Pain management nursing: official journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses (Pain Manag Nurs )

Publisher: American Society of Pain Management Nurses, Elsevier


This exciting new journal offers a unique focus on the realm of pain management as it applies to nurses. Original and review articles from experts in the field offer key insight in the areas of clinical practice, advocacy, education, administration, and research. Additional features include practice guidelines and articles dealing with pharmacologic issues.

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    Pain Management Nursing website
  • Other titles
    Pain management nursing (Online), Pain management nursing
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    Document, Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

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    • Publisher last contacted on 18/10/2013
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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Current pain assessment tools for nonverbal critical care patients may not be appropriate for those with brain injury, as these patients demonstrate specific responses to pain. The aim of this study was to generate and select items that could be used to assess pain in braininjured patients. A sequential mixed-method design was chosen with three consecutive steps: 1. Generate items with a literature review, the results of a pilot study, and interviews with 18 clinicians using the nominal group technique. 2. Evaluate content validity with 10 clinicians and four scientists, using a web-based questionnaire. 3. Describe and reduce items with the observation of 116 brain-injured patients in the intensive care unit during common painful procedures. This study took place between May 2010 and October 2011 in two tertiary hospitals in Western Switzerland. Forty-seven items were generated and reduced to 33 during the content validity process. The behaviors most frequently observed during turning were closing the eyes (58.6%), eye movements (57.8%), ventilator asynchrony (55.2%), and frowning/ brow lowering (50%). Five items were observed in less than 5% of the patients during nociceptive procedure. Constant motor activity was observed more frequently at rest than during nociceptive stimulation. All physiologic items showed little variability and their reliability was low. Based on these results, the number of items was reduced to 23. This study identified items that could be specific to brain-injured patients and found that the variability of physiologic items was poorly assessed by clinicians.
    Pain management nursing: official journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses 11/2014; in press.
  • Pain management nursing: official journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses 09/2014; 15(3):555-6.
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    ABSTRACT: Undertreatment of postoperative pain can aggravate patient outcomes and is associated with attending nurses' knowledge deficits or negative attitudes toward pain. The aim of this study was to investigate knowledge and attitudes toward postoperative pain of surgical department nurses and to identify predictors of their knowledge and attitudes. This was a descriptive, cross-sectional survey that took place in the departments of general surgery, orthopedics, neurosurgery, ear-nose-throat surgery, and obstetrics/gynecology at five Greek hospitals. Participants were a convenience sample of registered and assistant nurses. Nurses were asked to complete a three-section questionnaire, which included demographics, a Knowledge and Attitudes Survey Regarding Pain (KASRP) tool modified for postoperative pain, and seven questions capturing personal characteristics, working conditions, and feelings about work. One hundred eighty-two questionnaires were completed. Average scores were 45.35% for modified KASRP tool; 28.57% for pain assessment; 55.44% for general pain management; and 47.13% for use of analgesics. Four of the five most commonly missed items referred to use of analgesics. More previous personal experience of postoperative pain (p = .002) and being a registered nurse (p = .015) predicted higher modified KASRP tool score. Participation in continuing education programs and department of employment were also associated with differences in the modified tool score. The knowledge deficits and negative attitudes of the nurses toward postoperative pain highlight the role of pregraduate and continuing education, appropriately specialized for each surgical department, in the development of empathy toward patients in pain and of clinical competency regarding pain assessment and administration of analgesics.
    Pain management nursing: official journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Following total knee replacement (TKR) surgery, patients frequently experience intense levels of pain, stress, and anxiety that may reduce their self-efficacy and thus affect their postoperative recovery. Relaxation intervention is beneficial to help patients manage physical pain and emotional tension. However, evidence for the efficacy of relaxation intervention on patients following TKR is still inconclusive. This study aimed to investigate whether a relaxation intervention helped to reduce pain, stress, and anxiety, and whether it helped to increase perceived relaxation and self-efficacy in patients following TKR. A single-group, pretest-posttest quasi-experimental study was carried out at a tertiary hospital in Singapore. A convenience sampling of 18 participants was recruited. Patients received three-session, individual-based relaxation interventions comprised of breathing exercises, muscle relaxation, and guided imagery. Data were collected by self-reported questionnaires and physiologic measures and were analyzed using descriptive statistics, paired t test, and repeated measure analysis of variance. Intent-to-treat analyses were used to deal with missing data. Following the intervention, participants reported significantly lower pain, stress, and anxiety and greater perceived relaxation and self-efficacy. Findings from this study contribute to both nursing science and clinical practice. The relaxation intervention can be offered as part of standard care for patients following TKR in hospitals.
    Pain management nursing: official journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: This research was planned as a two-level definitive and comparative study to evaluate pain during endotracheal suction (ETS) in pediatric intensive care units (PICUs). This study was comprised of patients admitted to and the nurses working in the PICU. Cases were selected among PICU patients (N = 65) who met the study criteria and nurses (N = 18) who cared for them from January 1 to July 2, 2008. Routine ETS was applied as the first level of the study. For the second level, an inquiry on the knowledge of nurses about suction was given to the nurses, and they were asked to apply suction according to the guidelines they were given. All the obtained data were evaluated by statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) for Windows 14.0. In summary, 33.8% (n = 22) of the patients were between ages 1 and 12 months, and 64.6% (n = 42) were boys. Although group 2 patients (patient who is in experimental group) had higher scores on the Wong-Baker faces pain rating and Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, Consolability scales, no statistical difference was found between the two groups (p > .05). Patients who received bolus doses of analgesia and sedative drugs had lower Wong-Baker faces pain rating (4.38 ± 0.96; n = 4) and Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, Consolability scores (4.61± 1.94; n = 4) (p > .05). According to these findings, the patients were distressed because of the pain related with suction. Therefore, it is recommended that suction guidelines be used in PICUs during ETS.
    Pain management nursing: official journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Involving parents in children's pain management is essential to achieve optimal outcomes. Parents need to be equipped with sufficient knowledge and information. Only a limited number of studies have explored nurses' provision of parental guidance regarding the use of nonpharmacologic methods in children's pain management. This study aimed to examine nurses' perceptions of providing preparatory information and nonpharmacologic methods to parents, and how their demographics and perceived knowledge adequacy of these methods influence this guidance. A descriptive correlational study using questionnaire surveys was conducted to collect data from a convenience sample of 134 registered nurses working in seven pediatric wards of two public hospitals in Singapore. Descriptive statistics, independent-samples t test, and multiple linear regression were used to analyze the data. Most nurses provided various types of cognitive information to parents related to their children's surgery, whereas information about children's feelings was less often provided. Most nurses provided guidance to parents on positioning, breathing technique, comforting/reassurance, helping with activities of daily living, relaxation, and creating a comfortable environment. Nurses' provision of parental guidance on preparatory information and nonpharmacologic methods was significantly different between subgroups of age, education, parent or not, and perceived knowledge adequacy of nonpharmacologic methods. Nurses' perceived knowledge adequacy was the main factor influencing their provision of parental guidance. More attention should be paid to nurses who are younger, have less working experience, and are not parents. There is a need to educate nurses about nonpharmacologic pain relief methods to optimize their provision of parental guidance.
    Pain management nursing: official journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Adherence monitoring for prescription opioid use is a clinical imperative for individuals prescribed opioids for chronic pain. Urine drug testing (UDT) provides objective evidence for prescription opioid adherence, as recommended by national guidelines to be part of adherence monitoring. The aim of this study was to describe prescription opioid adherence using UDT results in chronic pain patients and to examine the association between demographic characteristics and adherence to their prescribed opiate regimens. We used a retrospective chart review of 120 consecutive patients at an urban pain management clinic. Data collected included UDT results, pain level, and demographic characteristics. Descriptive and correlational statistics were used for data analysis. About 54% of the individuals appeared nonadherent to their prescribed opiate regimen as defined by absence or inappropriate level of prescribed controlled medication, presence of additional nonprescribed controlled substance(s), presence of illicit substance(s), or presence of adulterant in the urine sample. Of the participants, 23% had absence of one or more of their prescribed controlled medications and 12.5% had presence of one or more other opioids. Marijuana was the main illicit substance used (24.2%), followed by cocaine (11.7%). Patients' age, pain level, sex, ethnicity, and injury compensation were not associated with UDT results. UDT results could be useful to educate and guide patients on the proper use of controlled medications. Results from UDT are highly contextual and easily misinterpreted, requiring comparison with a variety of clinical indicators over time before deciding if there is adherence to a prescribed opiate regimen for individuals with chronic pain.
    Pain management nursing: official journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: A high prevalence of pain and difficulties with pain assessment has been widely reported among residents of long-term-care facilities. We explored nurses' and care workers' estimations of residents' pain (both general and chronic) and the number of residents with unknown pain status. We also examined the relationship between the prevalence of pain and assessment strategies undertaken by nurses and care workers. A cross-sectional design was used. Nurses and care workers across 750 long-term care facilities in four Japanese prefectures were asked to participate. Questionnaires were administered to one nurse and care worker at each facility. The questionnaires assessed the estimated numbers of residents who had pain in general, chronic pain, or unknown pain status on the day of data collection, and pain assessment strategies use by the health care professionals. In all, 263 (17.5%) questionnaires were returned from 147 nurses (55.9%) and 116 care workers (44.1%). The nurses' and care workers' median estimations of pain and chronic pain prevalence among residents were 11.6 and 9.4 and 29.4 and 15.5, respectively (p < .001). Estimations of pain prevalence were significantly higher among nurses who had observed signs of pain among residents in the previous month (p = .04) and who applied a multidisciplinary approach to pain assessment and management (p = .007) than among nurses who did not do either. Nurses and care workers had relatively low estimations of the prevalence of pain among their residents. Staff should undertake appropriate and sufficient pain assessments in order to improve their understanding of residents' pain.
    Pain management nursing: official journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The Nociception Coma Scale (NCS) is a pain observation tool, developed for patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC) due to acquired brain injury (ABI). The aim of this study was to assess the interrater reliability of the NCS and NCS-R among nurses for the assessment of pain in ABI patients with DOC. A secondary aim was further validation of both scales by assessing its discriminating abilities for the presence or absence of pain. Hospitalized patients with ABI (n = 10) were recorded on film during three conditions: baseline, after tactile stimulation, and after noxious stimulation. All stimulations were part of daily treatment for these patients. The 30 recordings were assessed with the NCS and NCS-R by 27 nurses from three university hospitals in the Netherlands. Each nurse viewed 9 to 12 recordings, totaling 270 assessments. Interrater reliability of the NCS/NCS-R items and total scores were estimated by intraclass correlations (ICC), which showed excellent and equal average measures reliability for the NCS and NCR-R total scores (ICC 0.95), and item scores (range 0.87-0.95). Secondary analysis was performed to assess differences in ICCs among nurses' education and experience and to assess the scales discriminating properties for the presence of pain. The NCS and NCS-R are valid and reproducible scales that can be used by nurses with an associate (of science) in nursing degree or baccalaureate (of science) in nursing degree. It seems that more experience with ABI patients is not a predictor for good agreement in the assessment of the NCS(-R).
    Pain management nursing: official journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of external cold and vibration stimulation via Buzzy on the pain and anxiety level of children during peripheral intravenous (IV) cannulation. This study was a prospective, randomized controlled trial. The sample consisted of 176 children ages 7 to 12 years who were randomly assigned to two groups: a control group that received no peripheral IV cannulation intervention and an experimental group that received external cold and vibration via Buzzy. The same nurse conducted the peripheral IV cannulation in all the children, and the same researcher applied the external cold and vibration to all the children. The external cold and the vibration were applied 1 minute before the peripheral IV cannulation procedure and continued until the end of the procedure. Preprocedural anxiety was assessed using the Children's Fear Scale, along with reports by the children, their parents, and an observer. Procedural anxiety was assessed with the Children's Fear Scale and the parents' and the observer's reports. Procedural pain was assessed using the Wong Baker Faces Scale and the visual analog scale self-reports of the children. Preprocedural anxiety did not differ significantly. Comparison of the two groups showed significantly lower pain and anxiety levels in the experimental group than in the control group during the peripheral IV cannulation. Buzzy can be considered to provide an effective combination of coldness and vibration. This method can be used during pediatric peripheral IV cannulation by pediatric nurses.
    Pain management nursing: official journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Pain interferes with various activities, such as coughing, deep breathing, and ambulation, designed to promote recovery and prevent complications after surgery. Determining appropriate cutpoints for mild, moderate, and severe pain is important, because specific interventions may be based on this classification. The purpose of this research was to determine optimal cutpoints for postoperative patients based on their worst and average pain during hospitalization and after discharge to home, and whether the optimal cutpoints distinguished patients with mild, moderate, or severe pain regarding patient outcomes. This secondary analysis consisted of 192 postoperative patients aged ≥60 years. Multivariate analyses of variance were used to stratify the sample into mild, moderate, and severe pain groups using eight cutpoint models for worst and average pain in the last 24 hours. One-way analyses of variance were conducted to determine whether patients experiencing mild, moderate, or severe pain were different in outcome. Optimal cutpoints were similar to those previously reported, with the boundary between mild and moderate pain ranging from 3 to 4 and the boundary between moderate and severe pain ranging from 5 to 7. Worst pain cutpoints were most useful in distinguishing patients regarding fatigue, depression, pain's interference with function, and morphine equivalent administered in the previous 24 hours. A substantial proportion of patients experienced moderate to severe pain. The results suggest a narrow boundary between mild and severe pain that interferes with function. The findings indicate that clinicians should seek to aggressively manage postoperative pain ratings greater than 3.
    Pain management nursing: official journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses 06/2014; 15(2):e1-e12.
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    ABSTRACT: Active usage of observational pain scales in Japanese aged-care facilities has not been previously described. Therefore, to examine the feasibility and clinical utility of the Abbey Pain Scale-Japanese version (APS-J), this study examined the interrater reliability of the APS-J among a researcher, nurses, and care workers in aged-care facilities in Japan. This study also aimed to obtain nurses' and care workers' opinions on use of the scale. The following data were collected from 88 residents of two aged-care facilities: demographics, Barthel Index, Folstein Mini-Mental Examination (MMSE), 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15), and APS-J for pain. The researchers, nurses, and care workers independently assessed the residents' pain by using the APS-J, and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) for interrater reliability and Cronbach alpha for internal consistency were examined. The ICC between researchers and nurses, researchers and care workers, and nurses and care workers were 0.68, 0.74, and 0.76, respectively. Nurses and care workers were invited for focus group interviews to obtain their opinions regarding APS-J use. During these interviews, nurses and care workers stated that the observational points of APS-J subscales were the criteria they normally used to evaluate residents' pain. Several nurses and care workers reported a gap between the estimated pain intensity and APS-J score. Unclear APS-J criteria, difficulties in observing residents, and insufficient practice guidelines were also reported. Our findings indicate that the APS-J has moderate reliability and clinically utility. To facilitate APS-J usage, education and clinical guidelines for pain management may be required for nurses and care workers.
    Pain management nursing: official journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses 06/2014; 15(2):439-48.
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this descriptive secondary analysis was to explore the use of Communication Accommodation Theory as a framework to examine pain communication strategies used by older adults and their primary care practitioners during medical ambulatory care visits. Ambulatory medical visits for 22 older adults with moderate or greater osteoarthritis pain were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim, and coded by two independent raters for six a priori communication strategies derived from the attuning strategies of Communication Accommodation Theory: 1) patient selecting the pain topic; 2) patient taking a turn; 3) patient maintaining focus on the pain topic; 4) practitioner using an open-ended question without social desirability to start the pain discussion; 5) practitioner encouraging the patient to take a turn by asking open-ended questions; and 6) practitioner interruptions. The majority of practitioners did not start the pain discussion with an open-ended question, but did not interrupt the older adults as they discussed their pain. Five (22.7%) of the older adults did not discuss their osteoarthritis pain during the ambulatory medical visit. The majority of patients took their turn during the pain discussion, but did not maintain focus while describing important osteoarthritis pain information to their practitioner. Practitioners might assist older adults to communicate more information about their pain by initiating the pain discussion with an open-ended pain question. Older adults might provide more pain information to their practitioner by staying on the pain topic until they have completed all of the pain information they wish to discuss with the practitioner.
    Pain management nursing: official journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses 06/2014; 15(2):466-73.
  • Pain management nursing: official journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses 06/2014; 15(2):551-4.
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of foot massage on pain after breast surgery, and provide guidance for nurses in nonpharmacologic interventions for pain relief. This was a quasiexperimental study with a total of 70 patients who had undergone breast surgery (35 in the experimental group and 35 in the control group). Patients in the control group received only analgesic treatment, whereas those in the experimental group received foot massage in addition to analgesic treatment. Patients received the first dose of analgesics during surgery. As soon as patients came from the operating room, they were evaluated for pain severity. Patients whose pain severity scored ≥4 according to the Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire were accepted into the study. In the experimental group, pain and vital signs (arterial blood pressure, pulse, and respiration) were evaluated before foot massage at the time patients complained about pain (time 0) and then 5, 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes after foot massage. In the control group, pain and vital signs were also evaluated when the patients complained about pain (time 0) and again at 5, 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes, in sync with the times when foot massage was completed in the experimental group. A patient information form was used to collect descriptive characteristics data of the patients, and the Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire was used to determine pain severity. Data were analyzed for frequencies, mean, standard deviation, chi-square, Student t, Pillai trace, and Bonferroni test. The results of the statistical analyses showed that patients in the experimental group experienced significantly less pain (p ≤ .001). Especially notable, patients in the experimental group showed a decrease in all vital signs 5 minutes after foot massage, but patients in the control group showed increases in vital signs except for heart rate at 5 minutes. The data obtained showed that foot massage in breast surgery patients was effective in postoperative pain management.
    Pain management nursing: official journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses 06/2014; 15(2):458-65.
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    ABSTRACT: Fibromyalgia is a chronic musculoskeletal pain disorder that affects an estimated 5 million adults in the US. The hallmark is burning, searing, tingling, shooting, stabbing, deep aching, or sharp pain. Fibromyalgia is generally considered to be a "central sensitivity syndrome" where central sensitization is regarded as the cause of pain in its own right. Nonetheless, the case continues to be made that all central and spatially distributed peripheral components of fibromyalgia pain would fade if the peripheral generators could be silenced. Although neural mechanisms are clearly important in pain sensitivity, cognitive and social mechanisms also need to be considered. The aim of this review is to examine four mechanisms responsible for heightened pain sensitivity in fibromyalgia: peripheral sensitization, central sensitization, cognitive-emotional sensitization, and interpersonal sensitization. The purpose of framing the review in terms of pain sensitivity in fibromyalgia is to highlight that different mechanisms of sensitization are appropriately regarded as intervening variables when it comes to understanding individual differences in the experience of pain. The paper concludes by considering the implications of the findings of the review for explanations of fibromyalgia pain by nurses working in multidisciplinary teams. The trend appears to be able to explain the cause of fibromyalgia pain in terms of sensitization per se. The recommended alternative is to explain fibromyalgia pain in terms of changes in pain sensitivity and the role of underlying neural and psychosocial mechanisms.
    Pain management nursing: official journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses 06/2014; 15(2):530-538.
  • Pain management nursing: official journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses 06/2014; 15(2):437-8.
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    ABSTRACT: Low back pain due to the effects of lumbar disc herniation is a common complaint of patients who often subsequently seek help from medical professionals. It is also a significant health problem which is quite difficult to treat. This descriptive study was conducted to determine nonmedical methods used by patients with lumbar disc herniation to relieve low back pain; the patients' intensity of low back pain when they were admitted to the hospital was also explored. Ninety-two patients with lumbar disc herniation participated in this study, which was carried out at a university hospital in northeastern Turkey. Data were collected using a patient information form and the visual analog scale (VAS). When the patients were admitted to hospital, their mean VAS score was 6.56 ± 2.45. The study results showed that as a first choice nearly all of the patients (94.6%) with lumbar disc herniation preferred consulting with their physicians before to obtain relief for low back pain. However, in addition to seeing their physician, more than one-half of these patients (57.6%) also used nonmedical methods. The primary nonmedical methods were hot/cold compresses, wrapping various substances on the back, and herbal preparations. An increase in pain was noted by 17.0% of patients after using nonmedical methods. Findings indicated that more than two-thirds of patients experienced either no change or an increase in pain after using nonmedical methods to find relief.
    Pain management nursing: official journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses 06/2014; 15(2):449-57.
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    ABSTRACT: Patients hospitalized for burn injuries experience severe pain, both immediately after the injury and during daily therapeutic procedures such as dressing changes. Relaxation is increasingly suggested as a pain control technique that can be used by nurses in daily practice. Yet the effects of relaxation on burn pain are not clear. The aim of this study was to investigate whether jaw relaxation will decrease pain intensity of burn dressing. Accordingly, a randomized clinical trial (n = 100) was conducted between 2009 and 2010 to compare jaw relaxation and usual care. Consenting patients were randomly assigned to either experimental or control groups using minimization. The experimental group practiced jaw relaxation for 20 minutes before entering the dressing room. Data were collected by visual analog scale (VAS), and several structured questions were asked of the experimental group. No significant difference was seen between mean pain intensity scores in the experimental and control groups after dressing (p = .676). Regarding the ineffectiveness of jaw relaxation for pain intensity of burn dressing, future studies are suggested to concentrate on longer durations of relaxation time and continuing the procedure in dressing room. Simultaneous study of the effect of this technique on residual, breakthrough, and procedural burn pain is also recommended.
    Pain management nursing: official journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses 04/2014;