Pain management nursing: official journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses (Pain Manag Nurs )

Publisher: American Society of Pain Management Nurses, Elsevier

Description

This exciting new journal offers a unique focus on the realm of pain management as it applies to nurses. Original and review articles from experts in the field offer key insight in the areas of clinical practice, advocacy, education, administration, and research. Additional features include practice guidelines and articles dealing with pharmacologic issues.

  • Impact factor
    1.31
  • 5-year impact
    0.00
  • Cited half-life
    5.20
  • Immediacy index
    0.15
  • Eigenfactor
    0.00
  • Article influence
    0.00
  • Website
    Pain Management Nursing website
  • Other titles
    Pain management nursing (Online), Pain management nursing
  • ISSN
    1532-8635
  • OCLC
    45496010
  • Material type
    Document, Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Elsevier

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • Pre-print allowed on any website or open access repository
    • Voluntary deposit by author of authors post-print allowed on authors' personal website, arXiv.org or institutions open scholarly website including Institutional Repository, without embargo, where there is not a policy or mandate
    • Deposit due to Funding Body, Institutional and Governmental policy or mandate only allowed where separate agreement between repository and the publisher exists.
    • Permitted deposit due to Funding Body, Institutional and Governmental policy or mandate, may be required to comply with embargo periods of 12 months to 48 months .
    • Set statement to accompany deposit
    • Published source must be acknowledged
    • Must link to journal home page or articles' DOI
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Articles in some journals can be made Open Access on payment of additional charge
    • NIH Authors articles will be submitted to PubMed Central after 12 months
    • Publisher last contacted on 18/10/2013
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • María Helena Porras-González, Francisco Javier Barón-López, María José García-Luque, Isabel María Morales-Gil
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Patients undergoing a surgical intervention for the first time are unfamiliar with the perioperative context, and they usually have no knowledge of postoperative pain management. In the preoperative circuit, there is no time to educate the patient in these terms. The professional profile of nurses allows this need to be addressed, and provides a regulated language to evaluate their effectiveness. This study evaluates the effectiveness of nursing counseling during a preoperative consultation for the management of postoperative pain and its effects on patient satisfaction at hospital discharge. This quasi-experimental study assesses the efficacy of preoperative nursing intervention in two groups, control (n = 185) and intervention (n = 195). Those in the intervention group attended a preoperative session during which they received information from nursing staff and took part in activities to learn about postoperative pain management and the perioperative circuit. Control group patients underwent the standard preoperative protocol. Data were compiled from January to December 2009. Statistically significant differences existed between the two groups regarding postoperative pain (visual analogue scale >3, 20.5% versus 11.5%; p = .023), patient satisfaction (87.1% versus 78.7%; p = .041), and surgical wound complications (13.9% versus 5.5%; p = .010). The results confirm the benefits of applying the nursing methodology in preoperative clinics. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Pain management nursing: official journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses 12/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to determine whether applying obstetric gel, a noninvasive method of pain management that is safe both for the mother and the child, during labor influences delivery satisfaction by facilitating pain management and decreasing exhaustion. Forty-seven primiparous women were included in the study: 23 on whom during the delivery gel was used and 24 whose delivery proceeded without the use of a gel (control group). The following research tools were used for the evaluation of satisfaction with the course of the delivery: Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), self-authorship survey, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. There were no significant differences in intensification of pain in the first and second periods of delivery, exhaustion after delivery and intensification of pain in the second period of delivery, and increased anxiety between the study group and the control group. Our results suggest that application of obstetric gel during the first and second period of delivery does not significantly influence women's satisfaction with the course of delivery. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Pain management nursing: official journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses 12/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Despite the benefits that nonpharmacologic methods of pain management have to offer, nurses cite barriers that inhibit their use in practice. The purpose of this research study was to compare the perceptions of prelicensed student nurses (SNs) and registered nurses (RNs) toward nonpharmacologic methods of pain management. A sample size of 64 students and 49 RNs was recruited. Each participant completed a questionnaire about their use and perceptions nonpharmacologic pain control methods. Sixty-nine percent of RNs reported a stronger belief that nonpharmacologic methods gave relief to their patients compared with 59% of SNs (p = .028). Seventy-five percent of student nurses felt they had adequate education about nonpharmacologic pain modalities compared with 51% of RN who felt less than adequately educated (p = .016). These findings highlight the need for education about nonpharmacologic approaches to pain management. Applications of these findings may decrease barriers to the use of nonpharmacologic methods of pain management. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Pain management nursing: official journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses 12/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Nurses play a vital role in providing patient education for proper use of opioids. This descriptive study was designed to explore nurses' knowledge of opioids. Nurses in two large urban East Coast medical centers in the United States were invited to participate in the study, and 133 nurses completed the survey in its entirety. Registered nurses' knowledge of and attitudes about opioid use were assessed using a 48-item web-based questionnaire sent via e-mail. Frequencies were computed for all items on the questionnaire. Chi-squared testing was used to analyze data for all questions that fewer than 50% of participants answered correctly. The results of this study revealed a pain management knowledge gap among nurses caring for patients who are receiving opioid analgesics. This gap includes patient assessment; pharmacologic management; use of adjuvant medications; risks of addiction; risks of respiratory depression; and disposal and storage of opioid analgesics. Only 25% of the nurses answered 50% of the survey questions correctly. Demographic variables such as experience working as a nurse and length of time as a nurse did not influence how nurses performed on the questionnaire, nor did educational level. However, nurses who received education on opioids as a separate class of medication answered a higher percentage of questions correctly than those who did not receive education on opioids. The results of this study reveal a knowledge gap and nurses' lack of sufficient information about opioids that may affect their ability to provide effective medication instructions to their patients. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Pain management nursing: official journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses 12/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of applying manual pressure before benzathine penicillin injection and compare it with the standard injection technique in terms of reducing discomfort in children with rheumatic heart disease grouped by age and gender. This was a single-blind, randomized, crossover study. Fifty-one patients aged 7.1-19.9 years were recruited for this study carried out in the pediatric cardiology outpatient clinic. Twenty-nine were girls (56.9%). All subjects received an intramuscular injection of benzathine penicillin with manual pressure to one buttock or with the standard technique to the other buttock at 3-week intervals. The two techniques were used randomly. The subjects were blinded to the injection technique and a visual analogue scale was used after the procedure. Findings demonstrate that children experienced significantly less pain when they received injections with manual pressure (1.3 ± 0.9) compared with the standard injection (4.4 ± 1.6) technique. The perceived injection pain was negatively related to the age of the children in both techniques. Compared with boys, girls felt more pain, but the difference between each technique group according to gender was negligible. The application of manual pressure reduces pain in children under the stress of repeated intramuscular injections, which supports the suggestion that it should be used in routine practice. Manual pressure to the injection site is a simple, pain-reducing technique. Implementing this technique in routine practice may also promote adherence to the prophylaxis regimen, especially in children. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Pain management nursing: official journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses 12/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: There are limited epidemiologic studies on chronic pain in Asian populations. The aim of this review was to gather all epidemiologic studies of chronic pain in Asian countries and systematically describe the measurement and prevalence of chronic pain in Asian adults. A systematic review was performed using PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Psych INFO, Cochrane Database for Systematic Review, and CINAHL. Additional studies were identified manually by searching bibliographies. We identified 19 relevant articles for this review. Most articles used the definition of chronic pain set by the International Association for the Study of Pain. The majority of the articles used simple single-question methods to measure chronic pain. The prevalence of chronic pain among Asian adults ranges from 7.1% (Malaysia) to 61% (Cambodia and Northern Iraq), whereas among the Asian geriatric population, the prevalence is even higher and ranges from 42% to 90.8%. This review showed that there is great variation in the reported prevalence of chronic pain in Asian adults and the prevalence of chronic pain is high among the Asian geriatric population. To measure the distribution of chronic pain in adults, a uniform measurement strategy should be adopted. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Pain management nursing: official journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses 11/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Current pain assessment tools for nonverbal critical care patients may not be appropriate for those with brain injury, as these patients demonstrate specific responses to pain. The aim of this study was to generate and select items that could be used to assess pain in braininjured patients. A sequential mixed-method design was chosen with three consecutive steps: 1. Generate items with a literature review, the results of a pilot study, and interviews with 18 clinicians using the nominal group technique. 2. Evaluate content validity with 10 clinicians and four scientists, using a web-based questionnaire. 3. Describe and reduce items with the observation of 116 brain-injured patients in the intensive care unit during common painful procedures. This study took place between May 2010 and October 2011 in two tertiary hospitals in Western Switzerland. Forty-seven items were generated and reduced to 33 during the content validity process. The behaviors most frequently observed during turning were closing the eyes (58.6%), eye movements (57.8%), ventilator asynchrony (55.2%), and frowning/ brow lowering (50%). Five items were observed in less than 5% of the patients during nociceptive procedure. Constant motor activity was observed more frequently at rest than during nociceptive stimulation. All physiologic items showed little variability and their reliability was low. Based on these results, the number of items was reduced to 23. This study identified items that could be specific to brain-injured patients and found that the variability of physiologic items was poorly assessed by clinicians.
    Pain management nursing: official journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses 11/2014; in press.
  • Pain management nursing: official journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses 09/2014; 15(3):555-6.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Undertreatment of postoperative pain can aggravate patient outcomes and is associated with attending nurses' knowledge deficits or negative attitudes toward pain. The aim of this study was to investigate knowledge and attitudes toward postoperative pain of surgical department nurses and to identify predictors of their knowledge and attitudes. This was a descriptive, cross-sectional survey that took place in the departments of general surgery, orthopedics, neurosurgery, ear-nose-throat surgery, and obstetrics/gynecology at five Greek hospitals. Participants were a convenience sample of registered and assistant nurses. Nurses were asked to complete a three-section questionnaire, which included demographics, a Knowledge and Attitudes Survey Regarding Pain (KASRP) tool modified for postoperative pain, and seven questions capturing personal characteristics, working conditions, and feelings about work. One hundred eighty-two questionnaires were completed. Average scores were 45.35% for modified KASRP tool; 28.57% for pain assessment; 55.44% for general pain management; and 47.13% for use of analgesics. Four of the five most commonly missed items referred to use of analgesics. More previous personal experience of postoperative pain (p = .002) and being a registered nurse (p = .015) predicted higher modified KASRP tool score. Participation in continuing education programs and department of employment were also associated with differences in the modified tool score. The knowledge deficits and negative attitudes of the nurses toward postoperative pain highlight the role of pregraduate and continuing education, appropriately specialized for each surgical department, in the development of empathy toward patients in pain and of clinical competency regarding pain assessment and administration of analgesics.
    Pain management nursing: official journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses 06/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Following total knee replacement (TKR) surgery, patients frequently experience intense levels of pain, stress, and anxiety that may reduce their self-efficacy and thus affect their postoperative recovery. Relaxation intervention is beneficial to help patients manage physical pain and emotional tension. However, evidence for the efficacy of relaxation intervention on patients following TKR is still inconclusive. This study aimed to investigate whether a relaxation intervention helped to reduce pain, stress, and anxiety, and whether it helped to increase perceived relaxation and self-efficacy in patients following TKR. A single-group, pretest-posttest quasi-experimental study was carried out at a tertiary hospital in Singapore. A convenience sampling of 18 participants was recruited. Patients received three-session, individual-based relaxation interventions comprised of breathing exercises, muscle relaxation, and guided imagery. Data were collected by self-reported questionnaires and physiologic measures and were analyzed using descriptive statistics, paired t test, and repeated measure analysis of variance. Intent-to-treat analyses were used to deal with missing data. Following the intervention, participants reported significantly lower pain, stress, and anxiety and greater perceived relaxation and self-efficacy. Findings from this study contribute to both nursing science and clinical practice. The relaxation intervention can be offered as part of standard care for patients following TKR in hospitals.
    Pain management nursing: official journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses 06/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Involving parents in children's pain management is essential to achieve optimal outcomes. Parents need to be equipped with sufficient knowledge and information. Only a limited number of studies have explored nurses' provision of parental guidance regarding the use of nonpharmacologic methods in children's pain management. This study aimed to examine nurses' perceptions of providing preparatory information and nonpharmacologic methods to parents, and how their demographics and perceived knowledge adequacy of these methods influence this guidance. A descriptive correlational study using questionnaire surveys was conducted to collect data from a convenience sample of 134 registered nurses working in seven pediatric wards of two public hospitals in Singapore. Descriptive statistics, independent-samples t test, and multiple linear regression were used to analyze the data. Most nurses provided various types of cognitive information to parents related to their children's surgery, whereas information about children's feelings was less often provided. Most nurses provided guidance to parents on positioning, breathing technique, comforting/reassurance, helping with activities of daily living, relaxation, and creating a comfortable environment. Nurses' provision of parental guidance on preparatory information and nonpharmacologic methods was significantly different between subgroups of age, education, parent or not, and perceived knowledge adequacy of nonpharmacologic methods. Nurses' perceived knowledge adequacy was the main factor influencing their provision of parental guidance. More attention should be paid to nurses who are younger, have less working experience, and are not parents. There is a need to educate nurses about nonpharmacologic pain relief methods to optimize their provision of parental guidance.
    Pain management nursing: official journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses 06/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This research was planned as a two-level definitive and comparative study to evaluate pain during endotracheal suction (ETS) in pediatric intensive care units (PICUs). This study was comprised of patients admitted to and the nurses working in the PICU. Cases were selected among PICU patients (N = 65) who met the study criteria and nurses (N = 18) who cared for them from January 1 to July 2, 2008. Routine ETS was applied as the first level of the study. For the second level, an inquiry on the knowledge of nurses about suction was given to the nurses, and they were asked to apply suction according to the guidelines they were given. All the obtained data were evaluated by statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) for Windows 14.0. In summary, 33.8% (n = 22) of the patients were between ages 1 and 12 months, and 64.6% (n = 42) were boys. Although group 2 patients (patient who is in experimental group) had higher scores on the Wong-Baker faces pain rating and Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, Consolability scales, no statistical difference was found between the two groups (p > .05). Patients who received bolus doses of analgesia and sedative drugs had lower Wong-Baker faces pain rating (4.38 ± 0.96; n = 4) and Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, Consolability scores (4.61± 1.94; n = 4) (p > .05). According to these findings, the patients were distressed because of the pain related with suction. Therefore, it is recommended that suction guidelines be used in PICUs during ETS.
    Pain management nursing: official journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses 06/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Adherence monitoring for prescription opioid use is a clinical imperative for individuals prescribed opioids for chronic pain. Urine drug testing (UDT) provides objective evidence for prescription opioid adherence, as recommended by national guidelines to be part of adherence monitoring. The aim of this study was to describe prescription opioid adherence using UDT results in chronic pain patients and to examine the association between demographic characteristics and adherence to their prescribed opiate regimens. We used a retrospective chart review of 120 consecutive patients at an urban pain management clinic. Data collected included UDT results, pain level, and demographic characteristics. Descriptive and correlational statistics were used for data analysis. About 54% of the individuals appeared nonadherent to their prescribed opiate regimen as defined by absence or inappropriate level of prescribed controlled medication, presence of additional nonprescribed controlled substance(s), presence of illicit substance(s), or presence of adulterant in the urine sample. Of the participants, 23% had absence of one or more of their prescribed controlled medications and 12.5% had presence of one or more other opioids. Marijuana was the main illicit substance used (24.2%), followed by cocaine (11.7%). Patients' age, pain level, sex, ethnicity, and injury compensation were not associated with UDT results. UDT results could be useful to educate and guide patients on the proper use of controlled medications. Results from UDT are highly contextual and easily misinterpreted, requiring comparison with a variety of clinical indicators over time before deciding if there is adherence to a prescribed opiate regimen for individuals with chronic pain.
    Pain management nursing: official journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses 06/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A high prevalence of pain and difficulties with pain assessment has been widely reported among residents of long-term-care facilities. We explored nurses' and care workers' estimations of residents' pain (both general and chronic) and the number of residents with unknown pain status. We also examined the relationship between the prevalence of pain and assessment strategies undertaken by nurses and care workers. A cross-sectional design was used. Nurses and care workers across 750 long-term care facilities in four Japanese prefectures were asked to participate. Questionnaires were administered to one nurse and care worker at each facility. The questionnaires assessed the estimated numbers of residents who had pain in general, chronic pain, or unknown pain status on the day of data collection, and pain assessment strategies use by the health care professionals. In all, 263 (17.5%) questionnaires were returned from 147 nurses (55.9%) and 116 care workers (44.1%). The nurses' and care workers' median estimations of pain and chronic pain prevalence among residents were 11.6 and 9.4 and 29.4 and 15.5, respectively (p < .001). Estimations of pain prevalence were significantly higher among nurses who had observed signs of pain among residents in the previous month (p = .04) and who applied a multidisciplinary approach to pain assessment and management (p = .007) than among nurses who did not do either. Nurses and care workers had relatively low estimations of the prevalence of pain among their residents. Staff should undertake appropriate and sufficient pain assessments in order to improve their understanding of residents' pain.
    Pain management nursing: official journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses 06/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The Nociception Coma Scale (NCS) is a pain observation tool, developed for patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC) due to acquired brain injury (ABI). The aim of this study was to assess the interrater reliability of the NCS and NCS-R among nurses for the assessment of pain in ABI patients with DOC. A secondary aim was further validation of both scales by assessing its discriminating abilities for the presence or absence of pain. Hospitalized patients with ABI (n = 10) were recorded on film during three conditions: baseline, after tactile stimulation, and after noxious stimulation. All stimulations were part of daily treatment for these patients. The 30 recordings were assessed with the NCS and NCS-R by 27 nurses from three university hospitals in the Netherlands. Each nurse viewed 9 to 12 recordings, totaling 270 assessments. Interrater reliability of the NCS/NCS-R items and total scores were estimated by intraclass correlations (ICC), which showed excellent and equal average measures reliability for the NCS and NCR-R total scores (ICC 0.95), and item scores (range 0.87-0.95). Secondary analysis was performed to assess differences in ICCs among nurses' education and experience and to assess the scales discriminating properties for the presence of pain. The NCS and NCS-R are valid and reproducible scales that can be used by nurses with an associate (of science) in nursing degree or baccalaureate (of science) in nursing degree. It seems that more experience with ABI patients is not a predictor for good agreement in the assessment of the NCS(-R).
    Pain management nursing: official journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses 06/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of external cold and vibration stimulation via Buzzy on the pain and anxiety level of children during peripheral intravenous (IV) cannulation. This study was a prospective, randomized controlled trial. The sample consisted of 176 children ages 7 to 12 years who were randomly assigned to two groups: a control group that received no peripheral IV cannulation intervention and an experimental group that received external cold and vibration via Buzzy. The same nurse conducted the peripheral IV cannulation in all the children, and the same researcher applied the external cold and vibration to all the children. The external cold and the vibration were applied 1 minute before the peripheral IV cannulation procedure and continued until the end of the procedure. Preprocedural anxiety was assessed using the Children's Fear Scale, along with reports by the children, their parents, and an observer. Procedural anxiety was assessed with the Children's Fear Scale and the parents' and the observer's reports. Procedural pain was assessed using the Wong Baker Faces Scale and the visual analog scale self-reports of the children. Preprocedural anxiety did not differ significantly. Comparison of the two groups showed significantly lower pain and anxiety levels in the experimental group than in the control group during the peripheral IV cannulation. Buzzy can be considered to provide an effective combination of coldness and vibration. This method can be used during pediatric peripheral IV cannulation by pediatric nurses.
    Pain management nursing: official journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses 06/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Pain interferes with various activities, such as coughing, deep breathing, and ambulation, designed to promote recovery and prevent complications after surgery. Determining appropriate cutpoints for mild, moderate, and severe pain is important, because specific interventions may be based on this classification. The purpose of this research was to determine optimal cutpoints for postoperative patients based on their worst and average pain during hospitalization and after discharge to home, and whether the optimal cutpoints distinguished patients with mild, moderate, or severe pain regarding patient outcomes. This secondary analysis consisted of 192 postoperative patients aged ≥60 years. Multivariate analyses of variance were used to stratify the sample into mild, moderate, and severe pain groups using eight cutpoint models for worst and average pain in the last 24 hours. One-way analyses of variance were conducted to determine whether patients experiencing mild, moderate, or severe pain were different in outcome. Optimal cutpoints were similar to those previously reported, with the boundary between mild and moderate pain ranging from 3 to 4 and the boundary between moderate and severe pain ranging from 5 to 7. Worst pain cutpoints were most useful in distinguishing patients regarding fatigue, depression, pain's interference with function, and morphine equivalent administered in the previous 24 hours. A substantial proportion of patients experienced moderate to severe pain. The results suggest a narrow boundary between mild and severe pain that interferes with function. The findings indicate that clinicians should seek to aggressively manage postoperative pain ratings greater than 3.
    Pain management nursing: official journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses 06/2014; 15(2):e1-e12.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Active usage of observational pain scales in Japanese aged-care facilities has not been previously described. Therefore, to examine the feasibility and clinical utility of the Abbey Pain Scale-Japanese version (APS-J), this study examined the interrater reliability of the APS-J among a researcher, nurses, and care workers in aged-care facilities in Japan. This study also aimed to obtain nurses' and care workers' opinions on use of the scale. The following data were collected from 88 residents of two aged-care facilities: demographics, Barthel Index, Folstein Mini-Mental Examination (MMSE), 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15), and APS-J for pain. The researchers, nurses, and care workers independently assessed the residents' pain by using the APS-J, and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) for interrater reliability and Cronbach alpha for internal consistency were examined. The ICC between researchers and nurses, researchers and care workers, and nurses and care workers were 0.68, 0.74, and 0.76, respectively. Nurses and care workers were invited for focus group interviews to obtain their opinions regarding APS-J use. During these interviews, nurses and care workers stated that the observational points of APS-J subscales were the criteria they normally used to evaluate residents' pain. Several nurses and care workers reported a gap between the estimated pain intensity and APS-J score. Unclear APS-J criteria, difficulties in observing residents, and insufficient practice guidelines were also reported. Our findings indicate that the APS-J has moderate reliability and clinically utility. To facilitate APS-J usage, education and clinical guidelines for pain management may be required for nurses and care workers.
    Pain management nursing: official journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses 06/2014; 15(2):439-48.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this descriptive secondary analysis was to explore the use of Communication Accommodation Theory as a framework to examine pain communication strategies used by older adults and their primary care practitioners during medical ambulatory care visits. Ambulatory medical visits for 22 older adults with moderate or greater osteoarthritis pain were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim, and coded by two independent raters for six a priori communication strategies derived from the attuning strategies of Communication Accommodation Theory: 1) patient selecting the pain topic; 2) patient taking a turn; 3) patient maintaining focus on the pain topic; 4) practitioner using an open-ended question without social desirability to start the pain discussion; 5) practitioner encouraging the patient to take a turn by asking open-ended questions; and 6) practitioner interruptions. The majority of practitioners did not start the pain discussion with an open-ended question, but did not interrupt the older adults as they discussed their pain. Five (22.7%) of the older adults did not discuss their osteoarthritis pain during the ambulatory medical visit. The majority of patients took their turn during the pain discussion, but did not maintain focus while describing important osteoarthritis pain information to their practitioner. Practitioners might assist older adults to communicate more information about their pain by initiating the pain discussion with an open-ended pain question. Older adults might provide more pain information to their practitioner by staying on the pain topic until they have completed all of the pain information they wish to discuss with the practitioner.
    Pain management nursing: official journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses 06/2014; 15(2):466-73.