Pain management nursing: official journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses Impact Factor & Information

Publisher: American Society of Pain Management Nurses, WB Saunders

Journal description

This exciting new journal offers a unique focus on the realm of pain management as it applies to nurses. Original and review articles from experts in the field offer key insight in the areas of clinical practice, advocacy, education, administration, and research. Additional features include practice guidelines and articles dealing with pharmacologic issues.

Current impact factor: 1.53

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2016
2014 Impact Factor 1.529
2013 Impact Factor 1.787
2012 Impact Factor 1.696
2011 Impact Factor 1.145
2010 Impact Factor 1.039
2009 Impact Factor 1.306
2008 Impact Factor 1.537

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 2.04
Cited half-life 6.10
Immediacy index 0.14
Eigenfactor 0.00
Article influence 0.48
Website Pain Management Nursing website
Other titles Pain management nursing (Online), Pain management nursing
ISSN 1532-8635
OCLC 45496010
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

WB Saunders

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    • Permitted deposit due to Funding Body, Institutional and Governmental policy or mandate, may be required to comply with embargo periods of 12 months to 48 months
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    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
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    • NIH Authors articles will be submitted to PubMed Central after 12 months
    • Authors who are required to deposit in subject-based repositories may also use Sponsorship Option
    • Publisher last reviewed on 03/07/2015
    • 'WB Saunders' is an imprint of 'Elsevier'
  • Classification

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Pediatric pain is often undertreated/neglected due to time constraints, difficulties in timing of oral analgesics, fear of side effects of opioids and anxiolytics, and apprehension of additional pain in the use of local anesthetic injections. In this study, the researcher was prompted to choose rapidly acting interventions that were low dose and allowed the child to stay alert, suitable for a quick discharge. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of Entonox, play therapy, and a combination to relieve procedural pain in children aged 4-15 years. The study was designed as a randomized controlled trial; the subjects were divided into four groups using a sequential allocation plan from 123 total subjects. Group A received Entonox, Group B received play therapy, Group C received both Entonox and play therapy, and Group D received existing standard interventions. The study was vetted by the departmental study review committee. The pain level was assessed using FLACC scale for children aged 4-9 years and the Wong Bakers Faces Pain Scale for children aged 10-15 years; scores ranged from 0 to 10. All the data were analyzed using SPSS 16.0 with descriptive statistics and, inferential statistics. The mean pain scores were as follows: Entonox group, 2.87; Play therapy group, 4; combination group, 3; and control group, 5.87. When statistical testing was applied, a significant reduction in the pain score in all the three experimental groups when compared to the control group was found (p = .002), but not in the pain score among the three experimental groups (p = .350). The findings of this study indicated that all three interventions were effective in lowering pain scores when compared to the control group. Play therapy is as potent as Entonox in relieving procedural pain, though there was no additive effect on pain relief when play therapy and Entonox were combined. A protocol for age-related choice between play therapy and Entonox administration was introduced as a standing order in the Pediatric Surgery department for acute procedural pain relief.
    Pain management nursing: official journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses 11/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.pmn.2015.08.004

  • Pain management nursing: official journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses 11/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.pmn.2015.10.003
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Up to 62% of patients report chronic pain at the injury site 6-12 months after blunt trauma, with pain from lower extremity fractures exceeding that from other sites. High pain intensity at time of injury is a risk factor for chronic pain, but it is not clear what patient characteristics influence the pain intensity level during the immediate hospitalization following injury. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine the feasibility of collecting pain scores from medical records to calculate pain trajectories and to determine whether it is possible to examine patient characteristics by classifying them into those whose pain improved and those whose pain did not improve. This descriptive study retrospectively reviewed medical records of 18 randomly chosen patients admitted to an academic trauma center. Patient characteristics and pain scores were collected form electronic and handwritten medical records. The pain trajectories calculated from routinely collected pain scores during the inpatient stay showed that for 44% of patients the pain improved during the hospitalization, for 39% the pain remained the same, and for 17% the pain worsened. The variables age, smoking, weight, abbreviated injury scores, length of hospital stay, mean pain score, and opioid equianalgesic dose differed based on pain trajectory. While patient characteristics differed based on pain trajectory, any significant effects seen from individual tests should be considered tentative, given the number of analyses conducted on this data set. However, feasibility and significance of conducting a larger study has been established.
    Pain management nursing: official journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses 11/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.pmn.2015.06.010
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    ABSTRACT: Many strategies have been used to improve pain management in institutionalized care settings, but there is no consensus on the effects of these methods. The study purpose was to compare the effect of a Pain Recognition and Treatment (PRT) protocol coupled with basic pain education (experimental group) versus basic pain education alone (control group) in (1) improving the pain management performance of registered nurses (RNs) and (2) reducing pain-related expressions of residents with dementia postintervention and at 3-month follow up. A double-blind cluster randomized controlled trial with a 3-month follow-up period was conducted with 195 residents of six dementia special-care units. The weekly pain management performance of RNs (e.g., use of pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic strategies, use of referral) was recorded and weekly average scores of the pain-related expressions of residents were assessed using the following: the Verbal Descriptor Scale (VDS), Pain Assessment in Advanced Dementia Scale (PAINAD), and the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory (CMAI). The generalized linear mixed model analysis showed that, after intervention, the experimental group had significantly more weekly nonpharmacologic pain relief strategies and weekly referrals for pain management than the control group. Residents in the experimental group had significantly fewer verbal and behavioral expressions of pain compared to those in the control group. However, the groups did not differ significantly in the use of pharmacological strategies or the agitated behaviors expressed by residents. The PRT protocol is effective and is recommended for routine use in residents with dementia to improve the quality of pain care.
    Pain management nursing: official journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses 11/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.pmn.2015.08.003
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    ABSTRACT: The experimental study that follows was planned to determine the effectiveness of distraction on the pain level in school-age children as they underwent venipuncture. The study sample consisted of children between the ages of 7 and 12 years who underwent venipuncture at the Training and Research Hospital in Istanbul, Turkey between February and May 2012. A total of 144 children were conveniently sampled and evenly randomized into two groups of 72 children each. The primary instrument used to test children's pain level was the Faces Pain Scale-Revised (FPS-R). During the blood draw, the experimental group was given a kaleidoscope and told to look through it and describe what they saw, then rate their pain level on the FPS-R. Results showed that during venipuncture, the pain level of the control group was significantly higher (FPS-R = 3.27 ± 2.87) than the experimental group (FPS-R = 1.80 ± 1.84; p = .001) suggesting that distraction with a kaleidoscope is effective in reducing the pain children experience during venipuncture.
    Pain management nursing: official journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses 10/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.pmn.2015.08.005
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The Theory of Planned Behavior (TpB) is useful to direct nursing research aimed at behavior change. As proposed in the TpB, individuals' attitudes, perceived norms, and perceived behavior control predict their intentions to perform a behavior and subsequently predict their actual performance of the behavior. Our purpose was to apply Fishbein and Ajzen's guidelines to begin development of a valid and reliable instrument for pediatric nurses' attitudes, perceived norms, perceived behavior control, and intentions to administer PRN opioid analgesics when hospitalized children self-report moderate to severe pain. Following Fishbein and Ajzen's directions, we were able to define the behavior of interest and specify the research population, formulate items for direct measures, elicit salient beliefs shared by our target population and formulate items for indirect measures, and prepare and test our questionnaire. For the pilot testing of internal consistency of measurement items, Cronbach alphas were between 0.60 and 0.90 for all constructs. Test-retest reliability correlations ranged from 0.63 to 0.90. Following Fishbein and Ajzen's guidelines was a feasible and organized approach for instrument development. In these early stages, we demonstrated good reliability for most subscales, showing promise for the instrument and its use in pain management research. Better understanding of the TpB constructs will facilitate the development of interventions targeted toward nurses' attitudes, perceived norms, and/or perceived behavior control to ultimately improve their pain behaviors toward reducing pain for vulnerable children.
    Pain management nursing: official journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses 10/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.pmn.2015.07.005
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In Ontario, Canada, the Registered Nurses' Association promotes a Best Practice Spotlight Organization initiative to enhance evidence-based practice. Qualifying organizations are required to implement strategies, evaluate outcomes, and sustain practices aligned with nursing clinical practice guidelines. This study reports on the development and evaluation of a multifaceted implementation strategy to support adoption of a nursing clinical practice guideline on the assessment and management of acute pain in a pediatric rehabilitation and complex continuing care hospital. Multiple approaches were employed to influence behavior, attitudes, and awareness around optimal pain practice (e.g., instructional resources, electronic reminders, audits, and feedback). Four measures were introduced to assess pain in communicating and noncommunicating children as part of a campaign to treat pain as the fifth vital sign. A prospective repeated measures design examined survey and audit data to assess practice aligned with the guideline. The Knowledge and Attitudes Survey (KNAS) was adapted to ensure relevance to the local practice setting and was assessed before and after nurses' participation in three education modules. Audit data included client demographics and pain scores assessed annually over a 3-year window. A final sample of 69 nurses (78% response rate) provided pre-/post-survey data. A total of 108 pediatric surgical clients (younger than 19 years) contributed audit data across the three collection cycles. Significant improvements in nurses' knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to optimal pain care for children with disabilities were noted following adoption of the pain clinical practice guideline. Targeted guideline implementation strategies are central to supporting optimal pain practice.
    Pain management nursing: official journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses 09/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.pmn.2015.07.009
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to evaluate group medical visits using an integrative health approach for underserved women with chronic pelvic pain (CPP). We implemented an integrative medicine program to improve quality of life among women with CPP using Centering, a group-based model that combines healthcare assessment, education, and social support. Patients were from university-affiliated and public hospital-affiliated clinics. We evaluated the program with qualitative and quantitative data to address components of the RE-AIM framework: Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance. Participants of the Centering CPP Program participants (n = 26) were demographically similar to a sample of women with CPP who sought care at Bay Area hospitals (n = 701). Participants were on average 40 years of age, a majority of whom were racial/ethnic minorities with low household income (76%). Women who attended four or more sessions (n = 16) had improved health-related quality of life, including decreases in average number of unhealthy days in the past month (from 24 to 18, p < .05), depressive symptoms (from 11.7 to 9.0, p < .05), and symptom severity (from 4.2 to 3.1, p < .01). Sexual health outcomes also improved (30.5 to 50.3, p = .02). No improvements were observed for pain catastrophizing. Our pilot program provides preliminary data that an integrative health approach using a group-based model can be adapted and implemented to reach diverse women with CPP to improve physical and psychological well-being. Given these promising findings, rigorous evaluation of implementation and effectiveness of this approach compared with usual care is warranted.
    Pain management nursing: official journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses 09/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.pmn.2015.07.007
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Pain and discomfort during breast examination can affect a woman's adherence to breast cancer-screening programs. The aim of this study was to determine whether a nursing intervention protocol that provides verbal information and support to women could reduce pain during mammography. A randomized controlled trial of 436 Spanish women aged 50-69 who attended a breast-screening program was performed. The experimental group received a customized nursing intervention that provided face-to-face information and emotional support during the examination. Pain and anxiety were measured using a visual analogue scale and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, respectively. Data regarding several potential confounders were also collected. The adjusted means of pain level in the study group were obtained from multiple linear regressions, and the adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were obtained via logistic regression. After the intervention, the level of pain was significantly lower (p = .03) in the experimental group (0.98 ± 2.28) compared with the group treated with normal care (1.48 ± 2.29). Consequently, the probability of feeling pain during mammography was lower among women in the experimental group (OR = 0.44; 95% CI: 0.24-0.81). The intervention was more effective among women with the highest anxiety levels (OR = 0.33; 95% CI: 0.11-0.98), who did not expect pain (OR = 0.28; 95% CI: 0.08-0.97), and who did not fear the outcome of the mammography (OR = 0.18; 95% CI: 0.04-0.85). Providing verbal information, as well as supporting the women during the test, is a simple and achievable intervention for nurses and can help to reduce pain during screening mammography.
    Pain management nursing: official journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses 09/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.pmn.2015.07.008
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A patient's beliefs, expectations, and attitudes about coping with pain are effective on the patient's pain control. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the correlation between pain beliefs and coping with pain in algology patients. This descriptive study was carried out with 201 patients at a University Hospital Algology Clinic between May and July 2014. The research instruments used included a Descriptive Characteristics Data Form, Pain Beliefs Questionnaire, and Pain Coping Questionnaire. Data were evaluated by descriptive statistical methods, Spearman's correlation, and the Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis tests. According to the findings, the duration of pain in the patients ranged from 1 month to 40 years, with a mean duration of 68.37 ± 89.42 months. Patients' organic beliefs mean score was 3.97 ± 0.78 and the psychological beliefs mean score was 5.01 ± 1.01. There was a significant negative correlation between patients' organic beliefs score and the self-management (p < .001, r = -.388) and conscious cognitive interventions scores (p < .001, r = -.331); with the helplessness score (p < .001, r = .365) there was a positive correlation. There was also a positive correlation between patients' psychological beliefs score and self-management score (p < .05, r = .162). Moreover, there is significant difference between organic beliefs score and patients who use opioid analgesic. Patients who believe that their pain's origin is a organic cause, such as damage and harm in the body, cannot cope with pain and feel more helplessness. Appropriate nursing interventions for individuals' pain beliefs should be implemented to nursing care plans on pain management. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Pain management nursing: official journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.pmn.2015.07.004
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this feasibility study was to determine the impact of establishing a comfort function goal preoperatively on postoperative pain scores and opiate requirements in lumbar fusion patients. A comfort function goal is defined as the pain score identified by the patient describing the level of pain tolerance to participate in healing activities such as deep breathing, ambulation and participation in activities of daily living. The design was prospective, nonrandomized, intervention group (n = 30) compared with retrospective chart review as control group (n = 30). Sample included patients scheduled for routine lumbar fusion in an urban southeastern hospital. The study intervention established a comfort function goal during a routine preoperative patient education class. No significant difference in pain score or opiate requirement was found for these data. However, a fundamental clinical question arose surrounding opiate requirements and dosing management. In our hospital, the norm for postoperative pain management is to categorize pain scores as mild (1-3), moderate (4-6), and severe (7-10) pain. Physician orders commonly use this differential to order opiate dose ranges. In this sample, the mean pain score for the intervention group at home is 5.8 and the mean comfort function goal is 4.9. Based on normative categories of pain scores, if a patient's baseline of tolerable pain is 4.9, this has potential impact on clinician responses to managing pain, as 4.9-5.8 is, for this patient, perhaps a mild range of pain, not moderate. If a patient reports a pain score of 7, and their norm is 5.8, the delta is only 1.2. Does this imply that the patient is experiencing mild or severe pain? Does the nurse deliver a dose of pain medication that is in the mild or severe dose range? Copyright © 2015 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Pain management nursing: official journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.pmn.2015.06.007
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    ABSTRACT: This study was performed to determine the effect of several preintervention preparation practices on pain and anxiety related to the peripheral cannulation procedure in children ages 9-12 years. The study included 60 Turkish children (28 female, 32 male, randomly selected by lot), 30 of whom were included in the intervention group and 30 of whom were included in the control group. The children's demographic data were collected by a data collection form prepared by the researcher. The children in the intervention group read the training manual before peripheral cannulation, and the procedure was demonstrated on a teddy bear. Their level of pain was assessed using the Wong-Baker Faces Rating Scale, and their level of anxiety was determined by the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children, before and during the procedure in both groups. Results showed that while anxiety and pain scores increased during the actual procedure compared to the preparatory procedure in the control group (anxiety t = -4.957, pain Z(a) = -4.048), anxiety and pain scores decreased during the actual procedure in the intervention group compared to the preparatory procedure (anxiety t = 7.896, pain t = 6.196). When the pain and anxiety scores were examined, it was found that both anxiety and pain scores in the intervention group were significantly lower than in the control group. In conclusion, children in this study experienced pain and situational anxiety during peripheral cannulation, and this pain can be reduced by preparing the child in advance of the procedure. It is suggested that children should be informed about and able to practice the procedure on a toy or model before peripheral cannulation. Preparation of the children to painful procedures in accordance with their cognitive development can reduce anxiety and pain. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Pain management nursing: official journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.pmn.2015.06.006
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to develop and validate women's perceptions of the supportive care received during labor. This study had a methodological design. A total of 360 women giving birth at two state hospitals in 2012 participated. Written permission was obtained from the Ethics Committee, the hospitals, and the participants. Data were collected via participant characteristics forms and the Scale of Women's Perception for Supportive Care Given During Labor. Content validity of the scale (0.94) was achieved with expert views. Three factors-comfortable behaviors, education, and disturbing behaviors-were exposed to exploratory factor analysis, and factor loading varied between 0.38 and 0.76. The factor structures were confirmed by confirmatory factor analysis. Cronbach's coefficient was 0.94 for the scale, 0.92 for comforting behaviors, 0.85 for education, and 0.87 for disturbing behaviors. The correlation coefficient between the first and second part of the scale was 0.80. Item-total point correlations of the scale varied between 0.42 and 0.77. The scale was valid and reliable for measuring women's perception of supportive care given during labor. It can be used to determine the care aspects that midwives/nurses should develop, to improve the quality of care, and to help women have more positive labor experiences and higher labor satisfaction. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Pain management nursing: official journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses 08/2015; 16(5). DOI:10.1016/j.pmn.2015.05.001
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    ABSTRACT: Fibromyalgia (FM) patients were recently found to have more symptom burden from bothersome pelvic pain syndromes that women seeking care for pelvic floor disease at a urogynecology clinic. We sought to further characterize pelvic floor symptoms in a larger sample of FM patients using of validated questionnaires. Female listserv members of the Fibromyalgia Information Foundation completed an online survey of three validated questionnaires: the Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory 20 (PFDI-20), the Pelvic Pain, Urgency and Frequency Questionnaire (PUF), and the Revised Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQR). Scores were characterized using descriptive statistics. Patients (n = 204 with complete data on 177) were on average 52.3 ± 11.4 years with a mean parity of 2.5 ± 1.9. FM severity based on FIQR score (57.2 ± 14.9) positively correlated with PFDI-20 total 159.08 ± 55.2 (r = .34, p < .001) and PUF total 16.54 ± 7 (r = .36, p < .001). Women with FM report significantly bothersome pelvic floor and urinary symptoms. Fibromyalgia management should include evaluation and treatment of pelvic floor disorders recognizing that pelvic distress and urinary symptoms are associated with more severe FM symptoms. Validated questionnaires, like the ones used in this study, are easily incorporated into clinical practice. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Pain management nursing: official journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.pmn.2015.06.001
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    ABSTRACT: Despite evidence that many nursing home residents' pain is poorly managed, reasons for this poor management remain unanswered. The aim of this study was to determine if specific order sets related to pain assessment would improve pain management in nursing home (NH) residents. Outcomes included observed nurse pain assessment queries and resident reports of pain. The pretest/post-test study was performed in a 240-bed for-profit nursing home in the mid-southern region of the United States and participants were 43 nursing home residents capable of self-consent. Medical chart abstraction was performed during a 2-week (14-day) period before the implementation of specific order sets for pain assessment (intervention) and a 2-week (14-day) period after the intervention. Trained research assistants observed medication administration passes and performed participant interviews after each medication pass. One month after intervention implementation, 1 additional day of observations was conducted to determine data reliability. Nurses were observed to ask residents about pain more frequently, and nurses continued to ask about pain at higher rates 1 month after the intervention was discontinued. The proportion of residents who reported pain also significantly increased in response to increased nurse queries (e.g., "Do you have any pain right now?"), which underscores the importance of nurses directly asking residents about pain. Notably 70% of this long-stay NH population only told the nurses about their pain symptoms when asked directly. Findings uncover that using specific pain order sets seems to improve the detection of pain, which should be a routine part of nursing assessment. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Pain management nursing: official journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses 08/2015; 16(5). DOI:10.1016/j.pmn.2015.06.002

  • Pain management nursing: official journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses 08/2015; 16(4):455. DOI:10.1016/j.pmn.2015.06.003
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Breakthrough pain is a significant contributor to much suffering by patients. The experience of intense pain may interfere with, and affect, daily life functioning and has major consequences on patients' well-being if it is not well managed. The area of breakthrough pain has not been fully understood. This study thus aimed to explore the experiences of breakthrough pain among palliative patients. A qualitative study based on a series of open-ended interviews among 21 palliative patients suffering from pain at an urban tertiary hospital in Malaysia was conducted. Five themes were generated: (i) pain viewed as an unbearable experience causing misery in the lives of patients, (ii) deterioration of body function and no hope of recovery, (iii) receiving of inadequate pain management for pain, (iv) insensitivity of healthcare providers toward patients' pain experience, and (v) pain coping experiences of patients. The findings revealed that nonpharmacologic approaches such as psychosocial support should be introduced to the patients. Proper guidance and information should be given to healthcare providers to improve the quality of patient care. Healthcare providers should adopt a sensitive approach in caring for patients' needs. The aim is to meet the needs of the patients who want to be pain free or to attain adequate relief of their pain for breakthrough pain. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Pain management nursing: official journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses 08/2015; 16(4):552-60. DOI:10.1016/j.pmn.2014.10.002
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    ABSTRACT: It is important to ensure that cancer pain management is based on the best evidence. Nursing evidence-based pain management can be examined through an evaluation of pain documentation. The aim of this study was to modify and test an evaluation tool for nursing cancer pain documentation, and describe the frequency and quality of nursing pain documentation in one oncology unit via the electronic medical system. A descriptive cross-sectional design was used for this study at an oncology unit of an academic medical center in the Pacific Northwest. Medical records were examined for 37 adults hospitalized during April and May 2013. Nursing pain documentations (N = 230) were reviewed using an evaluation tool modified from the Cancer Pain Practice Index to consist of 13 evidence-based pain management indicators, including pain assessment, care plan, pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic interventions, monitoring and treatment of analgesic side effects, communication with physicians, and patient education. Individual nursing documentation was assigned a score ranging from 0 (worst possible) to 13 (best possible), to reflect the delivery of evidence-based pain management. The participating nurses documented 90% of the recommended evidence-based pain management indicators. Documentation was suboptimal for pain reassessment, pharmacologic interventions, and bowel regimen. The study results provide implications for enhancing electronic medical record design and highlight a need for future research to understand the reasons for suboptimal nursing documentation of cancer pain management. For the future use of the data evaluation tool, we recommend additional modifications according to study settings. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Pain management nursing: official journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses 08/2015; 16(4):456-63. DOI:10.1016/j.pmn.2014.09.001
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    ABSTRACT: Self-report pain assessment tools are commonly used in clinical settings to determine patients' pain intensity. The Iowa Pain Thermometer (IPT) is a tool that was developed for research, but also can be used in clinical settings. However, its utility in clinical settings is challenging because it uses a 13-point scale (0-12 scale) that does not align with common electronic pain scoring metrics. Therefore, this study evaluated the psychometric properties of an 11-point (0-10 scale) adaptation of the Iowa Pain Thermometer (IPT-R) to evaluate the psychometric properties of the IPT-R and to determine patient preference for a self-report pain assessment tool. A descriptive, correlational design was employed. The IPT-R was compared with the original IPT and a numeric rating scale (NRS). This study was conducted in the southeastern United States with 75 adults ranging in age from 65-95 years with varying levels of cognition. Participants were primarily representative of black and white backgrounds. Participants were asked to rate current pain, worst pain during the past week, and reassessment of current pain after 10-minute intervals using three scales (IPT-R, IPT, and NRS) presented in random order. Participants were asked to identify the tool preferred (the easiest to use and that best represented their pain intensity). Spearman-rank correlations were performed to determine convergent validity and test-retest reliability. Based on the results of this preliminary study, the IPT-R has good validity and reliability. The participants in this sample preferred the IPT-R over the original IPT (0-12 scale) and the traditional NRS (0-10 scale). Clinicians may consider using this tool with diverse older patients to assess pain intensity. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Pain management nursing: official journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses 08/2015; 16(4):475-82. DOI:10.1016/j.pmn.2014.09.004