Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A Toxic/Hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

Journal description

With articles ranging from notes to completed studies, Toxic/Hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering is a comprehensive journal that provides an international forum for the rapid publication of essential information - including the latest engineering innovations, effects of pollutants on health, control systems, laws, and projections pertinent to environmental problems whether in the air, water, or soil. This timely journal offers answers to serious contemporary environmental issues.

Current impact factor: 1.16

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2016
2014 Impact Factor 1.164
2013 Impact Factor 1.135
2012 Impact Factor 1.252
2011 Impact Factor 1.19
2010 Impact Factor 1.107
2009 Impact Factor 1.363
2008 Impact Factor 1.002
2007 Impact Factor 0.967
1996 Impact Factor 0.58
1995 Impact Factor 0.615
1994 Impact Factor 0.467
1993 Impact Factor 0.616
1992 Impact Factor 0.354

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 1.24
Cited half-life 7.20
Immediacy index 0.28
Eigenfactor 0.01
Article influence 0.30
Website Journal of Environmental Science and Health - Part A: Toxic/Hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering website
Other titles Journal of environmental science and health., Toxic hazardous substances and environmental engineering, Toxic/hazardous substances & environmental engineering
ISSN 1532-4117
OCLC 50757651
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Taylor & Francis

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    • The publisher will deposit in on behalf of authors to a designated institutional repository including PubMed Central, where a deposit agreement exists with the repository
    • STM: Science, Technology and Medicine
    • Publisher last contacted on 25/03/2014
    • This policy is an exception to the default policies of 'Taylor & Francis'
  • Classification

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The possibility of removing representative nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) from water was tested using Octolig®, a commercially available material with polyethylenediimine moieties covalently attached to high-surface area silica gel. The effectiveness of removal should depend on selected NSAIDs having appropriate anionic functional groups. NSAIDs selected had aromatic carboxylic groups: diclofenac, fenoprofen, indomethacin, ketoprofen, mefenamic acid, naproxen, and sulindac. These substances in deionized (DI) water were removed by passage over Octolig columns with removal values approaching 90% at environmental pH values, e.g., ca pH 6. Fenoprofen, however, was only removed to an extent of 80% in DI water and 62% in well water, presumably a result of competition with bicarbonate ions.
    Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A Toxic/Hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering 11/2015; DOI:10.1080/10934529.2015.1087755
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    ABSTRACT: A bioassessment multiple stressor study was conducted at 12 sites in Cache Slough, California during the Spring and Fall of 2012, 2013 and 2014. Specific study goals were to: (1) collect and identify benthic macroinvertebrates and develop a suite of benthic metrics; (2) measure total organic carbon (TOC), grain size, bulk metals, simultaneously extracted metals (SEM) and acid volatile sulfides (AVS), and 8 pyrethroids in sediment; (3) measure basic water quality parameters; and, (4) use univariate and stepwise multiple regressions and canonical correlation analysis to determine the relationship between various benthic metrics (i.e., taxa richness, abundance) and TOC, grain size, metals (bulk metals and SEM/AVS) and pyrethroids using the 3-year database. Five benthic metrics showed statistically significant relationships with environmental variables. Taxonomic Richness, a metric that decreases with stress, tended to be greater in less organic-rich, coarser sediments and the apparent relationships with toxicants such as pyrethroids or metals were diminished when these conditions are taken into account. The % Amphipod metric, which has a variable response to environmental stressors, showed a direct relationship with arsenic, an inverse relationship with chromium and an inverse relationship with % silt. The % Corbicula metric, which has a variable response to environmental stressors, was directly correlated with cypermethrin and nickel. Therefore, it appears that Corbicula tends to be associated with more contaminated sediments in Cache Slough. The metric % Collectors/Filterers & Collectors/Gatherers, a metric that increases in stressed environments, was reported to increase in sediments with higher arsenic concentrations. This relationship makes ecological sense because this metric should increase with an increase in arsenic concentrations. The benthic metric Abundance, a metric that decreases with stress, was reported to be inversely correlated with % TOC and % silt. The abundance of benthic communities increases in coarser, less organic rich sediments. In general, relatively few statistically significant relationships were observed between the various combinations of benthic metrics and environmental variables. Benthic communities in Cache Slough appear to be more closely associated with sediment characteristics and with metals concentrations than with the pyrethroid concentrations.
    Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A Toxic/Hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering 11/2015; DOI:10.1080/10934529.2015.1087744
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    ABSTRACT: The present study consists of the preparation of activated carbon from peach stone (PSAC) by H4P2O7 activation and its detailed characterization. The influence of different activants and various operational conditions including; soaking time, activation time, and activation temperature during PSAC preparation were systematically investigated. The chemical properties and morphology of prepared activated carbon was characterized by various analytical techniques (FTIR, SEM and EDX). TG-DTA analysis showed that the pore development of PSAC was significant at temperatures > 450°C. The prepared PSAC were utilized for the rapid removal and adsorption of Acid Red 18 (AR18) from aqueous solution that follows pseudo-second-order kinetics. The Langmuir isotherm model corresponded well with equilibrium data than the others, implying that the adsorption of AR18 onto prepared PSAC from the aqueous solutions proceeds by a monolayer formation. Thermodynamic investigations showed that the adsorption process is an exothermic and spontaneous process. During reusability studies, PSAC showed complete removal of AR18 upto seventh cycle increasing its practical applicability. Finally the prepared PSAC showed the best adsorptive capacity as compared to commercial AC for dye removal from actual industrial wastewater. This confers the possibility of applying PSAC economically viable option for the treatment of industrial wastewaters containing dye pollutants using suitable reactor.
    Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A Toxic/Hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering 11/2015; DOI:10.1080/10934529.2015.1087747
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    ABSTRACT: Prenatal exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals may affect fetal development through disruption of hormonal actions and epigenetic modifications, potentially predisposing individuals to later on-set health risks, such as obesity. The objective of this study was to determine associations between biological exposure markers of various endocrine disrupting chemicals and birth weight in a newly established, prospective mother-child cohort in the Netherlands. Birth weight (n = 91) was obtained from birth records, and exposure to dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), three di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) metabolites, polychlorinated biphenyl-153, perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was determined in cord plasma. For DDE, exposure was also measured in breast milk. Linear regression analysis was used to determine associations between compounds and birth weight, which were stratified for gender and adjusted for a priori defined covariates. Increased exposure to DDE was associated with lower birth weight in boys (>95.89 ng L(-1), -325.9 g, 95% CI -634.26 to -17.56), whereas in girls a tendency towards a higher birth weight was observed. Lower birth weights for boys were also observed for high exposure to MECPP, and to a certain extent also for PFOA. MEHHP and PFOS exposure on the other hand were associated with higher birth weights in boys. In girls no effects were observed for these compounds. It can be concluded that prenatal exposure to DDE, perfluorinated alkyl acids, and phthalates was associated with changes in birth weight in this population. Associations were gender specific, and appeared to be non-linear. Since the population was relatively small, results should be interpreted with caution.
    Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A Toxic/Hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering 11/2015; DOI:10.1080/10934529.2015.1087753
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigated the influence of acid-mine drainage (AMD) from the historic gold and copper mine in Mount Morgan, Queensland (Australia) on Dee River sediments and adjacent agricultural soils during pre- and post-acid flows and the speciation of metals in these sediments and soils. This was done to assess the potential bioavailability of the metals and to provide baseline information for parallel research on the potential of the metals to enter agricultural produce. Sediments at site 5 (20 km downstream of the mine site) contained Cd, Cu, and Zn levels of 4.8, 2631, and 602 mg kg(-1), respectively, during low flow, and 2.6, 1835, and 756 mg kg(-1), respectively, post high or acid flow. Sediments at site 8A in the floodplain area (about 60 km downstream of the mine), showed Cd, Cu, and Zn levels of 0.6, 294, and 159 mg kg(-1), respectively, during low flow and 1.5, 689, and 295 mg kg(-1), respectively, post high (acid) flow. Sediment cores (18-cm long) from site 8A gave ratios of Cd, Cu and S concentration in the top slice (0-6 cm from riverbed surface) to their concentration in the deeper slice (12-18 cm) of 36, 9 and 40, respectively, indicating historical AMD contamination. Lead was not a serious AMD contaminant as its level varied less than two-fold within the core in all cases. Sulfur levels were consistently high (mean = 10267 mg kg(-1)) in the entire 12-cm core from site 7B and were about 10 times the surface (0-6 cm) levels from the other sites, suggesting possible geogenic S sources at this site. Mean Cu level was 1783 mg kg(-1) (range = 368-2510) in soils from the Dee River floodplain. BCR sequential extraction showed very similar average distribution of metals in the four fractions (F1 to F4) in sediments (from sites 5, 7B and 8A) and in the floodplain soils (site Dee P2). The sums of the acid-soluble (F1) and reducible (F2) fractions relative to the total metal content were Cd = 58%, Cu = 58%, Pb = 47% and Zn = 67% in sediments, and Cd = 67%, Cu = 63%, Pb = 47% and Zn = 58% in soils. Cu levels in these two most labile fractions alone exceeded the Australian sediment trigger value by an average factor of 9 (range = 3-23) in sediments, and the ecological investigation level for soils by an average factor of 12. The study demonstrated that AMD contamination spanned at least 80 km of the Dee River downstream of the mine and 30-cm depth of the riverbed and floodplains, with at least 50% of the total metal (particularly Cd, Cu and Zn) in the sediments and floodplain soils being potentially bioavailable to aquatic life and to the agricultural produce in the area.
    Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A Toxic/Hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering 11/2015; DOI:10.1080/10934529.2015.1087738
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    ABSTRACT: A constructed wetland (CW) in arid areas requires special knowledge given the particular climatic conditions. Among other aspects, the Hydraulic Retention Time (HRT) and plant species may be two important design parameters in hyper- and super-arid areas. Therefore, the study aimed to evaluate the influence of both variables in the application of CW in super-arid areas. Two HRT, 3.5 d and 7 d, and plant species classified by their origin: (a) native, Festuca Orthopylla, Cortaderia atacamensis and Schoenoplectus americanus, and (b) foreign, Cyperus papyrus, were evaluated in four Mesocosm Constructed Wetlands (MCW) operated in a super-arid area. The results showed that the HRT significantly increased (α < 0.05) in more than 10% the removal efficiency of nitrogen and phosphorus forms (TN, NH4(+)-N, TP, PO4(-3)-P). These results were the same for the two groups of plants assessed. Moreover, Cyperus papyrus significantly increased (α < 0.05) above 30% the removal efficiency, but only for nitrogen and phosphorus forms. MCW with this plant species showed a water loss above 25% and significantly increased (α < 0.05) the Electrical Conductivity (EC) of effluents. MCW planted with Schoenoplectus americanus showed water losses of around 25% for the both HRT evaluated, and its influence was not significant (α > 0.05) on the EC of the effluents. These results suggest that Schoenoplectus americanus would be an ideal candidate species for use in CW with subsurface flow in super-arid areas, with HRT varying between 3.5 d and 7 d.
    Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A Toxic/Hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering 11/2015; DOI:10.1080/10934529.2015.1087732
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    ABSTRACT: Response surface methodology was applied for the first time in the optimization of the preparation of layered double hydroxide (LDH) for defluoridation. The influence of three vital process parameters (viz. pH, molar ratio and calcination temperature) in the synthesis of the adsorbent 'Calcined Ca‒Al (NO3) LDH' was thoroughly examined to maximize its fluoride scavenging potential. The process parameters were optimized using the 3(3) factorial, face centered central composite and Box-Behnken designs and a comparative assessment of the methods was conducted. The maximum fluoride removal efficiency was achieved at a calcination temperature of approximately 500ºC; however, the efficiency decreased with increasing pH and molar ratio. The outcome of the comparative assessment clearly delineates the case specific nature of the models. A better predictability over the entire experimental domain was obtained with the 3(3) factorial method, whereas the Box-Behnken design was found to be the most efficient model with lesser number of experimental runs. The desirability function technique was performed for optimizing the response, wherein face centered central composite design exhibited a maximum desirability. The calcined Ca‒Al (NO3) LDH, synthesized under the optimum conditions, demonstrated the removal efficiencies of 95% and 99% for the doses of 3 g L(-1) and 5 g L(-1), respectively.
    Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A Toxic/Hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering 11/2015; 51(1):1-11. DOI:10.1080/10934529.2015.1086212
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    ABSTRACT: Perfluorinated surfactants and repellents are synthetic substances that have found numerous industrial and customer applications. Due to their persistence, at least two groups of these substances-perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and perfluorinated sulfonic acids (PFSAs)-are diffused widely in the environment. It is hypothesized that the Tibetan Plateau, is one of few unique places on the Earth, due to its topography, specifically the vast space and high elevation above sea level, geographic location, climate, high solar radiation, lack of industry, little urbanization and general lack of significant direct sources of pollution. There it is believed possible to gain an insight into atmospheric fate (possible photochemical degradation of higher molecular mass and formation of lower molecular mass PFCAs and PFSAs) of PFASs under un-disturbed environmental conditions. Ultratrace analytical method for PFCAs and PFSAs and use of transportation and field blanks, laboratory blanks and isotopically labelled surrogates for recovery control has allowed the determination of nine perfluorinated carboxylic acids and six perfluorinated sulfonic acids at ultra-trace levels in water based samples from the alpine dimension regions of the Tibetan Plateau, the eastern slope of Minya Konka peak at the eastern edge of the Tibetan Plateau, and also from the city of Chengdu from the lowland of the Sichuan Province in China. The specific compositional pattern of PFCAs and PFSAs and low levels of pollution with those compounds were observed in the central region of the Tibetan Plateau and in the region adjacent to the peaks of Minya Konka in the Eastern Tibetan Plateau. The fingerprint of the compositional pattern of PFCAs and PFSAs in water samples in the central region of the Tibetan Plateau and in the alpine region adjacent to the peaks of Minya Konka in the Eastern Tibetan Plateau may be explained by the result of photochemical degradation with dealkylation of longer chain compounds and formation of shorter chain compounds, which are more resistant to photochemical degradation.
    Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A Toxic/Hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering 11/2015; 51(1):1-7. DOI:10.1080/10934529.2015.1079113
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    ABSTRACT: The efficiency of cork waste in adsorbing aqueous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been previously reported. Biodegradation of contaminated cork using filamentous fungi could be a good alternative for detoxifying cork to facilitate its final processing. For this purpose, the degradation efficiency of anthracene by three ligninolytic white-rot fungi (Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Irpex lacteus and Pleurotus ostreatus) and three non-ligninolytic fungi which are found in the cork itself (Aspergillus niger, Penicillium simplicissimum and Mucor racemosus) are compared. Anthracene degradation by all fungi was examined in solid-phase cultures after 0, 16, 30 and 61 days. The degradation products of anthracene by P. simplicissimum and I. lacteus were also identified by GC-MS and a metabolic pathway was proposed for P. simplicissimum. Results show that all the fungi tested degraded anthracene. After 61 days of incubation, approximately 86%, 40%, and 38% of the initial concentration of anthracene (i.e., 100 µM) was degraded by P. simplicissimum, P. chrysosporium and I. lacteus, respectively. The rest of the fungi degraded anthracene to a lesser extent (<30%). As a final remark, the results obtained in this study indicate that P. simplicissimum, a non-ligninolytic fungi characteristic of cork itself, could be used as an efficient degrader of PAH-contaminated cork.
    Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A Toxic/Hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering 11/2015; DOI:10.1080/10934529.2015.1079114
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    ABSTRACT: A novel Fe3O4-graphite composite was prepared, characterized, and investigated as a heterogeneous Fenton-like catalyst for the degradation of levofloxacin (LEV) in an aqueous solution. The results revealed that the Fe3O4-graphite composite exhibited excellent properties for the degradation and mineralization of LEV, achieving a nearly complete degradation of 50 mg L(-1) LEV in 15 min and 48% of total organic carbon removal in 60 min under optimal conditions. A large electronic conjugation structure exists in graphite, which may lead to the fast production of •OH radical species because of the easy reduction of Fe(III) to Fe(II). In addition, we observed that the graphite can degrade LEV in the presence of H2O2. Therefore, the synergistic results of the graphite structure and Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) may contribute to the high catalytic activity of the Fe3O4-graphite composite. Compared with pure Fe3O4 MNPs, lesser iron leaching of the Fe3O4-graphite composite was observed during the degradation of LEV. The degradation efficiency of LEV remained approximately 80% at the fifth recycling run, which indicates that the Fe3O4-graphite composite has potential applications in water treatment for removing organic pollutants.
    Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A Toxic/Hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering 10/2015; DOI:10.1080/10934529.2015.1079112
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    ABSTRACT: Electrokinetic processes provide the basis of a range of very interesting techniques for the remediation of polluted soils. These techniques consist of the application of a current field in the soil that develops different transport mechanisms capable of mobilizing several types of pollutants. However, the use of these techniques could generate nondesirable effects related to the geomechanical behavior of the soil, reducing the effectiveness of the processes. In the case of the remediation of polluted soils with plasticity index higher than 35, an excessive shrinkage can be observed in remediation test. For this reason, the continued evaporation that takes place in the sample top can lead to the development of cracks, distorting the electrokinetic transport regime, and consequently, the development of the operation. On the other hand, when analyzing silty soils, in the surroundings of injection surfactant wells, high seepages can be generated that give rise to the development of piping processes. In this article methods are described to allow a reduction, or to even eliminate, both problems.
    Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A Toxic/Hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering 10/2015; DOI:10.1080/10934529.2015.1079106
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    ABSTRACT: The occurrence, distribution and main removal pathway of seven widely used organophosphate esters (OPs) in a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) located in the Pearl River Delta were investigated. Their daily discharge load into the Pearl River via effluent was also estimated. All the target analytes were detected in wastewater, suspended particle and dewatered sludge, with tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) and tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBEP) as the main components. The total concentrations of TBP and TBEP were 21271.8 ng L(-1) and 4349.4 ng L(-1), 3105.1 ng L(-1) and 494.5 ng L(-1) in influent wastewater and final effluent, respectively. These results indicated that non-chlorinated OPs were removed efficiently in the WWTP, while chlorinated OPs passed through the WWTP unchanged due to their resistance to current wastewater treatment technology. Approximate 91.4 g of non-chlorinated OPs and 23.4 g of chlorinated OPs per day were discharged into the Pearl River via effluent, 2.4 g of non-chlorinated OPs and 0.6 g of chlorinated OPs entered the environment following sludge disposal.
    Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A Toxic/Hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering 10/2015; 50(12):1291-1297. DOI:10.1080/10934529.2015.1055158
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    ABSTRACT: This study was undertaken to investigate the effectiveness of the hybrid adsorbent, which was synthesized from coal fly ash and was composed of lanthanum hydroxide and zeolite (La-ZFA), for phosphate removal from water. Long-term repeated adsorption tests for 30 days showed that the maximum removal capacity of the material reached 66.09 mg P/g. The fractionation of adsorbed phosphorus indicated that phosphate immobilized by La-ZFA was quite irreversible and was dominated by HCl-P fraction. It was suggested that the immobilization of phosphate was mainly attributed to lanthanum hydroxide and was slightly influenced by coexistence of other anions (Cl(-), NO3(-), SO4(2-), and HCO3(-)). At a La/P molar ratio between 1.5:1 and 2.0:1, a nearly complete removal (above 98%) of phosphate could be achieved. La-ZFA also exhibited great performance for removing phosphate from lake water (97.29%) as well as the effluent from wastewater treatment plant (97.86%), respectively. In addition, based on the results of the present study, it was believed that La-ZFA could be a potential material for phosphate removal in practical application.
    Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A Toxic/Hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering 10/2015; 50(12):1298-1305. DOI:10.1080/10934529.2015.1055159
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to examine the ability of a solid waste produced during beneficiation of ornamental rocks to remove mercury (Hg) from an industrial effluent and aqueous solutions under various conditions. Batch studies have been carried out by observing the effects of pH, concentration of the adsorbate, contact time, and so on. Various sorption isotherm models such as Langmuir, Freundlich, and Tóth have been applied for the adsorbent. Film and intraparticle diffusion were both found to be rate-limiting steps. Adsorption was properly described by the Freundlich model (capacity constant of 0.3090 (mg g(-1))(mg L(-1))(-1/n) and adsorption intensity indicator of 2.2939), which indicated a favorable sorption and encouraged subsequent studies for treatment of Hg-containing industrial effluent. Industrial effluent treatment efficiency reached Hg removals greater than 90% by using ornamental rock solid waste (ORSW). Besides, desorption studies indicated that the maximum recovery of mercury was 100 ± 2% for 1 mol L(-1) HNO3 and 74 ± 8% for 0.1 mol L(-1) HNO3. The ORSW could be reused thrice without significant difference on the Hg removal rate from industrial effluent. These findings place ORSW as a promising efficient and low-cost adsorbent for the removal of Hg from aqueous solutions and industrial effluent.
    Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A Toxic/Hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering 10/2015; 50(12):1230-1240. DOI:10.1080/10934529.2015.1055147
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    ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to assess (1) levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and particulate matter (PM) in a dental clinic in southern Taiwan and (2) dental care personnel's health risks associated with due to chronic exposure to VOCs. An automatic, continuous sampling system and a multi-gas monitor were employed to quantify the air pollutants, along with environmental comfort factors, including temperature, CO2, and relative humidity at six sampling sites in the clinic over eight days. Specific VOC compounds were identified and their concentrations were quantified. Both non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic VOC compounds were assessed based on the US Environmental Protection Agency's Principles of Health Risk Assessment in terms of whether those indoor air pollutants increased health risks for the full-time dental care professionals at the clinic. Increased levels of VOCs were recorded during business hours and exceeded limits recommended by the Taiwan Environmental Protection Agency. A total of 68 VOC compounds were identified in the study area. Methylene methacrylate (2.8 ppm) and acetone (0.176 ppm) were the only two non-carcinogenic compounds that posed increased risks for human health, yielding hazard indexes of 16.4 and 4.1, respectively. None of the carcinogenic compounds increased cancer risk. All detected PM10 levels ranged from 20 to 150 μg/m(3), which met the Taiwan EPA and international limits. The average PM10 level during business hours was significantly higher than that during non-business hours (P = 0.04). Improved ventilation capacity in the air conditioning system was recommended to reduce VOCs and PM levels.
    Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A Toxic/Hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering 10/2015; 50(12):1205-14. DOI:10.1080/10934529.2015.1055129
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    ABSTRACT: The occurrence of carbon-bacteria complexes in activated carbon filtered water has posed a public health problem regarding the biological safety of drinking water. The application of combined process of ultraviolet radiation and nanostructure titanium dioxide (UV/TiO2) photocatalysis for the disinfection of carbon-bacteria complexes were assessed in this study. Results showed that a 1.07 Lg disinfection rate can be achieved using a UV dose of 20 mJ cm(-2), while the optimal UV intensity was 0.01 mW cm(-2). Particle sizes ≥8 μm decreased the disinfection efficiency, whereas variation in particle number in activated carbon-filtered water did not significantly affect the disinfection efficiency. Photoreactivation ratio was reduced from 12.07% to 1.69% when the UV dose was increased from 5 mJ cm(-2) to 20 mJ cm(-2). Laboratory and on-site pilot-scale experiments have demonstrated that UV/TiO2 photocatalytic disinfection technology is capable of controlling the risk posed by carbon-bacteria complexes and securing drinking water safety.
    Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A Toxic/Hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering 10/2015; 50(12):1274-1281. DOI:10.1080/10934529.2015.1055155
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    ABSTRACT: Wastewater disposal may be a source of environmental contamination by Cryptosporidium and Giardia. This study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in raw and treated wastewater effluents. A prevalence of 100% was demonstrated for Giardia cysts in raw wastewater, at a concentration range of 10 to 12,225 cysts L(-1), whereas the concentration of Cryptosporidium oocysts in raw wastewater was 4 to 125 oocysts L(-1). The removal of Giardia cysts by secondary and tertiary treatment processes was greater than those observed for Cryptosporidium oocysts and turbidity. Cryptosporidium and Giardia were present in 68.5% and 76% of the tertiary effluent samples, respectively, at an average concentration of 0.93 cysts L(-1) and 9.94 oocysts L(-1). A higher detection limit of Cryptosporidium oocysts in wastewater was observed for nested PCR as compared to immune fluorescent assay (IFA). C. hominis was found to be the dominant genotype in wastewater effluents followed by C. parvum and C. andersoni or C. muris. Giardia was more prevalent than Cryptosporidium in the studied community and treatment processes were more efficient for the removal of Giardia than Cryptosporidium. Zoonotic genotypes of Cryptosporidium were also present in the human community. To assess the public health significance of Cryptosporidium oocysts present in tertiary effluent, viability (infectivity) needs to be assessed.
    Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A Toxic/Hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering 10/2015; 50(12):1265-1273. DOI:10.1080/10934529.2015.1055152
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, bactericidal effects of 24 kHz ultrasound, ultraviolet (UV-C) irradiation, and titanium dioxide (TiO2) photocatalyst were studied on inactivation of Aeromonas hydrophila, an emerging pathogen listed on the US Environmental Protection Agency's (US EPA) candidate contaminant list. Metabolic activity (using the AlamarBlue dye) assays were performed to assess the residual activity of the microbial cells after the disinfection treatments along with culture-based methods. A faster inactivation rate of 1.52 log min(-1) and inactivation of 7.62 log10 was observed within 5 min of ultrasound exposure. Ultrasound treated cells repaired by 1.4 log10 in contrast to 5.3 log10 repair for UV-C treated cells. Ultrasound treatment significantly lowered the reactivation of Aeromonas hydrophila in comparison to UV-C- and UV-C-induced photocatalysis. Ultrasound appeared to be an effective means of inactivating Aeromonas hydrophila and could be used as a potential disinfection method for water and wastewater reuse.
    Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A Toxic/Hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering 10/2015; 50(12):1223-1229. DOI:10.1080/10934529.2015.1055135