Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A Toxic/Hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

Journal description

With articles ranging from notes to completed studies, Toxic/Hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering is a comprehensive journal that provides an international forum for the rapid publication of essential information - including the latest engineering innovations, effects of pollutants on health, control systems, laws, and projections pertinent to environmental problems whether in the air, water, or soil. This timely journal offers answers to serious contemporary environmental issues.

Current impact factor: 1.14

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2015
2013 / 2014 Impact Factor 1.135
2012 Impact Factor 1.252
2011 Impact Factor 1.19
2010 Impact Factor 1.107
2009 Impact Factor 1.363
2008 Impact Factor 1.002
2007 Impact Factor 0.967
1996 Impact Factor 0.58
1995 Impact Factor 0.615
1994 Impact Factor 0.467
1993 Impact Factor 0.616
1992 Impact Factor 0.354

Impact factor over time

Impact factor
Year

Additional details

5-year impact 0.00
Cited half-life 0.00
Immediacy index 0.00
Eigenfactor 0.00
Article influence 0.00
Website Journal of Environmental Science and Health - Part A: Toxic/Hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering website
Other titles Journal of environmental science and health., Toxic hazardous substances and environmental engineering, Toxic/hazardous substances & environmental engineering
ISSN 1532-4117
OCLC 50757651
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Taylor & Francis

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    • On author's personal website or departmental website immediately
    • On institutional repository or subject-based repository after either 12 months embargo
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • On a non-profit server
    • Published source must be acknowledged
    • Must link to publisher version
    • Set statements to accompany deposits (see policy)
    • The publisher will deposit in on behalf of authors to a designated institutional repository including PubMed Central, where a deposit agreement exists with the repository
    • STM: Science, Technology and Medicine
    • Publisher last contacted on 25/03/2014
    • This policy is an exception to the default policies of 'Taylor & Francis'
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Zero-valent iron nanoparticle (Nanofer ZVI) is a new reagent due to its unique structure and properties. Images of scanning electron microscopy/electron dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS), transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction revealed that Nanofer ZVI is stable, reactive and has a unique structure. The particles exhibited a spherical shape, a chain-like structure with a particle size of 20 to 100 nm and a surface area between 25-30 m(2)g(-1). The time interval for particles to agglomerate and settle was between 4-6 h. SEM/EDS Images showed that particle size increased to 2 µm due to agglomeration. Investigation of adsorption and oxidation behavior of Nanofer ZVI used for the removal of Cu(II), Pb(II), Cd(II) ions and trichloroethylene (TCE) from aqueous solutions showed that the optimal pH for Pb(II), Cu(II), Cd(II) and TCE removal were 4.5 and 4.8, 5.0 and 6.5, respectively. Test data were used to form Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The maximum contaminant loading was estimated as 270, 170, 110, 130 mg per gram of Nanofer ZVI for Cu(II), Pb(II), Cd(II) and TCE respectively. Removal of metal ions is interpreted in terms of their hydrated ionic radii and their electronegativity. TCE oxidation followed the dechlorination pathway resulting in nonhazardous by-products.
    Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A Toxic/Hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering 07/2015; 50(9):901-12. DOI:10.1080/10934529.2015.1030277
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    ABSTRACT: Dairy manure has much potential for use as an organic fertilizer in the United States. However, the levels of indicator organisms and pathogens in dairy manure can be ten times higher than stipulated use guidelines by the National Organic Standards Board (NOSB) even after undergoing anaerobic digestion at mesophilic temperatures. The objective of this study was to identify pasteurization temperatures and treatment durations to reduce fecal coliforms, E. coli, and Salmonella concentrations in separated liquid dairy manure (SLDM) of a mesophilic anaerobic digester effluent to levels sufficient for use as an organic fertilizer. Samples of SLDM were pasteurized at 70, 75, and 80°C for durations of 0 to 120 min. Fecal coliforms, E. coli, and Salmonella concentrations were assessed via culture-based techniques. All of the tested pasteurization temperatures and duration combinations reduced microbial concentrations to levels below the NOSB guidelines. The fecal coliforms and E. coli reductions ranged 2from 0.76 to 1.34 logs, while Salmonella concentrations were reduced by more than 99% at all the pasteurization temperatures and active treatment durations.
    Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A Toxic/Hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering 07/2015; 50(9):971-9. DOI:10.1080/10934529.2015.1030295
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    ABSTRACT: There is scarcity of data on contamination with radiocesium ((134/137)Cs) of edible mushrooms from the Southwestern Asia. This study aimed to get insight into activity concentration of artificial nuclides (134/137)Cs and natural (40)K and (226)Ra in mushrooms from Yunnan province, which is major producer in China. The specimens of pantropical mushroom Macrocybe gigantea were collected from the wild and from a farm across Yunnan land in 2012-2013 and analyzed using gamma spectrometry with hyperpure germanium coaxial detector (HPGe). M. gigantea showed low activity concentrations of (137)Cs (median value for dehydrated caps was 4.5 Bq kg(-1) and 5.4 Bq kg(-1) for stipes) while (134)Cs was not detected. Natural radionuclide (40)K showed 2-3 orders of magnitude greater activity concentration compared to artificial (137)Cs in M. gigantea. The activity concentrations of (226)Ra from uranium and radium decay series for most of the consignments of M. gigantea examined were below the method's limit of detection. The nominal effective dose equivalent for the Yunnan people from the dietary intake of (137)Cs was assessed to be below 0.01 μSv per annum on the average, and that from (40)K to be below 0.1 μSv per annum. Data available for the first time on activity concentrations of (137)Cs in wild-grown saprobic mushroom from this region of Asia suggest low pollution with radiocesium from fallout there. Hence, the likely health risks from intake of (137)Cs from cooked M. gigantea are in practice of mushrooms absent for human consumers there. Because of abundance of mushrooms in Yunnan and high significance of the region as producer and exporter a wider study using many species is necessary to fill a gap on possible radioactive contamination and risk to mushroom consumers.
    Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A Toxic/Hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering 07/2015; 50(9):941-5. DOI:10.1080/10934529.2015.1030289
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    ABSTRACT: Water quality parameters affecting sodium silicate performance in partial lead service line replacements were examined using a fractional factorial experimental design and static pipe systems. An external copper wire was used to create a galvanic connection between a former lead service line and a new copper pipe. The pipe systems were filled with lab prepared water made to mimic real water quality. Water was changed on a three times per week basis. A 2(4-1) fractional factorial design was used to evaluate the impact of alkalinity (15 mg L(-1) or 250 mg L(-1) as CaCO3), nitrate (1 mg L(-1) or 7 mg L(-1) as N), natural organic matter (1 mg L(-1) or 7 mg L(-1) as dissolved organic carbon), and disinfectant type (1 mg L(-1) chlorine or 3 mg L(-1) monochloramine), resulting in eight treatment conditions. Fractional factorial analysis revealed that alkalinity, natural organic matter and monochloramine had a significant positive effect on galvanic current. Natural organic matter and monochloramine also had a significant positive effect with respect to both total and dissolved lead release. For the treatment conditions examined, 67-98% of the lead released through galvanic currents was stored as corrosion scales and predominantly comprised of particulate lead (96.1-99.9%) for all eight treatments. The use of monochloramine and the presence of natural organic matter (7 mg L(-1)) were not favourable for corrosion control in sodium silicate-treated partial lead service line replacements, although further studies would be required to characterize optimal water quality parameters for specific water quality types. For utilities operating with sodium silicate as a corrosion inhibitor, this work offers further evidence regarding the consideration of chlorine as a secondary disinfectant instead of monochloramine, as well as the value of controlling natural organic matter in distributed water.
    Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A Toxic/Hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering 07/2015; 50(9):922-30. DOI:10.1080/10934529.2015.1030283
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    ABSTRACT: The inadequate disposal of leachate is one of the key factors in the environmental impact of urban solid waste landfills in Brazil. Among the compounds present in the leachates from Brazilian landfills, ammonia nitrogen is notable for its high concentrations. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficiency of a permeable reactive barrier filled with a natural zeolite, which is part of a biochemical system for the tertiary treatment of the leachate from Muribeca Municipal Solid Waste Landfill in Pernambuco, Brazil, to reduce its ammonia nitrogen concentration. This investigation initially consisted of kinetic studies and batch equilibrium tests on the natural zeolite to construct the sorption isotherms, which showed a high sorption capacity, with an average of 12.4 mg NH4(+).L(-1), a value close to the sorption rates found for the aqueous ammonium chloride solution. A permeable reactive barrier consisting of natural zeolite, as simulated by the column test, was efficient in removing the ammonia nitrogen present in the leachate pretreated with calcium hydroxide. Nevertheless, the regenerated zeolite did not satisfactorily maintain the sorption properties of the natural zeolite, and an analysis of their cation-exchange properties showed a reduced capacity of 54 meq per 100 g for the regenerated zeolite compared to 150 meq per 100 g for the natural zeolite.
    Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A Toxic/Hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering 07/2015; 50(9):980-8. DOI:10.1080/10934529.2015.1030299
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    ABSTRACT: The biodegradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) from commercial laundry wastewater was evaluated in an anaerobic fluidized bed reactor (FBR) fed with synthetic substrate (598 mg L(-1) to 723 mg L(-1) of organic matter) supplemented with 9.5 ± 3.1 mg L(-1) to 27.9 ± 9.6 mg L(-1) of LAS. The average chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency was 89% and the biodegradation of LAS was 57% during the 489 days of anaerobic FBR. Higher levels of volatile fatty acids (VFA) were observed in the effluent at the stage with the best LAS removal performance. Increasing the surfactant concentration did not increase the VFA production in the effluent. The predominant VFAs after the addition of LAS were as follows: isovaleric acid and valeric acid, followed by propionic acid, caproic acid and formic acid. The similarities of 64% and 45% to Archaea and Bacteria domains were observed in the samples taken in the operating period of anaerobic FBR fed with 23.6 ± 10 mg L(-1) and 27.9 ± 10 mg L(-1) of LAS. During the operation stages in the reactor, Gemmatimonas, Desulfobulbus and Zoogloea were determined as the most abundant genera related to surfactant degradation using 454-Pyrosequencing.
    Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A Toxic/Hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering 07/2015; 50(9):946-57. DOI:10.1080/10934529.2015.1030290
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    ABSTRACT: Anaerobic co-digestion of primary and excess sludge is regarded as an efficient way to reuse sludge organic matter to produce methane. In this study, short-term and long-term exposure experiments were conducted to investigate the possible effects of titanium dioxide (TiO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) on methane production from anaerobic co-digestion of primary and excess sludge. The data showed that TiO2 NPs had no measurable impact on methane production, even at a high concentration (150 mg/g total suspended solids (TSS)). However, short-term (8 days) exposure to 30 or 150 mg/g-TSS of ZnO NPs significantly decreased methane production. More importantly, these negative effects of ZnO NPs on anaerobic sludge co-digestion were not alleviated by increasing the adaptation time to 105 days. Further studies indicated that the presence of ZnO NPs substantially decreased the abundance of methanogenic archaea, which reduced methane production. Meanwhile, the activities of some key enzymes involved in methane production, such as protease, acetate kinase, and coenzyme F420, were remarkably inhibited by the presence of ZnO NPs, which was also an important reason for the decreased methane production. These results provide a better understanding of the potential risks of TiO2 and ZnO NPs to methane production from anaerobic sludge co-digestion.
    Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A Toxic/Hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering 07/2015; 50(9):913-21. DOI:10.1080/10934529.2015.1030279
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    ABSTRACT: Excessive agriculture, transport and mining often lead to the contamination of valuable water resources. Communities using this water for drinking, washing, bathing and the irrigation of crops are continuously being exposed to these heavy metals. The most vulnerable is the developing fetus. Cadmium (Cd) and chrome (Cr) were identified as two of the most prevalent heavy metal water contaminants in South Africa. In this study, chicken embryos at the stage of early organogenesis were exposed to a single dosage of 0.430 μM physiological dosage (PD) and 430 μM (×1000 PD) CdCl2, as well as 0.476 μM (PD) and 746 μM (×1000 PD) K2Cr2O7. At day 14, when all organ systems were completely developed, the embryos were terminated and the effect of these metals on liver tissue and cellular morphology was determined with light- and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The intracellular localization of these metals was determined using electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS). With light microscopy, the PD of both Cd and Cr had no effect on liver tissue or cellular morphology. At ×1000 PD both Cd and Cr caused sinusoid dilation and tissue necrosis. With TEM analysis, Cd exposed hepatocytes presented with irregular chromatin condensation, ruptured cellular membranes and damaged or absent organelles. In contrast Cr caused only slight mitochondrial damage. EELS revealed the bio-accumulation of Cd and Cr along the cristae of the mitochondria and chromatin of the nuclei.
    Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A Toxic/Hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering 07/2015; 50(8):830-838. DOI:10.1080/10934529.2015.1019804
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    ABSTRACT: The health of the environment is worsening every day. Monitoring of potentially toxic elements and remediation of environmental pollution are necessary. Therefore, the research and development of simple, inexpensive, portable and effective sensors is important. Electrochemistry is a useful component of the field of environment monitoring. The present study focuses on evaluating and comparing three types of electrodes (PIGE, PIGE/MWCNT/HNO3 and PIGE/MWCNT/EDTA/HNO3) employed for the simultaneous electrochemical determination of four potentially toxic elements: Cd(II), Pb(II), Cu(II) and Hg(II). Cyclic voltammograms were measured in an acetate buffer. The LOD, LOQ, the standard and relative precisions of the method and a prediction intervals were calculated (according to the technical procedure DIN 32 645) for the three electrodes and for each measured element. The LOD for PIGE/CNT/HNO3 (the electrode with narrowest calculated prediction intervals) was 2.98 × 10(-7) mol L(-1) for Cd(II), 4.83 × 10(-7) mol L(-1) for Pb(II), 3.81 × 10(-7) mol L(-1) for Cu(II), 6.79 × 10(-7) mol L(-1) for Hg(II). One of the benefits of this study was the determination of the amount of Hg(II) in the mixture of other elements.
    Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A Toxic/Hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering 07/2015; 50(8):874-881. DOI:10.1080/10934529.2015.1019810
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    ABSTRACT: Practical difficulties of the traditional adenovirus infectivity assay such as intensive labor requirements and longer turnaround period limit the direct use of adenovirus as a testing microorganism for systematic, comprehensive disinfection studies. In this study, we attempted to validate the applicability of integrated cell culture quantitative PCR (ICC-qPCR) as an alternative to the traditional cell culture method with human adenovirus type 2 (HAdV2) in a low-pressure UV disinfection study and to further optimize the procedures of ICC-qPCR for 24-well plate format. The relatively high stability of the hexon gene of HAdV2 was observed after exposure to UV radiation, resulting in a maximum gene copy reduction of 0.5 log10 at 280 mJ cm(-2). Two-day post-inoculation incubation period and a maximum spiking level of 10(5) MPN mL(-1) were selected as optimum conditions of ICC-qPCR with the tested HAdV2. An approximate 1:1 correlation of virus quantities by the traditional and ICC-qPCR cell culture based methods suggested that ICC-qPCR is a satisfactory alternative for practical application in HAdV2 disinfection studies. ICC-qPCR results, coupled with a first-order kinetic model (i.e., the inactivation rate constant of 0.0232 cm(2) mJ(-1)), showed that an UV dose of 172 mJ cm(-2) achieved a 4-log inactivation credit for HAdV2. This estimate is comparable to other studies with HAdV2 and other adenovirus respiratory types. The newly optimized ICC-qPCR shows much promise for further study on its applicability of other slow replicating viruses in disinfection studies.
    Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A Toxic/Hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering 07/2015; 50(8):777-787. DOI:10.1080/10934529.2015.1019795
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    ABSTRACT: Arsenic in groundwater is a major concern in many parts of the world and suitable sorbents are required for removal of arsenic from ground water. Removal of arsenic from groundwater has been studied using manganese dioxide, synthesized by solid state reaction of manganese acetate with potassium permanganate. Manganese dioxide was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), zeta potential, surface area, particle size measurements and thermal analysis. XRD measurement showed that the manganese dioxide had α-MnO2 structure. Sorption of As(III) and As(V) on manganese dioxide was studied by radiotracer technique using (76)As radio isotope. Arsenic removal efficiency for both As(III) and As(V) at concentration of 2 mg L(-1) was ∼99% in the pH range of 3-9. The sorption capacities for As(III) and As(V) were ∼60 mg g(-1). Kinetic studies showed that the equilibrium was reached within 30 s. Arsenic sorbed on manganese dioxide was present as As(V) irrespective of initial oxidation state. The presence of Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Cl(-) and SO4(2-) up to a concentration of 1000 mg L(-1) had no significant effect on arsenic sorption. The sorption of arsenic decreased significantly in the presence of phosphate and bicarbonate anions above 10 mg L(-1). Arsenic sorbed on manganese dioxide was desorbed by 0.1M NaOH. Arsenic was effectively removed by manganese dioxide from groundwater samples collected from arsenic contaminated areas of West Bengal, India.
    Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A Toxic/Hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering 07/2015; 50(8):866-873. DOI:10.1080/10934529.2015.1019808
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    ABSTRACT: To study the acute toxic effects of PCBs on airway exposure, the cell viability, apoptosis and mitochondrial functions of human lung cancer cell line A549 were measured and compared after Aroclor 1254 exposure for different time. The results showed that Aroclor 1254 could inhibit cell viability and increase cell apoptosis in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The mitochondrial apoptosis pathway was confirmed playing an important role. ROS elevation was an early response within 1h treatment of Aroclor 1254. Then after 4 h of Aroclor 1254 exposure, the intracellular calcium level increased and mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨm) collapsed, accompanying with Cytochrome c (Cyt-c) leakage, boosting expression of Bax, Apaf-1 and miRNA155, which were involved in the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. After 24 h of Aroclor 1254 exposure, ROS returned to normal level, but cell apoptosis rate was higher than that at 4 h with ΔΨm continued collapsing and intracellular calcium increased. In conclusion, Aroclor 1254 could suppress cell viability and induce apoptosis in A549 cells, which was associated with ROS over-production and elevated cellular Ca(2+) level, which may result in mitochondrial dysfunction, inducing expression of Bax/Cyt-c/Apaf-1 and miRNA155.
    Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A Toxic/Hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering 07/2015; 50(8):806-813. DOI:10.1080/10934529.2015.1019797
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this in vitro study was to examine dose-dependent changes in the secretion activity [progesterone (P4) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I)] of porcine ovarian granulosa cells after experimental mercury (Hg) administration, including its apoptotic potential so as to ascertain the possible involvement of Hg in steroidogenesis. Ovarian granulosa cells were incubated with mercuric chloride [mercury (II) chloride or HgCl2] at the doses 50-250 μg mL(-1) for 18 h and compared with control group without Hg addition. Release of P4 and IGF-I by ovarian granulosa cells was assessed by RIA and apoptosis by TUNEL assay. Observations show that P4 release by granulosa cells was significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited at all the doses, while IGF-I release was not affected at any of the doses used, although a decreasing trend in the release of IGF-I was noted in comparison to control. An increasing trend of apoptosis of granulosa cells was noted, the difference being significant (P < 0.05) only at the dose 130 μg mL(-1) HgCl2, in comparison to control. Obtained data suggest a direct effect of Hg on the release of steroid hormone progesterone but not growth factor IGF-I, and a dose-dependent effect on apoptosis of porcine ovarian granulosa cells. Results indicate the interference of Hg in the pathways of steroidogenesis and apoptosis of porcine ovarian granulosa cells.
    Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A Toxic/Hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering 07/2015; 50(8):839-845. DOI:10.1080/10934529.2015.1019805
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    ABSTRACT: Catalyzed H2O2 propagations (CHP) was studied to treat 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA) and 1,1-dichloroethane (DCA) dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) and to elucidate the reactive oxygen species responsible for their destruction. A TCA DNAPL was rapidly destroyed by CHP at a rate 3.5 times greater than its maximum rate of dissolution. Using systems that generate a single reactive oxygen species, the species responsible for TCA DNAPL destruction was found to be superoxide. Both hydroxyl radical and superoxide were responsible for the destruction of the DCA DNAPL. Both compounds were destroyed at equal rates in a mixed TCA/DCA DNAPL, which suggests that the rate of treatment is limited by a surface phenomenon at the DNAPL-water interface. The optimum pH for the destruction of TCA and DCA DNAPLs was near the pKa of 4.8 for perhydroxyl radical-superoxide systems. The results of this research demonsrate that TCA and DCA DNAPLs are effectively destroyed by CHP and that superoxide generation is necessary for effective TCA DNAPL destruction, while both hydroxyl radical and superoxide are necessary for effective DCA DNAPL destruction.
    Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A Toxic/Hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering 07/2015; 50(8):846-854. DOI:10.1080/10934529.2015.1019806
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    ABSTRACT: We hypothesized that Tabun poisoning, as well as other organophosphorous treatment, cause specific organs' oxidative changes that have not previously been substantiated investigated. In this regard, a marker for nitrosative-oxidative stress in the main haemodynamic organs (heart and kidney) could reveal the existence of such changes. In this study, for the first time we studied the nitrosative/oxidative stress in heart and kidney after acute Tabun (Ethyl N,N- Dimethylphosphoramidocyanidate) poisoning measuring by immunohistochemistry the expression of 3-nitrotyrosine-a marker for nitrosative-oxidative stress. We investigated nitrotyrozine expression in three different groups of animals (with at least 3 animals in each group): the first group was treated with 0.5 LD50 Tabun and organs were collected after 24 h; the second group received vehicle for the same period; in the third group a highly specific re-activator was applied immediately after Tabun application. Heart and kidney were collected after 24 h. The levels of nitrotyrozine production significantly increased (more than 3 times) in cardiomyocytes after Tabun. The application of re-activator slightly reduced these levels not reaching the basal heart levels. Nitrotyrozine expression in kidney increased more than 2 times after Tabun and application of re-activator did not change it significantly. In conclusion, our study evidently demonstrated that Tabun trigger oxidative-nitrosative stress in heart and kidney and these cellular effects should be protected by an additional anti-oxidant therapy, since acetylcholinesterase re-activator is not efficient in this manner.
    Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A Toxic/Hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering 07/2015; 50(8):824-829. DOI:10.1080/10934529.2015.1019801
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    ABSTRACT: The microbiological impact of zero-valent iron used in the remediation of groundwater was investigated by exposing a trichloroethylene-degrading anaerobic microbial community to two types of iron nanoparticles. Changes in total bacterial and archaeal population numbers were analyzed using qPCR and were compared to results from a blank and negative control to assess for microbial toxicity. Additionally, the results were compared to those of samples exposed to silver nanoparticles and iron filings in an attempt to discern the source of toxicity. Statistical analysis revealed that the three different iron treatments were equally toxic to the total bacteria and archaea populations, as compared with the controls. Conversely, the silver nanoparticles had a limited statistical impact when compared to the controls and increased the microbial populations in some instances. Therefore, the findings suggest that zero-valent iron toxicity does not result from a unique nanoparticle-based effect.
    Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A Toxic/Hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering 07/2015; 50(8):794-805. DOI:10.1080/10934529.2015.1019796
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    ABSTRACT: Kinetics of thermal and photo-initiated release of Tris (1.3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCP) from the polyurethane foam (PUF) materials were studied using a validated chromatographic method with linear calibration curve in the range of 0.03-400 μg mL(-1). Time dependence of TDCP leaching from foam samples was found to follow first-order kinetics; with rate constants directly dependent on ageing temperatures and intensity of UV radiation, rate constants for the thermally and photo initiated were 3.6 × 10(-3), 1.03 × 10(-2), 3.6 × 10(-2) and 3.94 × 10(-2) day(-1), respectively. Migration of TDCP from foam samples simulating skin or oral exposure were observed from all samples regardless of their ageing history, the presence of biological fluids found to enhance the migration rate. Oral exposure to foam material contains TDCP, which was simulated using the Head-over-Heels test, reveals that an average amount of ∼ 1.7% wt./wt. of the total amount of TDCP was found to leach into biological fluids, and it significantly increased to ∼ 6.0% wt./wt. due to ageing conditions. Direct contact between foam material and skin simulated by using the Contact Blotting test reveals that TDCP is transferred from both aged and un-aged samples at different rates, due to the presence of biological fluids; the transferred amount is increased with ageing conditions.
    Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A Toxic/Hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering 07/2015; 50(8):855-865. DOI:10.1080/10934529.2015.1019807
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    ABSTRACT: Silver nanoparticles (SNPs) are widely used in a variety of biomedical and consumer products as an antimicrobial additive. The present study was conducted to evaluate the impacts of low-dose SNPs on intestinal physiology of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) for assessing its apparent environmental risk due to extensive commercial use. SNPs were synthesized by a chemical reduction method yielding 1-27 nm oval shaped particles. Early fingerlings of tilapia were exposed with two sublethal concentrations (0.8 and 0.4 mg L(-1)) of SNPs for twenty one days period and its impact on the intestinal physiology was evaluated by histochemistry, catalase expression, glutamate dehydrogenase activity, SDS-PAGE and gut micro flora count. Histological analysis showed thinning of intestinal wall, swelling on mucosal layer and immunohistochemical assay exhibited an enhanced catalase expression in SNPs treated fishes. Gut microflora count elicited a dose-dependent depletion and a variable SDS-PAGE profile followed by significant (P < 0.05) elevations in glutamate dehydrogenase activity in SNPs-treated fishes. This study was designed to provide a better understanding of environmentally acceptable, dose-dependent SNPs delivery in fishes and to formulate guidelines in aquatic toxicology.
    Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A Toxic/Hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering 07/2015; 50(8):814-823. DOI:10.1080/10934529.2015.1019800