Hemoglobin (Hemoglobin )

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

Description

Hemoglobin emphasizes several topic areas: normal, modified, and abnormal human hemoglobins including new variants, structure-function relationships, physicochemical characteristics, physiological properties, biosynthetic analyses, the thalassemias, and new therapeutic approaches; the genetic aspects of the hemoglobinopathies, including family and population studies; International Hemoglobins Information Center reports of all published hemoglobin variants; and reviews of hemoglobin abnormalities in selected countries and continents.

  • Impact factor
    0.89
  • 5-year impact
    1.06
  • Cited half-life
    6.50
  • Immediacy index
    0.11
  • Eigenfactor
    0.00
  • Article influence
    0.23
  • Website
    Hemoglobin website
  • Other titles
    Hemoglobin (Online), Hemoglobin
  • ISSN
    1532-432X
  • OCLC
    48882271
  • Material type
    Document, Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Taylor & Francis

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    • Must link to publisher version
    • Set statements to accompany deposits (see policy)
    • The publisher will deposit in on behalf of authors to a designated institutional repository including PubMed Central, where a deposit agreement exists with the repository
    • STM: Science, Technology and Medicine
    • SSH: Social Science and Humanities
    • Publisher last contacted on 25/03/2014
    • 'Taylor & Francis (Psychology Press)' is an imprint of 'Taylor & Francis'
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract The aim of this study was to demonstrate the performance of nondeletional α-thalassemia (α-thal) prevention using a reverse dot-blot method at a Mainland Chinese hospital. A prenatal control program for nondeletional Hb H disease was performed between January 2009 and December 2013. All couples were screened for α-thal trait, and for couples in which one partner tested positive for α(0)-thal, the other was subjected to screening for Hb Constant Spring (Hb CS, HBA2: c.427T > C) and Hb Quong Sze (Hb QS, HBA2: c.377T > C) mutations by reverse dot-blot assay. Prenatal diagnoses were offered in at-risk pregnancies. During the study period, 51,105 couples were found to be carrying α-thal; among these, 35 (0.07%) couples were found to be at-risk of conceiving an offspring with nondeletional Hb H disease, including 25 couples for Hb H-CS and 10 cases for Hb H-QS. Nine fetuses were diagnosed with nondeletional Hb H disease, and eight of the affected pregnancies were terminated. Detection of nondeletional α-thal is necessary for any prenatal diagnosis (PND) programs in Southeast Asian countries. Reverse dot-blot is a relatively simple method for simultaneous typing of common nondeletional α-thal mutations.
    Hemoglobin 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract The concurrence of malaria and hemoglobinopathies, observed in malaria endemic regions, reflects the phenomenon of natural selection. Since the life cycle of the malaria parasite has an erythrocytic stage, abnormalities in the red blood cells (RBCs) hinder the parasite's survival in the human host. Hemoglobin (Hb) variants affect the life span of RBCs and thus lower the chance of infection by the parasite. While a change in just one of the Hb genes offers some protection against malaria, change in both alleles results in β-thalassemia major (β-TM). A striking geographical heterogeneity of β-thalassemia (β-thal) has been observed. Moving from Mexico in the west to China towards the east, the spectrum of mutations in the β-globin gene has been seen to vary. In the western end of the thalassemia belt, defects in the first intervening sequence (IVS-I) and exon 2 of the β-globin gene are more common, while on the eastern coast, IVS-II and exon 1 are also vulnerable to mutations. The worldwide increase in the incidence of β-TM mandates the need for efficient measures to reduce β-thal births, and the geographical heterogeneity of β-thal alleles reduces the burden of genetic testing of fetuses suspected of carrying a mutant allele. In the present review, the common mutations in the global thalassemia belt have been illustrated, and the possible factors that affect the mutagenicity of sites have been discussed. A biogeorgraphic analysis that may provide insight into the non biological factors influencing different loci in the β-globin gene in different geographical regions is suggested.
    Hemoglobin 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract A molecular study of Hb Lepore heterozygotes identified by the UK population screening program has revealed four out of the five known Lepore variants. The region of homologous δ- and β-globin gene sequence was determined in 58 unrelated Hb Lepore heterozygotes referred for confirmation of their carrier status by DNA analysis through the national thalassemia and sickle cell screening program over a period of 10 years. The most common variant found was Hb Lepore-Boston-Washington (Hb LBW, HBD: c.265 C > c.315 + 7 C) observed in 46 carriers (79.0%). Hb Lepore-Hollandia (HBD: c.69 A > c.92 + 16 A) was found in nine cases (16.0%); Hb Lepore-Baltimore (HBD: c.208 G > c.254 C) in two cases (4.0%) and Hb Lepore-ARUP (HBD: c.97 C > c.150 C) in one carrier (2.0%). Analysis of the hematological findings showed no significant differences between the four groups. The wide range of Hb Lepore variants observed in this study confirms the very diverse range of α- and β-globin gene mutations observed in the UK population by previous studies.
    Hemoglobin 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract We report the case of a 5-year-old child with clinical and hematological findings consistent with the diagnosis of α-thalassemia intermedia (α-TI). Molecular analysis disclosed the common 3.7 kb deletion in the α-globin gene cluster in trans to a novel in-frame 6 bp deletion in the HBA2 gene. It removes the sequence CCTGGG (or GCCTGG) that normally encodes for alanine (codon 13) and tryptophan (codon 14). Even though several hemoglobin (Hb) variants with mutations affecting codons 13 or 14 have been described, Hb Souli (HBA2: c.[41-46delCCTGGG]) is, to the best of our knowledge, the first variant to be reported where both amino acid residues, α13Ala and α14Trp, are deleted, leading to unstable and rapidly degraded α-globin chains.
    Hemoglobin 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract We report a new β-globin chain variant: Hb Meylan [β73(E17)Asp → Phe; HBB: c.220G>T; c.221A>T]. The new variant results from a double nucleotide mutation at the same codon. The possible molecular mechanisms are discussed.
    Hemoglobin 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies have suggested that erythropoietin (Epo) levels may be inappropriately low in patients with sickle cell disease compared to the extent of the related anemia they demonstrate. Here, we evaluate Epo level vs. renal function, oxygenation, and markers of inflammation for patients treated for sickle cell disease at our institution. Blood was drawn from 54 patients with sickle cell disease during routine visits to the outpatient hematology office and analyzed for hemoglobin (Hb) level, Epo, markers of inflammation, oxygenation, and renal function. Erythropoietin levels were lower than expected for patients with sickle cell disease, compared to the degree of anemia demonstrated in these patients. In addition, a correlation between Hb level and Epo was not consistently observed. Higher Epo levels were seen in patients receiving hydroxyurea (HU), but no correlation with oxygenation, hemolysis, renal function, or inflammation was observed.
    Hemoglobin 11/2014; 38(6).
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Thalassemia, an autosomal recessive blood disease, shows a variety of clinical expression in terms of asymptomatic to severe blood transfusion dependence. More than 500 alleles have been characterized in or around the β-globin region. Most of the geographical regions have their own characteristic alleles that predominantly circulate within the communities present in that particular region. In this article, we try to throw some light to explore the spectrum of β-thalassemia (β-thal) alleles present in West Bengal, the eastern part of India. This study comprises thalassemia carriers and diseased persons from different districts of West Bengal. We not only explored the complete mutational spectrum of this state but we also tried to fix the critical range of the values of different hematological parameters [Hb A2, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH)] for the heterozygotes or carriers of β-thal with the same mutational background. At the same time, we also tried to evaluate the maximum weighted frequency of these parameters for the heterozygotes or carriers of β-thal with the same mutational background, so that by observing these cut-off values of standard hematological parameters, we were able to predict the carrier or diseased status for mass scale screening and also try to correlate the values of these parameters with different combinations of β-thal mutation-specific alleles that can be more informative in mass scale (carrier) screening.
    Hemoglobin 11/2014; 38(6):405-8.
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    ABSTRACT: The -83 (G > A) mutation of the β-globin gene promoter (HBB: c.-133G > A) was first reported in an adult male patient with mild thalassemic indices, suggesting that this may be a mild β+-thalassemia (β+-thal) allele. In this report, we present data from several patients who are simple heterozygotes for the -83 mutation, or compound heterozygotes for -83 and Hb S (HBB: c.20A > T) or β-thal. These cases illustrate that the -83 sequence variant is not associated with a thalassemic phenotype. This has important implications for carrier screening and genetic counseling, particularly since the -83 mutation is relatively common in African and Hispanic populations.
    Hemoglobin 11/2014; 38(6).
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    ABSTRACT: Thalassemia is one of the most common hereditary disorders in Turkey, especially in the Mediterranean region of the country. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of the β-thalassemia (β-thal) trait and abnormal hemoglobins (Hbs) in couples who applied for premarital screening in Sanliurfa Province, in the southeastern region of Turkey, a province with the first reported incidence of β-thal and abnormal Hbs. In the present study, in order to detect the prevalence of the β-thal trait and abnormal Hbs in Sanliurfa Province, Turkey, a total of 37,962 couples who applied for premarital screening were analyzed. From January 2011 through March 2014, red blood cell (RBC) counts and Hb fractionation were carried out by a cell counter and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), respectively. The prevalence of β-thal with high Hb A2 (>3.5%) values was found at rates of 2.44% (n = 1853) in Sanliurfa Province. Additionally, the abnormal Hb rate was 1.57% (1193/75,924), and Hb S (HBB: c.20T > A), Hb C (HBB: c.19G > A) and Hb D-Punjab (HBB: c.364G > C) were reported as 0.50, 0.38 and 0.69, respectively. This study is the first to establish the frequency of β-thal and abnormal Hbs in Sanliurfa Province, which has the highest birth frequency. We report that the frequency of the β-thal trait is at a high-risk level compared to other cities in Turkey. Due to the high risk of β-thal in Sanliurfa Province, a premarital screening program would be of great value in informing parents about offspring with β-thal.
    Hemoglobin 11/2014; 38(6).
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    ABSTRACT: β-Thalassemia (β-thal) is a genetic disorder, representing a major health problem in Algeria. It is associated with altered lipid levels and a state of oxidative stress that can lead to cardiac complications and premature death. We examined the plasma lipid profile and redox status of 46 patients with β-thal major (β-TM) and β-thal intermedia (β-TI) compared to 36 healthy subjects. Plasma lipids including total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were investigated. Oxidative status was evaluated by measuring malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH) and catalase (CAT) activity. The potential relationships between these parameters and the hemoglobin (Hb) blood concentrations, serum ferritin, duration and frequency of transfusion, splenectomy as well as age, were examined. Our data indicated that the study patients were under increased state of oxidative stress associated with hypertriglyceridemia, and hypocholesterolemia. The CAT activity was negatively correlated with Hb concentration and LDL-C/TG ratio and positively with years of transfusion. The elevated TC/HDL-C ratio particularly in β-TM patients who were younger, correlated positively with ferritinemia and triglyceride levels and suggested an increased coronary risk. This heightened risk state should lead to the inclusion of this index (TC/HDL-C) in clinical management, particularly in splenectomized patients.
    Hemoglobin 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract The molecular basis and hematological phenotype of adult Thai β-thalassemia intermedia (β-TI) patients encountered with inferior vena cava (IVC) thrombosis were investigated. Hematological and molecular analysis revealed a trait previously not described. The disease was caused by interaction of the β(+)-thalassemia (β(+)-thal) gene with the -90 (C > T) (HBB: c.-140C > T) transition within the erythroid Krüppel-like factor (EKLF) binding site of the β-globin gene promoter with Hb E (HBB: c.79G > A) and α(+)-thalassemia (α(+)-thal). Hematological data of the patient were compared with those of heterozygous forms of these defects found in his family members and different genotype-phenotype interactions are illustrated. Globin gene haplotype analysis indicates an independent origin of this Thai β(+)-thal gene. Accurate diagnoses as well as knowledge of genotype-phenotype relationships were required for providing appropriate management of such cases.
    Hemoglobin 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract α-Thalassemia (α-thal) is common in southern China. Homozygosity for the - -(SEA) (Southeast Asian) α-globin gene deletion is the most common cause of the Hb Bart's (γ4) disease. Occasionally, other α(0)-thal deletions can also be found. In this study, we report a case with an atypical form of Hb Bart's disease. The fetus was a compound heterozygote for the - -(SEA) and - -(THAI) deletions and presented different clinical features from that of traditional Hb Bart's disease with the - -(SEA) deletion in the homozygous state. The early onset of fetal hydrops is attributed to the decreased formation of embryonic Hb Portland (ζ2γ2), which is proposed as a candidate for reactivation in cases of severe α-thal. Our finding may have potentially important implications for clinical decisions in a program using ultrasonography to identify signs of homozygous α(0)-thal.
    Hemoglobin 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Over 95.0% of the α-thalassemia (α-thal) cases in southern China are caused by large deletions involving the α-globin gene. Here, we describe the molecular characterization of a novel 28.5 kb deletion that eliminated one of the duplicated α-globin genes in a Chinese family. The deletion breakpoint fragment involved Alu repeat sequences, suggesting a homologous recombination event. Phenotypic analysis on the heterozygous carrier of this deletion revealed that it leads to a very mild phenotype. Because of a 25.0% risk of Hb H (β4) disease in the offspring when in combination with another α(0)-thal allele, we should not ignore screening the deletion in prenatal diagnosis in order to decrease reproductive risk.
    Hemoglobin 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract We describe the molecular characterization of α-globin gene defects in a cohort of 634 Omani patients. A total of 21 different α gene mutations were found in 484 subjects. Overall, we identified three different large deletions, three small deletions, 11 point mutations [two on the α2 polyadenylation signal (polyA) (HBA2: c.*94A>G), and nine α chain variants], three ααα(anti 3.7) triplication, a 21 nucleotide (nt) duplication on the α1 gene and two novel (presumed) polymorphisms on the α 3.7 kb hybrid gene, namely -5 (C>T) and +46 (C>A). Of these defects, 15 have not been previously reported in the Omani population. This large heterogeneity of α-thalassemia (α-thal) observed in the Omani population could be expected in neighboring Arab countries. The high frequency of α-thal, solely or in association with β-globin gene defects, emphasize the necessity of adding α-thal testing to pre marital programs for accurate genetic counseling.
    Hemoglobin 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Cation exchange high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is commonly utilized as the first method of screening for thalassemias and hemoglobinopathies worldwide. This method of diagnosis requires knowledge of the clinical background and complete blood counts as well as skill and experience in interpreting the sometimes complex results produced. An asymptomatic 27-year-old pregnant North Indian woman was found to have a highly unusual chromatographic pattern with multiple unexpected peaks during routine antenatal screening. Most concerning was a C-window peak as Hb C (HBB: c.19G>A) is rare in ethnic Asian Indian populations. Cellulose acetate electrophoresis at alkaline pH (8.6) and parental screening were performed. These revealed the correct diagnosis to be a double heterozygosity for Hb Q-India (HBA1: c.193G>C) (an uncommon asymptomatic α-globin chain variant) plus Hb D-Punjab (HBB: c.364G>C) (a β-globin chain variant that is common in this region and is asymptomatic in the heterozygous state). The unexpected C-window peak was the hybrid of the abnormal α-Q-India and β-D-Punjab globin chains. Another small peak was explained as a variant Hb A2 formed by the combination of α-Q-India and δ-globin chains. Hematopathologists should be cognizant of the complex pattern resulting from coinheritance of both α- and β-globin structural variants. Second-line testing and parental testing are invaluable in resolving unknown peaks, especially if rare or unexpected variants are being considered. Although both Hb Q-India and Hb D-Punjab are relatively common in northwestern India, to the best of our knowledge, only two recent reports describe a total of three cases of such diagnostically puzzling coinheritance.
    Hemoglobin 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The main hereditary hemoglobin (Hb) disorder in Argentina is β-thalassemia (β-thal). Molecular studies performed in the center of the country exhibited a marked prevalence of the codon 39 (C > T) and IVS-I-110 (G > A) mutations. The northwest region of Argentina has a different demographic history characterized by an important Spanish influx. Seventy-one β-thal carriers attending the Instituto de Bioquímica Aplicada, Tucumán, Argentina, were investigated for β-globin gene mutations by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). To examine the genotype-phenotype relationship, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular Hb (MCH) and Hb A2 were measured. In order to recognize β-thal, Mentzer Index, Shine & Lal and Red Cell Distribution Width Index (RDWI), were calculated. The ethnic background of subjects revealed that 82.0% of the population was of Italian, Spanish and Arab origin. Seven mutations were detected: codon 39 (45.0%), IVS-I-1 (G > A) (22.5%), IVS-I-110 (16.3%), IVS-II-1 (G > A) (4.1%), IVS-I-1 (G > T) (2.0%), IVS-I-6 (T > C) (2.0%) and IVS-II-745 (G > C) (2.0%). In three families (6.1%), β-thal mutations were not determined. These results differed from other Argentinian studies because at present codon 39 and IVS-I-1 are the most prevalent; MCV, MCH and Hb A2 did not correlate with the type of mutation (β0/β+). Values of MCV (67.0 fL) and Hb A2 (4.85%) were unable to discriminate between them. Significant differences (p < 0.05) in MCV, MCH and Shine & Lal were observed between the undetermined group and the three most common mutations. These data show different patterns of β-thal mutations in the center and northwest regions of Argentina. Differences might represent the influence of Spanish immigration.
    Hemoglobin 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Hb Youngstown is a rare hemoglobin (Hb) variant caused by substitution of glutamic acid with alanine at amino acid residue 101 of the β-globin chain as a result of an A > C transversion on the β-globin gene nucleotide sequences [β101(G3)Glu → Ala; HBB: c.305A > C]. We now report three patients from two different families, one from South Africa and the other from Costa Rica, who are heterozygous for this Hb variant. All three carriers had marked hemolysis, consistent with Hb Youngstown being a highly unstable variant. The substitution of glutamic acid, a large and negatively charged amino acid, with alanine, a small and non polar amino acid, in the interface of the α1- and β2-globin subunits might interfere with the transition between the oxy- and deoxyHb, and lead to Hb instability and hemolytic anemia.
    Hemoglobin 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Hb Adana (HBA1: c.179G > A) is a very rare, unstable form of α-globin variant that results from deficient synthesis of functional α chains. We present a 2-month-old boy with hypochromic microcytic anemia, and remarkable anisocytosis, target cells and basophilic stippling on his peripheral blood smear. α-Globin gene analysis of the patient determined homozygosity for HBA1: c.179G > A, a mutation known as Hb Adana. On his follow-up visit, hemoglobin (Hb) levels were stable at 9.0-9.5 g/dL and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) was 62.2-62.5 fL without the need for a blood transfusion. Clinical and hematological findings of our case were comparable to Hb H (β4) or β-thalassemia intermedia (β-TI)-like phenotypes, despite the fact that he carried an α1 gene mutation. Heterozygosity for the HBA1: c.179G > A mutation may also lead to microcytosis only as seen in his parents. According to our current knowledge, this is the first described case with homozygosity for the Hb Adana mutation, carried on the α1 gene. The relatively mild presentation of the case highlights the milder phenotypic consequences of nondeletional α mutations in the α1 vs. the α2 gene.
    Hemoglobin 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract The aim of the present study was to report a 3-year experience on the prenatal control of Hb Bart's (γ4) disease in Mainland China. All pregnancies with fetal Hb Bart's disease were included from January 2011 to December 2013. The main clinical characteristics of the affected pregnancies were reviewed, including maternal reproductive history, prenatal care in the current pregnancy, the gestation of pregnancy at the time of booking, the gestation at the time of prenatal diagnosis (PND), and the complications associated with the pregnancy. A total of 246 cases of fetal Hb Bart's disease were identified during the study period; among these, 177 (72.0%) were diagnosed in early gestation (≤24 weeks), and 69 (28.0%) in late gestation. Most (87.0%) of the patients presenting in late pregnancy had late or no prenatal care. Twenty (29.0%) had major obstetrical complications in patients presenting in late pregnancy, and five (5.0%) in patients presenting in relatively early pregnancy. The delay in PND deprived couples of opportunities to make informed decisions early in pregnancy. Efforts for designing and targeting strategies to improve the timeliness of prenatal care are urgently needed.
    Hemoglobin 10/2014;