Pain management nursing: official journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses Impact Factor & Information

Publisher: American Society of Pain Management Nurses, WB Saunders

Journal description

This exciting new journal offers a unique focus on the realm of pain management as it applies to nurses. Original and review articles from experts in the field offer key insight in the areas of clinical practice, advocacy, education, administration, and research. Additional features include practice guidelines and articles dealing with pharmacologic issues.

Current impact factor: 1.79

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2015
2013 / 2014 Impact Factor 1.787
2012 Impact Factor 1.696
2011 Impact Factor 1.145
2010 Impact Factor 1.039
2009 Impact Factor 1.306
2008 Impact Factor 1.537

Impact factor over time

Impact factor
Year

Additional details

5-year impact 0.00
Cited half-life 5.20
Immediacy index 0.15
Eigenfactor 0.00
Article influence 0.00
Website Pain Management Nursing website
Other titles Pain management nursing (Online), Pain management nursing
ISSN 1532-8635
OCLC 45496010
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

WB Saunders

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • Pre-print allowed on any website or open access repository
    • Voluntary deposit by author of authors post-print allowed on institutions open scholarly website including Institutional Repository, without embargo, where there is not a policy or mandate
    • Deposit due to Funding Body, Institutional and Governmental policy or mandate only allowed where separate agreement between repository and the publisher exists.
    • Permitted deposit due to Funding Body, Institutional and Governmental policy or mandate, may be required to comply with embargo periods of 12 months to 48 months .
    • Set statement to accompany deposit
    • Published source must be acknowledged
    • Must link to journal home page or articles' DOI
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Articles in some journals can be made Open Access on payment of additional charge
    • NIH Authors articles will be submitted to PubMed Central after 12 months
    • Authors who are required to deposit in subject-based repositories may also use Sponsorship Option
    • 'WB Saunders' is an imprint of 'Elsevier'
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Intravenous propacetamol has been shown to be effective for postoperative pain control. However, the recommendations regarding propacetamol doses for pain control are vague. The present study was performed to compare the efficacy and safety of propacetamol at a dose of 1 g or 2 g. After breast-conserving surgery, patients received 1 g or 2 g intravenous propacetamol. Treatment efficacy for pain control was assessed using a 100 mm visual analog scale at 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes and 4 hours after surgery, and global evaluation was assessed by a 4-point categorical scale at the end of the 4-hour study period. Safety was monitored through adverse event reporting. Patients were allowed rescue analgesia, and the timing of requests was recorded. A total of 111 patients were enrolled in the study. There were no differences in efficacy variables, including visual analog scale, the 4-point categorical scale, and requests for rescue analgesia, between propacetamol doses of 1 g and 2 g. Adverse events were similar in the two groups. Intravenous propacetamol at a dose of 2 g is not superior to the lower dose of 1 g with regard to postoperative analgesia or the incidence of side effects in breast-conserving surgery. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Pain management nursing: official journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses 06/2015; 16(3). DOI:10.1016/j.pmn.2014.08.016
  • Pain management nursing: official journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses 06/2015; 16(3). DOI:10.1016/j.pmn.2014.10.005
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Reiki on pain, anxiety, and hemodynamic parameters on postoperative days 1 and 2 in patients who had undergone cesarean delivery. The design of this study was a randomized, controlled clinical trial. The study took place between February and July 2011 in the Obstetrical Unit at Odemis Public Hospital in Izmir, Turkey. Ninety patients equalized by age and number of births were randomly assigned to either a Reiki group or a control group (a rest without treatment). Treatment applied to both groups in the first 24 and 48 hours after delivery for a total of 30 minutes to 10 identified regions of the body for 3 minutes each. Reiki was applied for 2 days once a day (in the first 24 and 48 hours) within 4-8 hours of the administration of standard analgesic, which was administered intravenously by a nurse. A visual analog scale and the State Anxiety Inventory were used to measure pain and anxiety. Hemodynamic parameters, including blood pressure (systolic and diastolic), pulse and breathing rates, and analgesic requirements also were recorded. Statistically significant differences in pain intensity (p = .000), anxiety value (p = .000), and breathing rate (p = .000) measured over time were found between the two groups. There was a statistically significant difference between the two groups in the time (p = .000) and number (p = .000) of analgesics needed after Reiki application and a rest without treatment. Results showed that Reiki application reduced the intensity of pain, the value of anxiety, and the breathing rate, as well as the need for and number of analgesics. However, it did not affect blood pressure or pulse rate. Reiki application as a nursing intervention is recommended as a pain and anxiety-relieving method in women after cesarean delivery. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Pain management nursing: official journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses 06/2015; 16(3). DOI:10.1016/j.pmn.2014.09.005
  • Pain management nursing: official journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses 06/2015; 16(3). DOI:10.1016/j.pmn.2015.03.006
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)-specific medications on postoperative analgesia after major open abdominal surgery. This is was a prospective, randomized controlled, double-blind study conducted on 90 patients who underwent major open abdominal surgery between September 2011 and June 2012, in the General Surgery Department, Jinling Hospital. After written informed consent, patients were prospectively and randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups before surgery, and were scheduled to receive different analgesic drugs according to randomization. We assessed the patients' pain levels using pain intensity score and adverse events during our study period. The group that received intravenous parecoxib for 3 days, and continued oral celecoxib for 4 days had better postoperative analgesia than other groups. COX-2-specific inhibitors are safe and effective in reducing postoperative pain in patients who have undergone major open abdominal surgery. Additionally, sufficient postoperative analgesia, lasting for 1 week, was necessary for patients to obtain satisfactory pain control after major open abdominal surgery. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Pain management nursing: official journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses 06/2015; 16(3). DOI:10.1016/j.pmn.2014.07.004
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Children undergoing surgical procedures commonly experience stress and anxiety, exhibit negative behaviors, and complain of postoperative pain. Parents also experience anxiety when their children undergo surgery. Therapeutic play intervention has been used to prepare hospitalized children for invasive medical procedures for decades. However, there has been no systematic review to examine the effectiveness of therapeutic play intervention for improving children's health-related outcomes such as perioperative anxiety and postoperative pain. The aim of this review was to synthesize current empirical evidence on the effectiveness of therapeutic play intervention in reducing perioperative anxiety, negative behaviors, and postoperative pain in children undergoing elective surgery and in reducing their parents' perioperative anxiety. Systematic searches of electronic databases of the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, PubMed, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, Scopus, and Web of Science and screening of the reference lists of included articles from these databases identified studies on the topic. Relevant studies were methodologically assessed and appraised by two independent reviewers using the Joanna Briggs Institute Meta-Analysis of Statistics Assessment and Review Instrument. Six studies were identified. The outcome measurements were heterogeneous across all six studies. These studies had conflicting outcomes regarding the effectiveness of therapeutic play intervention in children's perioperative anxiety, negative behaviors, and postoperative pain. Two studies showed that the intervention significantly reduced parents' preoperative anxiety. The current empirical evidence on the effectiveness of therapeutic play intervention in children's perioperative anxiety, negative behaviors, and postoperative pain is inconclusive. More studies on the effectiveness of therapeutic play intervention using rigorous designs and involving parents are needed.
    Pain management nursing: official journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses 06/2015; 16(3). DOI:10.1016/j.pmn.2014.08.011
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Aphthous ulcers, the most common oral mucosal lesions seen in primary care, occur in up to ∼2%-50% of the general population. Our objective was to confirm the analgesic benefit of treatment of mouth ulcers with vitamin B12 as adjunctive therapy. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was performed with primary care patients. The intervention group received vitamin B12 ointment for 2 days. In total, 42 patients suffering from aphthous ulcers participated in the study: 22 were included in the intervention group and 20 in the control group. All parameters of aphthous ulcers of patients in the intervention group were recorded and compared with those in the control group. We assessed the patients' pain levels before and after treatment using a visual analog scale. The statistical analyses were performed using a nonparametric Mann-Whitney test. Statistically significant differences in pain levels were found between the intervention group and the control group after 2 days of treatment (mean visual analog scale, 0.36 [95% CI, 0.01-0.71] vs. 1.80 [1.16-2.44]; p < .001). In conclusion, the results of this research study provide evidence that vitamin B12 is an effective analgesic treatment for aphthous ulcers. This study indicates that healthcare providers could use vitamin B12 as an adjunctive therapy for mouth ulcers, providing more effective pain management and improving the quality of life for patients with mouth ulcers. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. All rights reserved.
    Pain management nursing: official journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses 06/2015; 16(3). DOI:10.1016/j.pmn.2014.06.008
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of this ethnographic study was to explore the pediatric procedural pain management practice of health care providers in a non-pediatric emergency department. Data were collected for 5 months and included more than 100 hours of observation. Six key informants were interviewed, and 44 pediatric procedural interactions with 27 health care providers during the treatment of children aged 2 to 8 years undergoing procedures were observed. Other information gathered included documents from the institution, and pain-related information from the patient's medical record. Two major themes with categories are discussed, the treatment of pain, and procedural pain. The findings of this study provide insight into the everyday practice of emergency department health care providers for pediatric pain in a non-pediatric setting, and identify practice issues that may adversely affect the management of pediatric procedural pain, notably the nonuse of pharmacologic techniques for simple needle procedures and the common use of physical restraint during painful procedures. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Pain management nursing: official journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses 06/2015; 16(3). DOI:10.1016/j.pmn.2014.06.006
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Pain assessment in older individuals with cognitive impairment is challenging. Evidence on the performance of pain assessment tools in this population remains limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of self-reported pain, nurse-reported pain, and observational pain tools among older patients with cognitive impairment using a prospective observational design. In all, 152 older individuals admitted to the acute geriatric ward were recruited through convenience sampling. Three methods of pain assessment were compared: self-reported pain (SRP), observational pain using the Pain Assessment in Advanced Dementia (PAINAD) tool, and nurse-reported pain (NRP). Cognition and mood were assessed with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15). There was moderate agreement between SRP and PAINAD (k = 0.438) and fair agreement between SRP and NRP (k = 0.263). There was statistically significant correlation between SRP and GDS-15 (r = 0.382, p < .001) but not between SRP and MMSE (r = 0.018, p = .824). These results suggest that the use of an observational pain scale would be helpful in pain assessment among older individuals when the ability to report pain is not possible. However, self-reported assessments should be attempted first for cognitively impaired patients. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Pain management nursing: official journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses 06/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.pmn.2014.12.002
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To explore the effects of phantom phenomena on a group of dysvascular lower limb amputees. This was a cross-sectional study of dysvascular lower limb amputees. A modified version of the phantom phenomena questionnaire was used to measure the prevalence of phantom phenomena and the effects of those phenomena on daily life. Eighty-nine amputees were recruited. The majority were inpatients (72%) and male (72%). Most had pain before amputation (83%). Sixty-three percent had phantom limb pain. No associations were found between phantom limb pain and preamputation pain (p = .397). Phantom limb pain was present immediately on waking from amputation in 23%. Phantom limb pain is highly fluctuant. It is more likely that phantom limb pain was present with more time passed since amputation (p = .002). Outpatients with unhealed wounds were less likely to have phantom limb pain (p = .007). The effects of postamputation phenomena include sleep loss and social restrictions. These results challenge the belief that phantom limb pain reduces over time as more outpatients reported phantom limb pain than inpatients. Preamputation pain is not linked to the presence of phantom limb pain. The fluctuant nature of phantom limb pain makes its treatment complex. Some may wish intensity to reduce, whereas others may prefer to reduce the number of episodes or duration of each episode instead. More research is needed to clarify the needs of amputees in relation to the postamputation phenomena. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Pain management nursing: official journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses 06/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.pmn.2014.10.006
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: New strategies are needed to improve access to cognitive and behavioral therapies for patients with persistent pain. The purpose of this randomized, controlled trial was to determine the effectiveness of the Chronic Pain Management Program, an 8-week online intervention targeting cognitive, emotional, behavioral, and social pain determinants. Program efficacy and engagement was evaluated for 92 individuals with a diagnosis of chronic noncancer pain who had a current opioid prescription. Participants were recruited from primary care practices and Internet sites, then randomly assigned to receive access to the intervention either immediately (treatment group) or after an 8-week delay (wait-list comparison). Biweekly self-report measurements were collected using online surveys on pain, depressive symptoms, pain self-management behaviors, and health care utilization during the 8-week trial. Additional measurements of opioid misuse behaviors, pain self-efficacy, and medicine regimens were completed at baseline and week 8. Engagement was evaluated by examining completion of program learning modules. The results from analysis of variance showed that at week 8, the treatment group had significantly greater improvements on pain self-efficacy and opioid misuse measures than the wait-list comparison group. Engagement level was positively associated with improvements in pain intensity, pain interference, and pain self-efficacy. In conclusion, patients on opioids were able to engage and demonstrate positive outcomes using an Internet-based self-management program. Future efforts toward heightening engagement could further maximize impacts. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Pain management nursing: official journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses 06/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.pmn.2014.09.009
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Registered nurses (RNs) play a pivotal role in treating pain and preventing and recognizing the adverse effects (AEs) of analgesics in patients with dementia. The purpose of this study was to determine RNs' knowledge of potentially clinically relevant AEs of analgesics. A descriptive, cross-sectional study design was used. In all, 267 RNs treating orthopedic patients, including patients with dementia, in 7 university hospitals and 10 central hospitals in Finland, completed a questionnaire. Analgesics were defined according to the Anatomic Therapeutic Classification as strong opioids, weak opioids, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory analgesics (NSAIDs), and paracetamol. Definitions of AEs were based on the literature. Logistic regression analysis was applied to analyze which variables predicted nurses' knowledge. The RNs had a clear understanding of the AEs of paracetamol and strong opioids. However, the AEs of NSAIDs, especially renal and cardiovascular AEs, were less well known. The median percentage of correct answers was 87% when asked about strong opioids, 73% for weak opioids, and 60% for NSAIDs. Younger RNs had better knowledge of opioid-related AEs (odds ratio [OR] per 1-year increase, 0.97; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.94-1.00) and weak opioids (OR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.93-0.99). This study provides evidence of a deficiency in RNs' knowledge, especially regarding the adverse renal and cardiovascular effects of NSAIDs. Such lack of knowledge indicates that hospitals may need to update the knowledge of older RNs, especially those who treat vulnerable patients with dementia. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Pain management nursing: official journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses 06/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.pmn.2014.10.003
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Adolescents with chronic pain frequently perceive a lack of support from friends. Support from a peer with a shared experience has been found to provide emotional, informational, and appraisal support. We sought to quantify the frequency with which adolescents with chronic pain want to befriend other adolescents with chronic pain, and to describe the features of these friendships. Adolescents with chronic pain who had attended a 10-week structured self-management program from 3 sites were invited to complete an online survey. Forty teens participated, 95% (n = 38) were girls; 32% (n = 13) befriended another; 52% (n = 21) were interested in befriending another but did not; 15% (n = 6) were not interested in befriending anyone. Over half (62%) of the friendships lasted at least 1 year (n = 8), but only 2 intermingled these with their regular friendships. Pain was discussed frequently during interactions. The most common reasons for not forming friendships were no time to exchange contact information during group and not having things in common. Reasons for not being interested in forming a friendship also included not having anything in common apart from pain. The majority of participants were interested in befriending another. Emotional support, by feeling understood and discussing pain without fear that the other is disinterested, was the main peer support provided. Without common interests, this form of friendship may not last and is at risk for being overly solicitous by focusing on pain. It remains unclear whether the benefits of peer support translate into improved function. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Pain management nursing: official journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses 06/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.pmn.2015.04.003
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Individuals with sickle cell disease (SCD) have reported being stigmatized when they seek care for pain. Nurse attitudes contribute to stigmatization and may affect patients' response to sickle cell cues, care-seeking, and ultimately patient outcomes. The purpose of this cross-sectional, descriptive, comparative design study was to determine whether there are significant differences in nurse attitudes toward patients with SCD by worksite-medical-surgical units compared with emergency departments/intensive care units (ED/ICU). The sample consisted of 77 nurses (36 nurses from the ED/ICU and 41 from medical-surgical units) who completed an anonymous online survey. No significant differences were noted in attitudes by worksite, with nurses from both sites demonstrating high levels of negative attitudes toward patients with SCD. Findings suggest that nurses from both worksites need additional education about SCD and care of this vulnerable, patient population. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Pain management nursing: official journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses 06/2015; 16(3):173-81. DOI:10.1016/j.pmn.2014.06.007
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Current pain assessment tools for nonverbal critical care patients may not be appropriate for those with brain injury, as these patients demonstrate specific responses to pain. The aim of this study was to generate and select items that could be used to assess pain in braininjured patients. A sequential mixed-method design was chosen with three consecutive steps: 1. Generate items with a literature review, the results of a pilot study, and interviews with 18 clinicians using the nominal group technique. 2. Evaluate content validity with 10 clinicians and four scientists, using a web-based questionnaire. 3. Describe and reduce items with the observation of 116 brain-injured patients in the intensive care unit during common painful procedures. This study took place between May 2010 and October 2011 in two tertiary hospitals in Western Switzerland. Forty-seven items were generated and reduced to 33 during the content validity process. The behaviors most frequently observed during turning were closing the eyes (58.6%), eye movements (57.8%), ventilator asynchrony (55.2%), and frowning/ brow lowering (50%). Five items were observed in less than 5% of the patients during nociceptive procedure. Constant motor activity was observed more frequently at rest than during nociceptive stimulation. All physiologic items showed little variability and their reliability was low. Based on these results, the number of items was reduced to 23. This study identified items that could be specific to brain-injured patients and found that the variability of physiologic items was poorly assessed by clinicians.
    Pain management nursing: official journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses 06/2015; 16(3):221-32. DOI:10.1016/j.pmn.2014.06.003
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: For children with surgical problems, pain location conveys important clinical information. We developed a Location and Level of Intensity of Postoperative Pain (Lolipops) tool consisting of a body outline with a seven-sector abdominal grid, the International Association for the Study of Pain Revised Faces Pain Scale, and a recording chart. The aim of the study was to assess the validity and reliability of Lolipops. Children aged 5-14 years who had undergone laparoscopic appendectomy took both nurse- and investigator-administered Lolipops, and an investigator administered Varni Thompson Pediatric Pain Questionnaires, within 24 hours of surgery. The average age of the 42 participants was 10.7 years; 64% were boys; 24 (57.1%) had acute appendicitis, 13 (31%) had perforated appendicitis, and 5 (11.9%) were uninflamed. Pain scores were higher at the laparoscopic port incision sites than in upper abdominal sites distant from incisions or expected inflammation, mean (SD) 3.3 (2.3) and 1.1 (1.8), respectively (p < .0001). In children with acute appendicitis, pain scores were higher in the right iliac fossa than in upper abdominal sites, mean (SD) 3.3 (2.5) and 0.4 (0.7), respectively (p = .001). In children with perforated appendicitis, Lolipops demonstrated a more widespread pain pattern. Correlations between nurse and investigator were fair to moderate with an overall intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.597. This study presents a new tool to measure the location of pain in pediatric surgical patients and shows it to be valid and reliable. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Pain management nursing: official journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses 06/2015; 16(3):380-7. DOI:10.1016/j.pmn.2014.09.003
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Although many intensive care unit patients experience significant pain, very few studies explored massage to maximize their pain relief. This study aimed to evaluate the preliminary effects of hand massage on pain after cardiac surgery in the adult intensive care unit. A pilot randomized controlled trial was used for this study. The study was conducted in a Canadian medical-surgical intensive care unit. Forty adults who were admitted to the intensive care unit after undergoing elective cardiac surgery in the previous 24 hours participated in the study. They were randomly assigned to the experimental (n = 21) or control (n = 19) group. The experimental group received a 15-minute hand massage, and the control group received a 15-minute hand-holding without massage. In both groups the intervention was followed by a 30-minute rest period. The interventions were offered on 2-3 occasions within 24 hours after surgery. Pain, muscle tension, and vital signs were assessed. Pain intensity and behavioral scores were decreased for the experimental group. Although hand massage decreased muscle tension, fluctuations in vital signs were not significant. This study supports potential benefits of hand massage for intensive care unit postoperative pain management. Although larger randomized controlled trials are necessary, this low-cost nonpharmacologic intervention can be safely administered. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Pain management nursing: official journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses 06/2015; 16(3):354-66. DOI:10.1016/j.pmn.2014.08.014
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cancer is a worldwide health problem. In Jordan, cancer is the second leading cause of death. Approximately 2,000 people die from cancer every year, 70% of them experiencing varying high levels of pain as a result of ineffective pain relief. The purpose of this study was to identify the attitudinal barriers to effective cancer pain relief in patients and their family caregivers in Jordan. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was used. A convenience sample of 300 cancer patients and 246 family caregivers were recruited from four different Jordanian hospitals between August 2009 and May 2010. Patients completed the Arabic version of the Barriers Questionnaire II (ABQ-II), the Arabic Brief Pain Inventory (A-BPI), and a demographic questionnaire. Family caregivers completed the ABQ-II and a demographic questionnaire. The A-BPI results identified that more than 70% of cancer patients in localized stage and more than 90% of patients with advanced cancer experienced substantial pain. Four major barriers to pain control were highlighted: fears related to addiction, side effects, communication concerns, and fatalistic beliefs. This study provides baseline information about the barriers to effective cancer pain control in Jordan. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Pain management nursing: official journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses 06/2015; 16(3):400-10. DOI:10.1016/j.pmn.2014.09.007