonia probability (RPP) based on the R/P. Forty-five 3D plans from forty-five randomly selected lung cancer patients were generated using the ELEKTA precise 2.12 treatment planning system. The qLQB was tested against the widely used Lyman-Kutcher-Burman model (LKB model). There was no distinct statistical difference in analyzing RPP between using the qLQB model and the LKB model (p = 0.412). The proposed qLQB model was found to be efficient and reliable for analyzing RPP.
    Technology in cancer research & treatment 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and benefits of using high-dose-rate three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) combined with active breathing control (ABC) for stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) of patients with early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Eight patients with early-stage NSCLC underwent CT scans under standard free-breathing (FB) and moderately deep inspiration breath-hold (mDIBH) with ABC. Two high-dose-rate 3D-CRT plans (1000 Mu/min) were designed based on the CT scans with FB and mDIBH. The maximal dose (D1%), minimal dose (D99%), conformity index (CI), and homogeneity index (HI) of the planning target volume (PTV), and dose-volume indices of the organs at risk between each plan were compared. The mean PTV volume decreased from 158.04 cm(3) with FB to 76.90 cm(3) with mDIBH (p < 0.05). When mDIBH was used, increases in the affected lung volume (by 47%), contralateral lung volume (by 55%), and total lung volume (by 50%) were observed compared to FB (p < 0.05). The V5-V40 of the affected lung (Vx represented the percentage volume of organs receiving at least the x Gy), V5-V40 and the mean dose for the total lung, V5-V40 and mean dose of the chest wall, and the maximum dose of the spinal cord were less for mDIBH than FB (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences in CI, HI, D1%, or D99% for the PTV between the plans. In conclusion, high-dose-rate 3D-CRT combined with ABC reduced the radiation dose to the lungs and chest wall without affecting the dose distribution in SBRT of early-stage NSCLC patients.
    Technology in cancer research & treatment 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Chemo-radiotherapy is standard treatment of stage IIIA-N2 bulky or IIIB non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Surgical resection of residual disease in downstaged patients may improve overall survival. In this setting, restaging disease is still a challenge. 18F-FDG PET/CT represents the gold standard although accuracy results are disappointing. Endoscopic bronchial/esophageal ultrasound (EBUS/EUS)-guided fine needle aspiration (FNA) may confirm lymph node (LN) involvement. We analyzed 16 patients with stage IIIA-N2 bulky or IIIB NSCLC treated with chemo-radiotherapy. At restaging, all patients performed EBUS/EUS with FNA and PET/CT scan and results were compared. Patients underwent PET/CT scan 43 days (range: 24-89) and EBUS/EUS 42 days (range: 14-71) after therapy. Overall, 7 EBUS and 9 EUS procedures were performed: no complications resulting from the procedure occurred. In 6 patients EBUS/EUS did not reveal any suspicious lesions; in 2 the exam showed enlarged mediastinal LN that were biopsied, but with no evidence of tumor cells; in 2 the sample was not considered diagnostic; 6 had persistent mediastinal LN involvement. PET/CT scan showed 4 cases of complete metabolic response, 9 partial metabolic response, 2 stable metabolic disease and one progressive metabolic disease. Notably, all 7 patients with .80% decrease in SUV with respect to basal value showed a pathological complete response or negative EBUS/EUS. EBUS/EUS could be used to complement PET/CT scanning to verify mediastinal LN clearance. Further prospective trials are warranted to confirm the utility of EBUS/EUS together with PET/CT in restaging locally advanced NSCLC.
    Technology in cancer research & treatment 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of (18)F-FDG PET/CT scans in detecting adrenal metastasis in liver transplant candidates with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). A total of 166 patients diagnosed with HCC received 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging before liver transplantation. Of these patients, 5 patients (4 males, 1 female; median age: 51.2 y, range: 33-61 y) were found to have suspected adrenal metastases and were included in this study. Two cases (Cases 1 and 5) underwent an 18F-FDG PET/CT scan at the initial stage, 3 cases (Cases 2-4) underwent an (18)F-FDG PET/CT scan for restaging, and one case (Case 5) underwent a second (18)F-FDG PET/CT scan for evaluating treatment response. Among the 8 lesions, there was one false-negative metastatic lesion (Lesion 4, Case 3) and one false-positive adrenal gland lesion (Lesion 7, Case 5) when compared with either histopathologic reports or established clinical and imaging follow-up results. In general, (18)F-FDG PET/CT scans have limitations that make it difficult to distinguish between malignant and benign lesions in adrenal glands that are based only on quantitative values measured using the (18)F-FDG PET/CT scan.
    Technology in cancer research & treatment 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this communication is to inform the radiosurgery community of quality assurance (QA) results requiring attention in a commercial FDA-approved linac-based cone stereo-tactic radiosurgery (SRS) system. Standard published QA guidelines as per the American Association of Physics in Medicine (AAPM) were followed during the SRS system's commissioning process including end-to-end testing, cone concentricity testing, image transfer verification, and documentation. Several software and hardware deficiencies that were deemed risky were uncovered during the process and QA processes were put in place to mitigate these risks during clinical practice. In particular, the present work focuses on daily cone concentricity testing and commissioning-related findings associated with the software. Cone concentricity/alignment is measured daily using both optical light field inspection, as well as quantitative radiation field tests with the electronic portal imager. In 10 out of 36 clini- cal treatments, adjustments to the cone position had to be made to align the cone with the collimator axis to less than 0.5 mm and on two occasions the pre-adjustment measured offset was 1.0 mm. Software-related errors discovered during commissioning included incorrect transfer of the isocentre in DICOM coordinates, improper handling of non-axial image sets, and complex handling of beam data, especially for multi-target treatments. QA processes were established to mitigate the occurrence of the software errors. With proper QA processes, the reported SRS system complies with tolerances set out in established guidelines. Discussions with the vendor are ongoing to address some of the hardware issues related to cone alignment.
    Technology in cancer research & treatment 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The incidence of colorectal carcinoma is still growing in the Czech Republic and also all around the world. With success of oncological treatment is also growing a number of potential patients with liver metastases, who can profit from surgical therapy. The aim of this study was to confirm on porcine models that this method by using new surgical device is effective and safe for patients who have to undergo liver resection. The primary hypothesis of the study was to evaluate whether this new device is able to consistently produce homogeneous and predictable areas of coagulation necrosis without the Pringle maneuver of vascular inflow occlusion. The secondary hypothesis of the study was to compare the standard linear radiofrequency device and a new semi-spherical bipolar device for liver ablation and resection in a hepatic porcine model. Twelve pigs were randomly divided into two groups. Each pig underwent liver resection from both liver lobes in the marginal, thinner part of liver parenchyma. The pigs in first group were operated with standard using device and in the second group we used new developed semi-spherical device. We followed blood count in 0th, 14th and 30th day from operation. 14th day from resection pigs underwent diagnostic laparoscopy to evaluate of their state, and 30th day after operation were all pigs euthanized and subjected to histopathological examination. Histopathological evaluation of thermal changes at the resection margin showed strong thermal alteration in both groups. Statistical analysis of collected dates did not prove any significant (p < 0.05) differences between standard using device and our new surgical tool. We proved safety of new designed semi-spherical surgical. This device can offer the possibility of shortening the ablation time and operating time, which is benefit for patients undergoing the liver resection.
    Technology in cancer research & treatment 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Tissue ablation, i.e., the destruction of undesirable tissues, has become an important minimally invasive technique alternative to resection surgery for the treatment of tumours. Several methods for tissue ablation are based on thermal techniques using cold, e.g. cryosurgery [1] or heat, e.g. radiofrequency [2] or high-intensity focused ultrasound [3] or nanoparticle-mediated irradiation [4]. Alternatively, irreversible electroporation (IRE) has been proposed as non thermal technique for minimally invasive tissue ablation based on the use of electrical pulses. When the electric field is applied to a cell, a change in transmembrane potential is induced, which can cause biochemical and physiological changes of the cell. When the threshold value of the transmembrane potential is exceeded, the cell membrane becomes permeable, thus allowing entrance of molecules that otherwise cannot cross the membrane [5]. A further increase in the electric field intensity may cause irreversible membrane permeabilization and cell death. These pulses create irreversible defects (pores) in the cell membrane lipid bilayer, causing cell death through loss of cell homeostasis [6]. This is desirable in tumour ablation in order to produce large cell death, without the use of cytostatic drugs. A study of Davalos, Mir and Rubinsky showed that IRE can ablate substantial volumes of tissue without inducing a thermal effect and therefore serve as an independent and new tissue ablation modality; this opened the way to the use of IRE in surgery [7]. Their finding was subsequently confirmed in studies on cells [8], small animal models [9] and in large animal models in the liver [10] and the heart [11]. The most important finding in these papers is that irreversible electroporation produces precisely delineated ablation zones with cell scale resolution between ablated and non-ablated areas, without zones in which the extent of damage changes gradually as during thermal ablation. Furthermore, it is observed that irreversible electroporation affects only the membrane of living cells and spares the tissues scaffold. The work of Rubinsky et al.[10] was the first to highlight some of the essential clinical features of irreversible electroporation such as the ability to spare large blood vessels and bile ducts, rapid tissue regeneration because of the intact large blood vessels scaffolds, rapid activation of the immune system, no scarring and the potential ability to treat tumours near large blood vessels [12] .
    Technology in cancer research & treatment 09/2012; 11(5).
  • Technology in cancer research & treatment 12/2009;
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    ABSTRACT: The prediction of essential biological features based on a given protein sequence is a challenging task in computational biology. To limit the amount of in vitro verification, the prediction of essential biological activities gives the opportunity to detect so far unknown sequences with similar properties. Besides the application within the identification of proteins being involved in tumorigenesis, other functional classes of proteins can be predicted. The prediction accuracy depends on the selected machine learning approach and even more on the composition of the descriptor set used. A computational approach based on feedforward neural networks was applied for the prediction of small GTPases. Consequently, this was realized by taking secondary structure and hydrophobicity information as a preprocessing architecture and thus, as descriptors for the neural networks. We developed a neural network cluster, which consists of a filter network and four subfamily networks. The filter network was trained to identify small GTPases and the subfamily networks were trained to assign a small GTPase to one of the subfamilies. The accuracy of the prediction, whether a given sequence represents a small GTPase is very high (98.25%). The classifications of the subfamily networks yield comparable accuracy. The high prediction accuracy of the neural network cluster developed, gives the opportunity to suggest the use of hydrophobicity and secondary structure prediction in combination with a neural network cluster, as a promising method for the prediction of essential biological activities.
    Technology in cancer research & treatment 10/2009; 8(5):333-41.
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    ABSTRACT: Helical tomotherapy is a form of image-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy that introduces the ring gantry concept into radiation oncology. The system is a combination of a therapeutic linear accelerator and a megavoltage CT-scanner. This work describes the clinical experience with megavoltage CT with 456 patients in more than 11000 fractions. It also provides a review of the current literature of the possibilities and limitations of megavoltage CT. Between July 2006 and October 2008 456 patients were treated with helical tomotherapy and a pretreatment megavoltage CT was performed in 98.1% of the 11821 fractions to perform position control and correction. CT image acquisition was done with 3.5 MV x-rays in the helical tomotherapy machine. MVCT was used for dose recalculations to quantify doses distributions in cases of changing geometry, tumor shrinkage or presence of metal implants. Inverse treatment planning for prostate cancer patients with bilateral hip replacements was performed based upon an MVCT. A mean 3D-correction vector of 7.1mm with a considerable variation was detected and immediately corrected. Mean shifts were lateral 0.9mm (sd 5.0mm), mean longitudinal shift 1.0mm (sd 5.1mm) and mean vertical shift 3.2mm (sd 5.2mm). The MVCT enables imaging of anatomical structures in the presence of dental metal or orthopedic implants. Especially in these cases, dose recomputations can increase the precision of dose calculations. Due to a mean 3d correction vector of more than 7mm and a variation of corrections of more than 5mm daily image-guidance is recommended to achieve a precise dose application. The MVCT shows evident advantages in cases with metal implants but has limitations due to a reduced soft tissue contrast. Compared with megavoltage cone-beam-CT the tomotherapy fan beam CT adds less extra dose fore the patient and has a better soft tissue contrast.
    Technology in cancer research & treatment 10/2009; 8(5):343-52.
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    ABSTRACT: The goal of this study was to dosimetrically compare 3-dimensional radiotherapy (3DCRT), intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), and helical tomotherapy (TOMO) plans for whole abdominopelvic radiotherapy (WART) in patients with gynecologic cancer. Ten patients were selected for WART planning. Doses were prescribed to planning target volumes (PTVs) as the followings: 30 Gy to PTV-whole abdominopelvis (PTV-WA), 40 Gy to PTV-para-aortic lymph node (PTV-PALN), 44 Gy to PTV-pelvis, and 50 Gy to gross target volume (GTV) in 20 fractions. Dose to whole liver, both kidneys, and spinal cord were constrained below each tissue tolerance, and bone marrow (BM)-sparing technique was adopted in IMRT and TOMO. Dosimetric parameters and treatment times were compared among plans. Calculated doses in TOMO came most closely to the prescribed dose for coverage of PTV-WA, PTV-PALN, PTV-pelvis, and GTV compared to 3DCRT, and IMRT. In normal organs, TOMO had significantly better dosimetric profiles compared to IMRT and 3DCRT. TOMO significantly reduced V(20Gy), and mean dose of whole liver, both kidneys, and spinal cord. The use of BM-sparing technique (BMS) did not impair coverage of target volume in IMRT and TOMO. While IMRT showed no differences of irradiated BM dose using BMS, TOMO with BMS reduced half V(20Gy) of BM compared to TOMO without BMS. TOMO showed dosimetric superiority in target coverage, sparing BM, and other normal organs compared to 3DCRT and IMRT. Clinical experiences will be needed for evaluation of feasibility of WART using TOMO in patients with gynecologic cancer.
    Technology in cancer research & treatment 10/2009; 8(5):369-77.
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    ABSTRACT: Clinical management of pelvic relapses from gynecologic malignancies remains challenging. Bulky pelvic relapses often lead to symptomatic cancer-related complications and poor clinical outcomes. Options may be limited by prior surgical, chemotherapeutic, and radiation treatment. Stereotactic body radiosurgery is a novel treatment modality which allows high radiation dose delivery in a non-coplanar fashion with sub-millimeter precision utilizing a linear accelerator mounted on a robotic arm. This study details our clinical experience with stereotactic body radiosurgery for treatment of patients with pelvic relapses of gynecologic malignancies after prior pelvic radiation.
    Technology in cancer research & treatment 10/2009; 8(5):393-400.
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    ABSTRACT: Here we report results from the first cohort of over 100 patients treated with hypofractionated, stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for early stage prostate cancer. Between February 2005 and December 2006, 112 patients with localized, biopsy-proven adenocarcinoma of the prostate (clinical stage T1cN0M0 to T2cN0M0) were treated in Naples, FL on a CyberKnife system (Accuray Incorporated, Sunnyvale, CA). Eighty-one patients had a Gleason score of 3+3. Mean initial PSA was 6.0, and mean initial prostate volume was 46.3cc. Implanted gold fiducials were used for image-guided targeting and tracking. Patients received 35-36 Gy administered in 5 consecutive fractions to the prostate and the proximal seminal vesicles, as identified on CT and MRI scans. At a median follow-up of 24 months, the mean PSA value was 0.78 ng/ml. Two patients have developed biopsy-confirmed local relapse; one developed distant metastases. Acute side effects were generally mild and resolved shortly after treatment. A single Grade 3 rectal complication was reported (bleeding). Eighty-two percent of patients who were sexually potent before treatment maintained erectile function post-treatment. Additional follow-up is required to better evaluate potential late toxicity and long-term PSA outcomes.
    Technology in cancer research & treatment 10/2009; 8(5):387-92.
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    ABSTRACT: Diagnosis of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MM) is limited. Novel proteomic techno_logies can be utilized to discover changes in expression of pleural proteins that might have diagnostic value. The objective of this study was to detect protein profiles that could be used to identify malignant pleural mesothelioma with surface enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (SELDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS). Pleural effusions were collected from patients with confirmed mesothelioma (n = 41) and from patients with effusions due to other causes ([n = 48] cancerous and non-cancerous). Samples were fractionated using anion exchange chromatography and bound to different types of ProteinChip array surfaces. All samples were also subjected to other commercially available immunoassays (human epididymes protein 4 [HE4], osteopontin [OPN], soluble mesothelin-related proteins [SMRP], and the cytokeratin 19 fragment [CYFRA 21-1]). Peak intensity data obtained by SELDI-TOF were subjected to classification algorithms in order to identify potential classifier peaks. A protein peak at m/z 6614 was characterized as apolipoprotein (Apo) CI. In this setting, the sensitivity and specificity of this potential biomarker was 76 % and 69 %, respectively. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for Apo CI was 0.755, thereby outperforming OPN, HE4, and CYFRA 21-1. SMRP performed best with an AUC of 0.860 with a sensitivity of 83% and specificity of 74%. Our study validates the use of SMRP as a diagnostic marker for pleural mesothelioma and furthermore suggests that Apo CI levels could be used in the future to discriminate pleural mesothelioma from other causes of exudates.
    Technology in cancer research & treatment 10/2009; 8(5):323-32.

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