Veterinary Surgery (Vet Surg )

Publisher: American College of Veterinary Surgeons; European College of Veterinary Surgeons, Blackwell Publishing

Description

Veterinary Surgery is a bimonthly journal focusing on continuing education within the broad field of veterinary surgery. Coverage includes surgical techniques, management of the surgical patient, diagnostic aids, infections, advances in metabolism, veterinary research and the history of the specialty.

  • Impact factor
    1.24
  • 5-year impact
    1.72
  • Cited half-life
    8.80
  • Immediacy index
    0.07
  • Eigenfactor
    0.00
  • Article influence
    0.45
  • Website
    Veterinary Surgery website
  • Other titles
    Veterinary surgery (Online), Veterinary surgery, VS
  • ISSN
    1532-950X
  • OCLC
    45552058
  • Material type
    Document, Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Blackwell Publishing

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author cannot archive a post-print version
  • Restrictions
    • Some journals impose embargoes typically of 6 or 12 months, occasionally of 24 months
    • no listing of affected journals available as yet
  • Conditions
    • See Wiley-Blackwell entry for articles after February 2007
    • Publisher version cannot be used
    • On author or institutional or subject-based server
    • Server must be non-commercial
    • Publisher copyright and source must be acknowledged with set statement ("The definitive version is available at www.blackwell-synergy.com ")
    • Articles in some journals can be made Open Access on payment of additional charge
    • 'Blackwell Publishing' is an imprint of 'Wiley-Blackwell'
  • Classification
    ​ yellow

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective To 1) assess the bending strength and stiffness of canine cadaver spines after fixation of a lumbar spinal fracture-luxation using a novel unilateral stabilization technique with pins and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and 2) compare the results to a reference standard dorsal pin and PMMA technique.Study DesignA randomized non-inferiority trial.Sample PopulationCadaveric lumbar spines (L1-L6) from 20 Greyhounds.Methods Specimens were paired to match bodyweight and vertebral size. A standardized fracture/luxation was performed between L3 and L4. One spine within each pair was randomly assigned the unilateral fixation technique and the other received the reference standard dorsal fixation technique. Four-point bending of each specimen in flexion was performed by applying load to pins placed transversely into vertebrae L1, L2, L5, and L6. During testing, angular bending strength and stiffness were measured as a function of flexion angle. Margins for non-inferiority were defined a priori. Strength and stiffness of the specimens for each technique were compared statistically.ResultsLower limits of 95% confidence intervals were above the defined margins for non-inferiority. Thus, based on these margins, for strength and stiffness, unilateral fixation was not inferior to dorsal fixation.Conclusions This novel unilateral approach to lumbar spinal fixation yielded comparable strength and stiffness when tested for bending in flexion to that of reference standard dorsal approach. This approach is therefore a suitable alternative to the dorsal approach in appropriate lumbar spinal fracture configurations.
    Veterinary Surgery 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives To document a technique for one-lung ventilation (OLV) in cats and evaluate the effect of low-pressure carbon dioxide insufflation and OLV (OLV–CDI) on cardiorespiratory variables in cats.Study designProspective randomized study.AnimalsCats (n = 6).Methods General anesthesia was induced using a standardized anesthetic protocol. A thermodilution catheter was placed into the pulmonary artery using fluoroscopic guidance. Two 6 mm thoracoscopic cannulae were placed at a subxiphoid and intercostal location, respectively, to allow direct observation of all lung lobes. OLV was induced using an endobronchial blocker, which was placed into the right and left main stem bronchi in randomized order using bronchoscopic guidance. Cardiorespiratory variables were measured at 5 and 30 minutes after induction of OLV and subsequently at 5 and 30 minutes after initiation of OLV–CDI at intra-thoracic pressures of 3 mmHg.ResultsLeft-sided OLV was successful in 5 cats, right-sided OLV was successful in 2 cats, and neither was successful in 1 cat. No significant effects on hemodynamic variables or oxygen delivery were observed after right or left-sided OLV alone. Hemodynamic variables were also well-preserved after OLV–CDI; however, oxygen delivery was significantly lower after left OLV–CDI compared with right OLV–CDI, and in 2 cats, severe desaturation occurred after L-OLV–CDI before the 30 minute time point.ConclusionsOLV can be used in cats for thoracoscopic interventions. Although right OLV–CDI was tolerated better than left OLV–CDI, the technique requires further investigation before it can be recommended for widespread clinical use.
    Veterinary Surgery 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Objective To describe the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), arthroscopic, and histopathologic changes in dogs with medial coronoid disease and to identify potential relationships between these findings.Study DesignRetrospective case series.Sample PopulationTwenty-five diseased medial coronoid processes (MCP) were collected from 19 dogs with a confirmed diagnosis of medial coronoid disease that were surgically treated by subtotal coronoid ostectomy. A reference group of normal MCP was collected from 9 dogs euthanatized for reasons unrelated to elbow disease.MethodsMCP specimens were evaluated by MRI using a novel grading scheme (all dogs), arthroscopy using a modified Outerbridge scheme (affected dogs only) and histopathology (all dogs).ResultsThe common histopathologic findings were subchondral microfractures, subchondral microfractures continuous with cartilaginous fissures, moderate to severe hypercellularity of the marrow space, trabecular bone necrosis, and articular cartilage degeneration. The severity of cartilage disease in the MCP was moderate to severe in most specimens, even in cases with minimal arthroscopic pathology. Three distinct patterns of bone marrow lesion (BML) were identified adjacent to the MCP, but there was no correlation between BML pattern and either histopathologic or arthroscopic findings. There was moderate correlation between modified Outerbridge scores and MRI scores. No correlation was identified between the histopathologic changes and either MRI or arthroscopic scores.Conclusion There was no significant correlation between the clinical scores and histopathologic changes. Ongoing improvements in the resolution of noninvasive imaging techniques will likely improve description and understanding of the MCP disease in dogs.
    Veterinary Surgery 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Objective To compare a vessel sealant device to hemostatic clips for cystic duct ligation in a canine cadaveric model.Study DesignExperimental.Methods Hepatobiliary systems were collected from normal dogs. A microtip pressure transducer was inserted into the common bile duct and a 20–24 g intravenous catheter was placed in a hepatic duct. The cystic duct was ligated with 1 of 3 techniques: vessel sealant device (VSD), 10 mm medium Endoclips™, or 10 mm large Endoclips™ with 6 specimens in each group. Methylene blue was infused until failure, which was recorded as seal/clip failure or retrograde movement of methylene blue into the liver.ResultsMean failure pressure of the medium endoclip group was significantly lower than the large endoclip group (P = .014). There was no difference between the failure pressure of the VSD group and the medium and large endoclip groups (P = .097, P = .34, respectively). Failure by leakage at the cut surface of the cystic duct occurred in 2 specimens in the medium endoclip group while all others failed by retrograde flow of the methylene blue through the hepatic ducts.Conclusions The vessel sealant device appears comparable to large endoclips for closure of the cystic duct in an acute cadaveric model, while medium endoclips may not fully compress or span the diameter of a cystic duct in large breed dogs and leak at lower pressures.
    Veterinary Surgery 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives To report a resection and anastomosis technique to treat trauma-induced tracheal stenosis.Study DesignCase report.AnimalsA 9-year-old Warmblood gelding.Methods Endoscopy, radiography, and ultrasonography were used to diagnose a single ring tracheal stenosis; the stenotic region was resected and adjacent tracheal rings anastomosed with an end-to-end technique.ResultsThe anastomosis healed completely despite formation of a unilateral partial mucosal stenosis “web,” which was subsequently removed by transendoscopic laser surgery. During tracheal anastomosis, the left recurrent laryngeal nerve was damaged, causing laryngeal hemiplegia, later treated successfully by laryngoplasty. The horse returned to its previous level of work.Conclusions This tracheal resection and anastomosis technique successfully provided the horse with a large tracheal lumen, and despite major complications, allowed a return to full athletic work.
    Veterinary Surgery 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives To report the clinical signs, diagnostic findings, surgical treatment, postoperative complications, and long-term outcome in 2 adult alpacas with large intra-abdominal abscesses treated by marsupialization of the abscess to the ventral body wall.Study DesignClinical report.AnimalsAlpacas (n = 2).Methods Two alpacas each presented with decreased appetite, lethargy, poor body condition, and marked abdominal distension. A complete physical examination, abdominal radiography, and ultrasonography confirmed the presence of large intra-abdominal abscesses. Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus was cultured from the abscess fluid of alpaca 1, and a Gram-negative bacillus from alpaca 2.ResultsBoth alpacas had exploratory celiotomy with marsupialization of the abdominal abscess to the ventral body wall. Postoperatively, alpacas were administered systemic antibiotics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and the abscesses were lavaged for several days. Alpaca 2 required a second surgical procedure. The abscesses ultimately resolved in both alpacas, with body wall hernia formation as the only major complication. Both alpacas had good long-term outcomes.Conclusion Marsupialization to the ventral abdominal wall with concurrent antibiotic treatment should be considered as a treatment option for alpacas with large intra-abdominal abscesses in which complete surgical resection of the abscess is not possible. An abdominal wall hernia can result from this procedure, and clients should be informed of this potential complication before surgery.
    Veterinary Surgery 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: To determine ex vivo contact data on the equine medial tibial plateau loaded by an intact medial femoral condyle (MFC), by an MFC with an osteochondral defect, and with a screw inserted in lag fashion through the MFC defect.
    Veterinary Surgery 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: (1) To describe a protocol for measurement of the anatomic lateral distal femoral angle (aLDFA), angle of anteversion (AA), mechanical medial proximal tibial angle (mMPTA), tibial tuberosity displacement (TTD), and crural torsion angle (CTA) from computed tomography (CT) multiplanar reconstructions of canine hindlimbs. (2) To test the intra-observer variability (repeatability) and inter-observer variability (reproducibility) of the protocol. (3) To assess the proportion of variance in the measurement of each parameter explained by dog, observer, body mass, and medial patellar luxation (MPL).
    Veterinary Surgery 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: To describe and compare onset and intensity of thoracic duct (TD) coloration after injection of methylene blue into the diaphragmatic crus and mesenteric lymph node.
    Veterinary Surgery 08/2014;
  • Veterinary Surgery 08/2014; 43(6):E204-205.
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    ABSTRACT: Objective To report temporal lobe surgery for a cavernous hemangioma in a dog and outcome.Study designClinical report.AnimalsDog (n = 1).Methods Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was used to identify a temporal lobe mass in 9-year-old, male neutered Labrador Retriever that had a 12 hour history of seizures. An approach to the temporal lobe allowed preservation of the zygomatic arch and mass removal.ResultsThe mass was confirmed as a cavernous hemangioma on histopathology. Repeat MR imaging at 13 months showed no recurrence of gross structural disease; however, the dog's anti-epileptic medication was administered for adequate seizure control.Conclusion Temporal lobe surgery can be performed in the dog's for the management of temporal lobe mass lesions.
    Veterinary Surgery 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Objective To describe clinical use of computed tomography (CT) and hoof surface markers to facilitate internal fixation within the confines of the hoof wall.Study DesignRetrospective case series.AnimalsHorses (n = 16) that had CT-guided internal fixation of the distal phalanx (DP) or distal sesamoid bone (DSB).Methods Drill bit entry point and direction were planned from CT image series performed on hooves with grids of barium paste dots at proposed entry and projected exit sites. Post-implantation CT images were obtained to check screw position and length as well as fracture reduction. Imaging, reduction, and surgical and general anesthesia times were evaluated. Outcome was recorded.ResultsScrew position and length were considered near optimal in all horses, with no consequential malposition of bits or screws. Fracture reduction was evident in all cases. Preoperative planning times (at least 2 CT image acquisitions and grid creation) ranged from 10 to 20 minutes. Surgery time ranged from 45 to 90 minutes (mean, 61 minutes) and general anesthesia time ranged from 115 to 220 minutes (mean, 171 minutes).Conclusions The combination of CT and surface marker grids allowed accurate positioning of screws in clinical DP and DSB fractures. The technique was simple and rapid. An aiming device is useful for the technique.
    Veterinary Surgery 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Objective To evaluate the cardiopulmonary effects of low-pressure (6 mmHg) peritoneal insufflation of varying duration in healthy cats during ovariectomy (OVE).Study DesignProspective, randomized study.AnimalsFemale cats (n = 24).Methods After anesthesia induction, cats had short (Short LAP; n = 8) or long duration (Long LAP; n = 8) laparoscopic ovariectomy, or Open OVE (Open; n = 8) for comparison. Hemodynamic and pulmonary measurements were recorded after induction of anesthesia (T0), 5 minutes after abdominal insufflation had reached 6 mmHg of pressure (T1), after the 2nd ovary had been resected (T2), after abdominal decompression (T3), and at the end of anesthesia, after abdominal closure (T4). Hemodynamic and pulmonary variables were compared between groups.ResultsLow-pressure abdominal insufflation caused cardiopulmonary changes in cats. At T1 and T2, Long LAP and Short LAP caused a significant change in PvCO2 and RC when compared with Open. During T3, RC was lower only in Long LAP. At T2, there was decrease in SV, but not CO for Long LAP when compared with Open.Conclusions Duration of insufflation was associated with worsening of negative cardiopulmonary effects; however, these effects were reversible and resolved by the end of the procedure.
    Veterinary Surgery 08/2014;
  • Veterinary Surgery 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Objective To describe (1) diagnosis of dynamic collapse of the cricotracheal ligament in a group of horses and (2) treatment and outcome of affected horses.Study DesignRetrospective case series.AnimalsThoroughbred horses (n = 8).Methods Of 600 over ground dynamic endoscopic examinations performed, 8 Thoroughbred horses had cricotracheal ligament collapse (CTLC); 5 were 2 years old and in early training and 2 were mature horses in full work. CTLC was diagnosed if circumferential collapse of the cricotracheal ligament was identified during exercise. Seven horses had repeat endoscopic examination. Two horses unresponsive to conservative management were treated surgically.ResultsMultiple abnormalities of the upper portion of the respiratory tract were identified along with CTLC in all five 2-year-old horses and resolution of CTLC was observed after treatment for upper airway inflammation. No concurrent respiratory abnormality was identified in the 2 mature horses. Surgical reduction of the cricotracheal space and imbrication of the cricotracheal ligament of these 2 horses resulted in resolution of clinical signs of CTLC.ConclusionsCTLC is a rare cause of dynamic obstruction in Thoroughbred racehorses. Resolution may occur after adaptation to training and after inflammation of the respiratory tract is resolved, but for horses with persistent CTLC, surgical reduction of the cricotracheal space and imbrication of the cricotracheal ligament may result in resolution of clinical signs.
    Veterinary Surgery 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives To determine factors associated with postoperative reflux, postoperative colic, repeat celiotomy, and survival in horses after end-to-side (E2S) or side-to-side (S2S) jejunocecostomy.Study DesignRetrospective, multicenter study.Sample PopulationHorses (n = 150).Methods Admissions, intra- and postoperative data were collected from medical records of horses that had E2S or S2S jejunocecostomy. Descriptive statistics were calculated and data were analyzed using parametric and nonparametric tests, linear and multivariate logistic regression with significance set at P < .05. Kaplan–Meier estimate of the survival function was performed.ResultsOne hundred fifty horses (S2S = 90, E2S = 60) were included. S2S procedures were performed using staples (n = 57) or hand-sewn (33). Method of anastomosis was not significantly associated with development of postoperative reflux or colic, repeat celiotomy, whether the horse was alive at hospital discharge or 12 months after discharge. The number of years that the principal surgeon was boarded by the American College of Veterinary Surgeons significantly affected whether the horse was discharged from the hospital alive (P = .003). Age (P = .006) was significantly associated with 12-month survival. Increased age (P = .013) and administration of prokinetic medication (P = .0006) were significantly associated with development of postoperative reflux. Sixty-eight (76%) horses with S2S and 52 (87%) horses with E2S were discharged alive.Conclusion Age, patient related variables, and surgeon experience may influence morbidity and mortality more than method of jejunocecostomy.
    Veterinary Surgery 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives To compare the monotonic biomechanical properties of a broad 4.5 mm limited contact-dynamic compression plate (LC-DCP) fixation secured with hydroxyapatite (HA) coated cortical bone screws (HA-LC-DCP) versus uncoated cortical bone screws (AO-LC-DCP) to repair osteotomized equine 3rd metacarpal (MC3) bones.Study DesignExperimental.Sample PopulationAdult equine cadaveric MC3 bones (n = 12 pair).Methods Twelve pairs of equine MC3 were divided into 3 test groups (4 pairs each) for: (1) 4 point bending single cycle to failure testing; (2) 4 point bending cyclic fatigue testing; and (3) torsional single cycle to failure testing. For the HA-LC-DCP-MC3 construct, an 8-hole broad LC-DCP (Synthes Ltd, Paoli, PA) was secured on the dorsal surface of each randomly selected MC3 bone with a combination of four 5.5 mm and four 4.5 mm HA-coated cortical screws. For the AO-LC-DCP-MC3 construct, an 8-hole 4.5 mm broad LC-DCP was secured on the dorsal surface of the contralateral MC3 bone with a combination of four 5.5 mm and four 4.5 mm uncoated cortical screws. All MC3 bones had mid-diaphyseal osteotomies. Mean test variable values for each method were compared using a paired t-test within each group. Significance was set at P < .05.ResultsMean yield load, yield bending moment, composite rigidity, failure load, and failure bending moment, under 4 point bending, single cycle to failure, of the HA-LC-DCP fixation were significantly greater than those of the AO-LC-DCP fixation. Mean ± SD values for the HA-LC-DCP and the AO-LC-DCP fixation techniques, respectively, in single cycle to failure under 4 point bending were: yield load, 26.7 ± 2.15 and 16.3 ± 1.38 kN; yield bending moment, 527.4 ± 42.4 and 322.9 ± 27.2 N-m; composite rigidity, 5306 ± 399 and 3003 ± 300 N-m/rad; failure load, 40.6 ± 3.94 and 26.5 ± 2.52 kN; and failure bending moment, 801.9 ± 77.9 and 522.9 ± 52.2 N-m. Mean cycles to failure in 4 point bending of the HA-LC-DCP fixation (116,274 ± 13,211) was significantly greater than that of the AO-LC-DCP fixation 47,619 ± 6580. Mean yield load, mean composite rigidity, and mean failure load under torsional testing, single cycle to failure was significantly greater for the broad HA-LC-DCP fixation compared with the AO-LC-DCP fixation. In single cycle to failure under torsion, mean ± SD values for the HA-LC-DCP and the AO-LC-DCP fixation techniques, respectively, were: yield load, 101.3 ± 14.68 and 70.54 ± 10.20 N-m; composite rigidity, 437.9 ± 32.9 and 220.7 ± 17.6 N-m/rad; and failure load: 105.7 ± 15.5 and 75.28 ± 10.1 N-m.ConclusionHA-LC-DCP was superior to AO-LC-DCP in resisting the static overload forces (palmarodorsal 4 point bending and torsional) and in resisting cyclic fatigue under palmarodorsal 4 point bending.
    Veterinary Surgery 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives To report short- and long-term outcomes after arthroscopic treatment in young large breed dogs affected by medial coronoid process disease (MCPD) and identify variables affecting outcome.Study DesignProspective observational case series.AnimalsLarge breed dogs <3 years old (n = 15; 23 elbows).MethodsMCPD was confirmed by radiography, computed tomography, and arthroscopy. Dogs were treated by arthroscopy. Variables recorded at time of treatment included radioulnar incongruity (RUI) and degree of cartilage erosion. Variables recorded before, 6 weeks, and ≥23 months after surgery included radiographic score for osteoarthritis, trochlear notch sclerosis, muscle circumference, range of motion (ROM), and the load distribution of vertical ground reaction forces between thoracic and pelvic limbs.ResultsA greater load distribution to the pelvic limbs was identified preoperatively in dogs with RUI than in dogs with congruent elbows. Load distribution was not significantly improved at 6 weeks compared with preoperatively. Muscle circumference and vertical impulse distributions were improved at long-term evaluation despite an increased osteoarthritis score. This improvement was more obvious in dogs with RUI or a high degree of cartilage erosion at initial presentation.Conclusion Some evidence of improvement in long-term function was found in dogs with MCPD after arthroscopic treatment. RUI and cartilage erosion at the time of diagnosis were associated with more lameness preoperatively but did not affect the final gait assessment or osteoarthritis score in this small cohort.
    Veterinary Surgery 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Objective To compare the biomechanical properties of a 10-hole 3.5 mm locking compression plate (LCP) with 2 proximal and 2 distal bicortical locked screws reinforced with either a Steinmann pin of 30–40% the medullary diameter or a poly-ether-ether-ketone (PEEK) rod of ∼75% the medullary diameter in a cadaveric tibia gap model.Study DesignEx vivo study.Sample PopulationCadaveric canine tibias (n = 8 pair).Methods Each construct had a 10-hole 3.5 mm LCP with 2 screws per fracture fragment using a comminuted tibia gap model. The Steinmann pin constructs had a 2.4 mm intramedullary pin whereas the PEEK-rod constructs had a 6 mm intramedullary PEEK rod placed. Biomechanical testing included non-destructive bi-planar 4 point bending, torsion testing, and destructive axial compression. Testing produced the responses of failure load (N) in axial compression, stiffness (N/mm or N/°) in axial compression, torsion, lateral-medial, and caudal-cranial 4 point bending. Screw position within the PEEK-rods was determined after explantation.ResultsThe PEEK-rod constructs were significantly stiffer in axial compression (P < .005), lateral-medial 4 point bending (P < .001), and in torsional loading (P < .031) than the Steinman pin constructs. There was no significant difference between the constructs for stiffness in caudal-cranial 4 point bending (P = .32). The PEEK-rod constructs failed at a significantly higher load than the Steinmann pin constructs (P < .001). All constructs failed by yielding through plastic deformation. Each screw penetrated the PEEK rod in all constructs but the position of the screw varied.ConclusionPEEK-rod constructs failed at significantly higher loads and were significantly stiffer in 4 point lateral-medial bending, axial compression, and torsion when compared with Steinmann pin constructs.
    Veterinary Surgery 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Objective To document the progression of disease after an unloading procedure when combined with arthroscopic debridement to treat osteochondrosis (OC) lesions affecting the medial humeral condyle in juvenile dogs without medial compartment disease.Study DesignRetrospective case series.AnimalsDogs with medial humeral condyle OC (n = 6).Methods Dogs with medial humeral condyle OC (9 elbows) were treated by arthroscopic debridement of the OC lesion and sliding humeral osteotomy (SHO). Outcomes were assessed by radiography (n = 9), 2nd-look arthroscopy (9) and clinical examination including lameness assessment (9) at 18–28 months after surgery.ResultsSeven elbows had marked progression of pathology affecting the medial compartment, 5 elbows developed subsequent fragmentation of the medial coronoid process of the ulna [FMCP], 2 elbows had fibrocartilaginous infill of the humeral defect without development of coronoid pathology.Conclusion This limited case series suggests that medial compartment disease develops despite unloading of the medial compartment using a distal diaphyseal SHO in juvenile dogs with OC.
    Veterinary Surgery 08/2014;

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