Pain management nursing: official journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses Impact Factor & Information

Publisher: American Society of Pain Management Nurses, WB Saunders

Journal description

This exciting new journal offers a unique focus on the realm of pain management as it applies to nurses. Original and review articles from experts in the field offer key insight in the areas of clinical practice, advocacy, education, administration, and research. Additional features include practice guidelines and articles dealing with pharmacologic issues.

Current impact factor: 1.79

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2015
2013 / 2014 Impact Factor 1.787
2012 Impact Factor 1.696
2011 Impact Factor 1.145
2010 Impact Factor 1.039
2009 Impact Factor 1.306
2008 Impact Factor 1.537

Impact factor over time

Impact factor
Year

Additional details

5-year impact 0.00
Cited half-life 5.20
Immediacy index 0.15
Eigenfactor 0.00
Article influence 0.00
Website Pain Management Nursing website
Other titles Pain management nursing (Online), Pain management nursing
ISSN 1532-8635
OCLC 45496010
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

WB Saunders

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • Pre-print allowed on any website or open access repository
    • Voluntary deposit by author of authors post-print allowed on institutions open scholarly website including Institutional Repository, without embargo, where there is not a policy or mandate
    • Deposit due to Funding Body, Institutional and Governmental policy or mandate only allowed where separate agreement between repository and the publisher exists.
    • Permitted deposit due to Funding Body, Institutional and Governmental policy or mandate, may be required to comply with embargo periods of 12 months to 48 months
    • Set statement to accompany deposit
    • Published source must be acknowledged
    • Must link to journal home page or articles' DOI
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Articles in some journals can be made Open Access on payment of additional charge
    • NIH Authors articles will be submitted to PubMed Central after 12 months
    • Authors who are required to deposit in subject-based repositories may also use Sponsorship Option
    • Publisher last reviewed on 03/07/2015
    • 'WB Saunders' is an imprint of 'Elsevier'
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this feasibility study was to determine the impact of establishing a comfort function goal preoperatively on postoperative pain scores and opiate requirements in lumbar fusion patients. A comfort function goal is defined as the pain score identified by the patient describing the level of pain tolerance to participate in healing activities such as deep breathing, ambulation and participation in activities of daily living. The design was prospective, nonrandomized, intervention group (n = 30) compared with retrospective chart review as control group (n = 30). Sample included patients scheduled for routine lumbar fusion in an urban southeastern hospital. The study intervention established a comfort function goal during a routine preoperative patient education class. No significant difference in pain score or opiate requirement was found for these data. However, a fundamental clinical question arose surrounding opiate requirements and dosing management. In our hospital, the norm for postoperative pain management is to categorize pain scores as mild (1-3), moderate (4-6), and severe (7-10) pain. Physician orders commonly use this differential to order opiate dose ranges. In this sample, the mean pain score for the intervention group at home is 5.8 and the mean comfort function goal is 4.9. Based on normative categories of pain scores, if a patient's baseline of tolerable pain is 4.9, this has potential impact on clinician responses to managing pain, as 4.9-5.8 is, for this patient, perhaps a mild range of pain, not moderate. If a patient reports a pain score of 7, and their norm is 5.8, the delta is only 1.2. Does this imply that the patient is experiencing mild or severe pain? Does the nurse deliver a dose of pain medication that is in the mild or severe dose range? Copyright © 2015 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Pain management nursing: official journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.pmn.2015.06.007
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    ABSTRACT: This study was performed to determine the effect of several preintervention preparation practices on pain and anxiety related to the peripheral cannulation procedure in children ages 9-12 years. The study included 60 Turkish children (28 female, 32 male, randomly selected by lot), 30 of whom were included in the intervention group and 30 of whom were included in the control group. The children's demographic data were collected by a data collection form prepared by the researcher. The children in the intervention group read the training manual before peripheral cannulation, and the procedure was demonstrated on a teddy bear. Their level of pain was assessed using the Wong-Baker Faces Rating Scale, and their level of anxiety was determined by the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children, before and during the procedure in both groups. Results showed that while anxiety and pain scores increased during the actual procedure compared to the preparatory procedure in the control group (anxiety t = -4.957, pain Z(a) = -4.048), anxiety and pain scores decreased during the actual procedure in the intervention group compared to the preparatory procedure (anxiety t = 7.896, pain t = 6.196). When the pain and anxiety scores were examined, it was found that both anxiety and pain scores in the intervention group were significantly lower than in the control group. In conclusion, children in this study experienced pain and situational anxiety during peripheral cannulation, and this pain can be reduced by preparing the child in advance of the procedure. It is suggested that children should be informed about and able to practice the procedure on a toy or model before peripheral cannulation. Preparation of the children to painful procedures in accordance with their cognitive development can reduce anxiety and pain. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Pain management nursing: official journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.pmn.2015.06.006
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to develop and validate women's perceptions of the supportive care received during labor. This study had a methodological design. A total of 360 women giving birth at two state hospitals in 2012 participated. Written permission was obtained from the Ethics Committee, the hospitals, and the participants. Data were collected via participant characteristics forms and the Scale of Women's Perception for Supportive Care Given During Labor. Content validity of the scale (0.94) was achieved with expert views. Three factors-comfortable behaviors, education, and disturbing behaviors-were exposed to exploratory factor analysis, and factor loading varied between 0.38 and 0.76. The factor structures were confirmed by confirmatory factor analysis. Cronbach's coefficient was 0.94 for the scale, 0.92 for comforting behaviors, 0.85 for education, and 0.87 for disturbing behaviors. The correlation coefficient between the first and second part of the scale was 0.80. Item-total point correlations of the scale varied between 0.42 and 0.77. The scale was valid and reliable for measuring women's perception of supportive care given during labor. It can be used to determine the care aspects that midwives/nurses should develop, to improve the quality of care, and to help women have more positive labor experiences and higher labor satisfaction. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Pain management nursing: official journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.pmn.2015.05.001
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    ABSTRACT: Fibromyalgia (FM) patients were recently found to have more symptom burden from bothersome pelvic pain syndromes that women seeking care for pelvic floor disease at a urogynecology clinic. We sought to further characterize pelvic floor symptoms in a larger sample of FM patients using of validated questionnaires. Female listserv members of the Fibromyalgia Information Foundation completed an online survey of three validated questionnaires: the Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory 20 (PFDI-20), the Pelvic Pain, Urgency and Frequency Questionnaire (PUF), and the Revised Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQR). Scores were characterized using descriptive statistics. Patients (n = 204 with complete data on 177) were on average 52.3 ± 11.4 years with a mean parity of 2.5 ± 1.9. FM severity based on FIQR score (57.2 ± 14.9) positively correlated with PFDI-20 total 159.08 ± 55.2 (r = .34, p < .001) and PUF total 16.54 ± 7 (r = .36, p < .001). Women with FM report significantly bothersome pelvic floor and urinary symptoms. Fibromyalgia management should include evaluation and treatment of pelvic floor disorders recognizing that pelvic distress and urinary symptoms are associated with more severe FM symptoms. Validated questionnaires, like the ones used in this study, are easily incorporated into clinical practice. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Pain management nursing: official journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.pmn.2015.06.001
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    ABSTRACT: Despite evidence that many nursing home residents' pain is poorly managed, reasons for this poor management remain unanswered. The aim of this study was to determine if specific order sets related to pain assessment would improve pain management in nursing home (NH) residents. Outcomes included observed nurse pain assessment queries and resident reports of pain. The pretest/post-test study was performed in a 240-bed for-profit nursing home in the mid-southern region of the United States and participants were 43 nursing home residents capable of self-consent. Medical chart abstraction was performed during a 2-week (14-day) period before the implementation of specific order sets for pain assessment (intervention) and a 2-week (14-day) period after the intervention. Trained research assistants observed medication administration passes and performed participant interviews after each medication pass. One month after intervention implementation, 1 additional day of observations was conducted to determine data reliability. Nurses were observed to ask residents about pain more frequently, and nurses continued to ask about pain at higher rates 1 month after the intervention was discontinued. The proportion of residents who reported pain also significantly increased in response to increased nurse queries (e.g., "Do you have any pain right now?"), which underscores the importance of nurses directly asking residents about pain. Notably 70% of this long-stay NH population only told the nurses about their pain symptoms when asked directly. Findings uncover that using specific pain order sets seems to improve the detection of pain, which should be a routine part of nursing assessment. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Pain management nursing: official journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.pmn.2015.06.002
  • Pain management nursing: official journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses 08/2015; 16(4):455. DOI:10.1016/j.pmn.2015.06.003
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    ABSTRACT: Breakthrough pain is a significant contributor to much suffering by patients. The experience of intense pain may interfere with, and affect, daily life functioning and has major consequences on patients' well-being if it is not well managed. The area of breakthrough pain has not been fully understood. This study thus aimed to explore the experiences of breakthrough pain among palliative patients. A qualitative study based on a series of open-ended interviews among 21 palliative patients suffering from pain at an urban tertiary hospital in Malaysia was conducted. Five themes were generated: (i) pain viewed as an unbearable experience causing misery in the lives of patients, (ii) deterioration of body function and no hope of recovery, (iii) receiving of inadequate pain management for pain, (iv) insensitivity of healthcare providers toward patients' pain experience, and (v) pain coping experiences of patients. The findings revealed that nonpharmacologic approaches such as psychosocial support should be introduced to the patients. Proper guidance and information should be given to healthcare providers to improve the quality of patient care. Healthcare providers should adopt a sensitive approach in caring for patients' needs. The aim is to meet the needs of the patients who want to be pain free or to attain adequate relief of their pain for breakthrough pain. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Pain management nursing: official journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses 08/2015; 16(4):552-60. DOI:10.1016/j.pmn.2014.10.002
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    ABSTRACT: Self-report pain assessment tools are commonly used in clinical settings to determine patients' pain intensity. The Iowa Pain Thermometer (IPT) is a tool that was developed for research, but also can be used in clinical settings. However, its utility in clinical settings is challenging because it uses a 13-point scale (0-12 scale) that does not align with common electronic pain scoring metrics. Therefore, this study evaluated the psychometric properties of an 11-point (0-10 scale) adaptation of the Iowa Pain Thermometer (IPT-R) to evaluate the psychometric properties of the IPT-R and to determine patient preference for a self-report pain assessment tool. A descriptive, correlational design was employed. The IPT-R was compared with the original IPT and a numeric rating scale (NRS). This study was conducted in the southeastern United States with 75 adults ranging in age from 65-95 years with varying levels of cognition. Participants were primarily representative of black and white backgrounds. Participants were asked to rate current pain, worst pain during the past week, and reassessment of current pain after 10-minute intervals using three scales (IPT-R, IPT, and NRS) presented in random order. Participants were asked to identify the tool preferred (the easiest to use and that best represented their pain intensity). Spearman-rank correlations were performed to determine convergent validity and test-retest reliability. Based on the results of this preliminary study, the IPT-R has good validity and reliability. The participants in this sample preferred the IPT-R over the original IPT (0-12 scale) and the traditional NRS (0-10 scale). Clinicians may consider using this tool with diverse older patients to assess pain intensity. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Pain management nursing: official journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses 08/2015; 16(4):475-82. DOI:10.1016/j.pmn.2014.09.004
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    ABSTRACT: It is important to ensure that cancer pain management is based on the best evidence. Nursing evidence-based pain management can be examined through an evaluation of pain documentation. The aim of this study was to modify and test an evaluation tool for nursing cancer pain documentation, and describe the frequency and quality of nursing pain documentation in one oncology unit via the electronic medical system. A descriptive cross-sectional design was used for this study at an oncology unit of an academic medical center in the Pacific Northwest. Medical records were examined for 37 adults hospitalized during April and May 2013. Nursing pain documentations (N = 230) were reviewed using an evaluation tool modified from the Cancer Pain Practice Index to consist of 13 evidence-based pain management indicators, including pain assessment, care plan, pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic interventions, monitoring and treatment of analgesic side effects, communication with physicians, and patient education. Individual nursing documentation was assigned a score ranging from 0 (worst possible) to 13 (best possible), to reflect the delivery of evidence-based pain management. The participating nurses documented 90% of the recommended evidence-based pain management indicators. Documentation was suboptimal for pain reassessment, pharmacologic interventions, and bowel regimen. The study results provide implications for enhancing electronic medical record design and highlight a need for future research to understand the reasons for suboptimal nursing documentation of cancer pain management. For the future use of the data evaluation tool, we recommend additional modifications according to study settings. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Pain management nursing: official journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses 08/2015; 16(4):456-63. DOI:10.1016/j.pmn.2014.09.001
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence and the affecting factors of dysmenorrhea and its effects on overall comfort among female university students. This was a cross-sectional study. The research was carried out between October and November 2013 at a university in Ankara. This study was conducted with 200 female students. The data were analyzed using frequencies, means, SD, χ(2) tests, independent t tests and analysis of variance. Data were collected using an interview questionnaire, the visual analog scale (VAS) and the General Comfort Questionnaire. The mean age of students in this study group was 20.85 ± 2.15 years. The prevalence of dysmenorrhea in the students was 84%. The mean severity of pain was 5.78 ± 2.45 on the VAS. The present study found that 45.8% of female students experienced moderate menstrual pain and the most common co-occurring symptoms were irritability (34.6%) and fatigue (21.5%). One-fourth of the students with dysmenorrhea consulted the advice of a physician and the most commonly used methods for pain were analgesics (69%), heat application (56.5%), and rest (71.4%). Family history of dysmenorrhea, education about menstruation, and frequency of menstrual cycle were identified as important factors in the development of dysmenorrhea (p < .05). The mean general comfort score for students with dysmenorrhea (2.57 ± 0.25) was lower than that of students without the condition (2.65 ± 0.23). Also, use of the methods for management of dysmenorrhea was found to increase students' general comfort levels. Therefore, it is important for nurses to educate and advise adolescents and young women about dysmenorrhea. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Pain management nursing: official journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses 08/2015; 16(4):534-43. DOI:10.1016/j.pmn.2014.10.004
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to understand the various factors that contribute to the delivery of effective pain management. The current picture of pain management is complex and contradictory, with children in the hospital still experiencing unnecessary pain, nurses reporting better pain care than is evidenced, and parents who are reluctant to report their child's pain. There is a real need to focus on areas of excellence where pain management innovations have been successfully implemented. Five hospitals were visited in three countries: the United Kingdom, Sweden, and Australia, spending a week in each country. In all, 28 health care professionals were interviewed exploring innovations in pain management; the effect of improvements on children, parents, and nurses; and what helped and hindered the delivery of effective pain management. Better pain management provides nurses with confidence, which in turn gives children and parents confidence in their care and reduces anxiety for nurses. Resources, on the other hand, were a common issue in relation to obstacles to innovation. A recurring theme in all areas visited was the issue of culture and how it affected both negatively and positively on the management of children's pain. Strong leadership was integral to moving practice forward and to introducing the innovations that led to effective pain management. The key findings identified that underpin the effective management of children's pain are effective leadership, resources, and confidence; the consequences are less stress for children and nurses, more trusting relationships, and greater job satisfaction. A model of effective pain management is proposed. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Pain management nursing: official journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses 08/2015; 16(4):570-8. DOI:10.1016/j.pmn.2014.10.008
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    ABSTRACT: It is very important for nurses to have a clear understanding of the patient's pain experience and of management strategies. However, a review of the nursing literature shows that one of the main barriers to proper pain management practice is lack of knowledge. Nursing schools are in a unique position to address the gap in pain management knowledge by facilitating the acquisition and use of knowledge by the next generation of nurses. The purpose of this article is to discuss the role of computer-based simulations as a reliable educational technology strategy that can enhance the learning experience of nursing students acquiring pain management knowledge and practice. Computer-based simulations provide a significant number of learning affordances that can help change nursing students' attitudes and behaviors toward and practice of pain assessment and management. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Pain management nursing: official journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses 08/2015; 16(4):609-16. DOI:10.1016/j.pmn.2014.11.001
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    ABSTRACT: Fear, anxiety, and emotional upset are common experiences for hospitalized children. To identify and treat children's emotional reactions, health care professionals must be able to differentiate emotional reactions from pain and other symptoms. Clinical assessment of emotions requires the use of valid and reliable instruments in acute care settings. This study examined internal consistency, construct, and concurrent validity of the Emotional Reactions Checklist (ERC). A descriptive correlational design guided the psychometric approach. Children answered a sociodemographic questionnaire and responded to self-generated scenarios of pleasant and unpleasant events using two self-report scales of emotions. The convenience sample comprised 59 children admitted to an inpatient unit in a large children's hospital or to a community hospital emergency department. Construct validity was supported by significantly different ERC mean responses to recalled pleasant prehospitalization experiences and unpleasant hospitalization experiences (p < .001) for both ERC item responses and total scale scores. Children's explanations for seemingly inconsistent item responses further supported their ability to use the ERC to convey their emotions. Concurrent validity was supported by moderate (r = 0.32) to strong (r = 0.70) correlations between the Facial Affective Scale and ERC items and scale scores. Internal consistency was better supported for the recalled unpleasant experience (α = 0.77) than for the pleasant experience (α = 0.60). Results supported construct and concurrent validity and beginning internal consistency reliability for the ERC in an acute care setting. Further research is required to establish feasibility of repeated use with ill children. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Pain management nursing: official journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses 08/2015; 16(4):579-86. DOI:10.1016/j.pmn.2014.10.007
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    ABSTRACT: Pain management trajectory data that includes previous pain treatments, timing, changes, and outcomes provide crucial data for patients with chronic pain and their practitioners to use when discussing ways to optimize pain management regimens. The aim of this study was to test the use of the life history calendar method to identify pain treatments, treatment regimens, timing, and outcomes of the pain management trajectory of individuals with chronic pain, and to examine feasibility. A pilot, descriptive, methodological design was used. Settings included community-based sites such as congregate housing. Nineteen community-dwelling older adults with osteoarthritis (OA) pain of at least 1 year's duration participated. Participants were interviewed and asked to chronicle from the beginning of the OA pain to the present all of their pain treatments and treatment effects (pain outcomes and adverse events). Raters independently content analyzed the transcribed interviews to identify pain treatments, treatment groupings (regimens), and treatment effects on pain. Feasibility of patients reporting their pain management trajectories was content analyzed by identifying participant difficulty identifying pain treatments, treatment effects, treatment sequence; and difficulty discriminating between treatments, and between OA pain and other pain sources. Individual pain management trajectories were constructed that depicted chronological order of pain treatment regimens and treatment effects. Participants identified pain treatments, discriminate between treatments and between OA and other conditions, and identified treatment effects. Treatment sequence was identified, but more precise timing was generally not reported. Pain management trajectories could provide a helpful way for practitioners to discuss safe, efficacious pain management options with patients. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Pain management nursing: official journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses 08/2015; 16(4):587-94. DOI:10.1016/j.pmn.2014.11.002
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    ABSTRACT: The reported prevalence of pain among nursing home residents (NHRs) is high. Insufficient use of analgesics, the conventional pain management strategy, is often reported. Whether and to what extent nonpharmacologic therapies (NPTs) are used to manage the pain of NHRs in Germany is largely unknown. The aim of this cluster-randomized trial was to assess the NPTs provided and to enhance the application and prescription of NPTs in NHRs on an individual level. There were six nursing homes in the intervention group and six in the control group. There were 239 NHRs, aged ≥65 years, with an average Mini-Mental State Examination score of at least 18 at baseline. Pain management interventions (cluster level) included an online course for physicians and 1-day seminar for nurses. Data on NPT applied by nurses and therapeutic NPT prescribed by physicians were obtained from residents' nursing documentation. Face-to-face interviews with NHRs assessed the NPT received. At baseline, 82.6% of NHR (mean age 83 years) were affected by pain, but less than 1 in 10 received NPT. The intervention did not result in a significant increase in the NPT applied by nurses, but did significantly increase the therapeutic NPT prescribed by physicians. Residents were active in using NPT to self-manage their pain. Given the prevalence of pain in NHRs, there is a clear need to improve pain management in this population. Extended use of NPT offers a promising approach. We recommend that nurses provide residents with education on pain-management techniques to support them in taking a proactive role in managing their pain. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Pain management nursing: official journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses 08/2015; 16(4):464-74. DOI:10.1016/j.pmn.2014.09.002
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    ABSTRACT: This study used the Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) to determine how the quality of methodologies in systematic reviews (SRs) and meta-analyses (MAs) impacts the effectiveness of nonpharmacological cancer pain management. The authors searched 11 electronic databases for published and unpublished studies (in English and Korean) on SRs and MAs relating to "cancer" and "pain management" that were released prior to May 7, 2014. The findings from 17 SRs and MAs were scored for quality using AMSTAR and coded by management type and value of effect size. Only one article was deemed high quality; five were considered to be of low quality. The mean score was 5.47 (SD = 2.03), indicating moderate quality. Among the items we tested via AMSTAR, zero studies stated whether they have a conflict of interest in their covered studies, but every study established the research question and inclusion criteria before constructing the review. Rigorous assessment of nonpharmacological cancer pain management using AMSTAR might contribute to healthcare providers making more informed clinical decisions when it comes to handling pain. Based on the finding, researchers should abide by reporting guidelines for SRs and MAs to ensure that research is more rigorously synthesized. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Pain management nursing: official journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses 07/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.pmn.2015.06.004
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    ABSTRACT: Pain in the lumbosacral part of the spine in the course of degenerative disease is the most common cause of physical activity limitation in adults. Treatment includes pharmacotherapy, physiotherapy, psychotherapy, health promotion, and sometimes surgery. Surgical treatment is not always successful, and the various clinical and psychosomatic symptoms that result from surgical treatment failure are known as failed back surgery syndrome. For some patients with this condition, spinal cord stimulation can provide relief. The aim of the work was to define subjective and objective spinal cord stimulation effects by assessing chosen disability and physical activity limitation ratios. Pain intensity, level of disability, and presence of neurological symptoms were assessed. The examination was performed twice: before the stimulator implantation and at least 6 months postimplantation. The study was conducted at the Department of Neurosurgery and Paediatric Neurosurgery in Lublin. Thirty-six patients suffering from failed back surgery syndrome were recruited for this study. The Visual Analog Scale, modified Laitinen's pain questionnaire, and Oswestry Disability Index were used in this work. The study showed that spinal cord stimulation was effective in treating spinal and lower limb pain in 64% of patients, similar to results obtained in other departments. Although back pain and neuropathic pain radiating to the lower limbs decreased, moderate physical activity impairment was still observed according to the Oswestry Disability Index scale. The decrease in neuropathic pain radiating to the lower limbs had the most significant influence on reducing physical activity impairment. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Pain management nursing: official journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses 07/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.pmn.2015.01.004
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    ABSTRACT: Many individuals suffering from arthritis and other rheumatic diseases (AORD) supplement pharmacologic treatments with psychosocial interventions. One promising approach, guided imagery, has been reported to have positive results in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and is a highly scalable treatment for those with AORD. The main purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review of RCTs that have examined the effects of guided imagery on pain, function, and other outcomes such as anxiety, depression, and quality of life in adults with AORD. Ten electronic bibliographic databases were searched for reports of RCTs published between 1964 and 2013. Selection criteria included adults with AORD who participated in RCTs that used guided imagery as a partial or sole intervention strategy. Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Assessment Instrument. Results were synthesized qualitatively. Seven studies representing 306 enrolled and 287 participants who completed the interventions met inclusion criteria. The average age of the participants was 62.9 years (standard deviation = 12.2). All interventions used guided imagery scripts that were delivered via audio technology. The interventions ranged from a one-time exposure to 16 weeks in duration. Risk of bias was low or unclear in all but one study. All studies reported statistically significant improvements in the observed outcomes. Guided imagery appears to be beneficial for adults with AORD. Future theory-based studies with cost-benefit analyses are warranted. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Pain management nursing: official journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses 07/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.pmn.2015.01.003
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    ABSTRACT: This experimental study was conducted to compare the effects of open and closed suctioning systems on pain in newborns receiving ventilation support. The study sample consisted of 42 babies (23 female, 16 male) hospitalized in the unit between December 2010 and December 2011 who met the selection criteria established for the study. Using the random sampling method, 20 of the babies were included in the closed suctioning system group and the remaining 22 were analyzed in the open suctioning system group. The data collection tools of the study were intervention monitoring form, data collection form, and documentation of the personal information on the babies; and the Neonatal Pain, Agitation, and Sedation Scale (N-PASS) evaluated the babies' pain responses. The data were evaluated using SPSS 15 software. Most neonates were born preterm (≤37 weeks' gestation at birth; 69% [n = 29]). The mean (SD) birth weight, gestational age, and intensive care unit stay were 1.82 kg (1.1 kg), 31.9 (5.3) weeks, and 25.3 (2.9) calendar days, respectively. Results of the study revealed no statistically significant difference between the open suctioning and closed suctioning groups (p = .194). However, the N-PASS pain scores obtained before and during the suctioning processes were significantly different (p < .001). In conclusion, babies seem to experience pain during the suctioning process, according to N-PASS scores, and although not significant statistically, the level of pain felt during open suctioning was observed to be slightly higher compared with closed suctioning. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Pain management nursing: official journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses 07/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.pmn.2015.01.002