Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part C Environmental Carcinogenesis & Ecotoxicology Reviews (J Environ Sci Health C Environ Carcinog Ecotoxicol Rev )


Environmental Carcinogenesis & Ecotoxicology Reviews is a multidisciplinary journal for the rapid publication of integrative, critical reviews on timely and important subjects in various areas of environmental carcinogenesis. Among the subjects covered are risk assessment of chemical/physical agents and biological factors of environmental significance, basic research and methodology, theoretical modelling, host susceptibility and mechanistic studies, and protection of environment and ecosystems.

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    Journal of Environmental Science and Health - Part C: Environmental Carcinogenesis & Ecotoxicology Reviews website
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    Journal of environmental science and health., Journal of environmental science and health. Part C, Environmental carcinogenesis & ecotoxicology reviews, Environmental carcinogenesis & ecotoxicology reviews, Environmental carcinogenesis and ecotoxicology reviews
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    Document, Periodical, Internet resource
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    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publications in this journal

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    ABSTRACT: There is no doubt that chloronaphthalenes (PCNs) and their brominated counterparts (PBNs) are dioxin-like compounds, but there is less evidence for mixed bromo/chloronaphthalenes (PXNs). In this article we review information relating to the dioxin-like potency of PCNs and PBNs obtained in vivo, in vitro, and in silico. The aim was to help and improve the quality of data when assessing the contribution of these compounds in the risk analysis of dioxin-like contaminants in foods and other sample types. In vivo and in vitro studies have demonstrated that PCN/PBN congeners are inducers of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase, ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase, and luciferase enzymes that are features specifically indicative of planar diaromatic halogenated hydrocarbons such as dioxin and dioxin-like compounds. PCNs in the environment are of multisource origin. The limited data on PBNs in the environment suggest that these also appear to originate from different sources. The toxicological data on these compounds is even scarcer, most of it directed toward explaining the exposure risk from accidental contamination of feed with the commercial PBN containing product, Firemaster BP-6. The occurrence of PBNs and PXNs is possible as ultra-trace environmental and food-chain contaminants produced at least from combustion processes at unknown concentrations. Available toxicological and environmental data enable a focus on PCNs as dioxin analogues to an extent that specific local or regional environmental influences could result in a risk to human health. There is the possibility that they may act synergistically with the better-known classic dioxin and other dioxin-like compounds. PBNs and PXNs are much less studied than the dioxins, but are known to be products of anthropogenic processes that contaminate the environment. A continuously increasing use of bromine for manufacture of brominated flame retardants over the past three decades is anticipated as a stream of "brominated" wastes, that when degraded (combusted), will release PBNs and PXNs. This calls for advanced analytical methods and greater interest toxicologically to understand and control pollution and exposure by PBNs and PXNs. Particular congeners of bromonaphthalene in single studies were found to be much more toxic than their chlorinated counterparts. In addition, brominated/chlorinated naphthalenes also seem to be more potent toxicants than PCNs. About 20% of PCN congeners exhibit a dioxin-like toxicity with relative potencies varying between around 0.003 and 0.000001, but additional and more rigorous data are needed to confirm these figures. Recent food surveys have estimated a small but relevant human exposure to these compounds in foods, giving an additional source of dioxin-like toxicity to those compounds already covered by the World Health Organization-Toxic Equivalency Factors (TEFs) scheme. Given the additivity of response postulated for other dioxin-like compounds, it would seem unwise to ignore this additional contribution. Few data available showed that PBN congeners also exhibit a dioxin-like toxicity and are even more potent than PCN congeners, but the relative potency values were not derived for them until now. There are no toxicological data available for PXNs.
    Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part C Environmental Carcinogenesis & Ecotoxicology Reviews 07/2014; 32(3):239-272.
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this review is to comprehensively summarize the recent achievements in the field of toxicogenomics and cancer research regarding genetic-environmental interactions in carcinogenesis and detection of genetic aberrations in cancer genomes by next-generation sequencing technology. Cancer is primarily a genetic disease in which genetic factors and environmental stimuli interact to cause genetic and epigenetic aberrations in human cells. Mutations in the germline act as either high-penetrance alleles that strongly increase the risk of cancer development, or as low-penetrance alleles that mildly change an individual's susceptibility to cancer. Somatic mutations, resulting from either DNA damage induced by exposure to environmental mutagens or from spontaneous errors in DNA replication or repair are involved in the development or progression of the cancer. Induced or spontaneous changes in the epigenome may also drive carcinogenesis. Advances in next-generation sequencing technology provide us opportunities to accurately, economically, and rapidly identify genetic variants, somatic mutations, gene expression profiles, and epigenetic alterations with single-base resolution. Whole genome sequencing, whole exome sequencing, and RNA sequencing of paired cancer and adjacent normal tissue present a comprehensive picture of the cancer genome. These new findings should benefit public health by providing insights in understanding cancer biology, and in improving cancer diagnosis and therapy.
    Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part C Environmental Carcinogenesis & Ecotoxicology Reviews 04/2014; 32(2):121-58.
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    ABSTRACT: Tobacco smoke plays a dominant role in the epidemiology of lung cancer, cancer at other sites, and a variety of other chronic diseases. It is the leading cause of death in developed countries, and the global burden of cancer is escalating in less developed regions. For a rational implementation of strategies exploitable for the prevention smoking-related diseases, it is crucial to elucidate both the mechanisms of action of cigarette smoke and the protective mechanisms of the host organism. The imperative primary prevention goal is to avoid any type of exposure to smoke. Epidemiological studies have shown that a decrease in the consumption of cigarettes can be successful in attenuating the epidemic of lung cancer in several countries. Chemoprevention by means of dietary and/or pharmacological agents provides a complementary strategy aimed at decreasing the risk of developing smoking-associated diseases in addicted current smokers, who are unable to quit smoking, and especially in involuntary smokers and ex-smokers. The availability of new animal models that are suitable to detect the carcinogenicity of cigarette smoke and to assess the underlying molecular mechanisms provides new tools for evaluating both safety and efficacy of putative chemopreventive agents.
    Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part C Environmental Carcinogenesis & Ecotoxicology Reviews 04/2014; 32(2):105-20.
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    ABSTRACT: Based on exposure frequency and intrinsic toxicity, lead (Pb) ranks one of the highest priority toxic materials. Continuous regulation of environmental Pb exposure has contributed to dramatically diminished exposure levels of Pb, for example, blood level of Pb. However, the safety level of Pb is not established, as low-level exposure to Pb still shows severe toxicity in high susceptible population and late onset of some diseases from early exposure. In the present study, we focused on food-borne Pb exposure and found broad variations in Pb exposure levels via food among countries. In addition, there are genetic or ethnical variations in Pb-targeted and protective genes. Moreover, various epigenetic alterations were induced by Pb poisoning. Therefore, we suggest a systemic approach including governmental (public) and individual prevention from Pb exposure with continuous biological monitoring and genetic or epigenetic consideration.
    Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part C Environmental Carcinogenesis & Ecotoxicology Reviews 04/2014; 32(2):159-85.
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    ABSTRACT: Due to possessing an extremely small size and a large surface area per unit of volume, nanomaterials have specific characteristic physical, chemical, photochemical, and biological properties that are very useful in many new applications. Nanoparticles' catalytic activity and intrinsic ability in generating or scavenging reactive oxygen species in general can be used to mimic the catalytic activity of natural enzymes. Many nanoparticles with enzyme-like activities have been found, potentially capable of being applied for commercial uses, such as in biosensors, pharmaceutical processes, and the food industry. To date, a variety of nanoparticles, especially those formed from noble metals, have been determined to possess oxidase-like, peroxidase-like, catalase-like, and/or superoxide dismutase-like activity. The ability of nanoparticles to mimic enzymatic activity, especially peroxidase mimics, can be used in a variety of applications, such as detection of glucose in biological samples and waste water treatment. To study the enzyme-like activity of nanoparticles, the electron spin resonance method represents a critically important and convenient analytical approach for zero-time detection of the reactive substrates and products as well as for mechanism determination.
    Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part C Environmental Carcinogenesis & Ecotoxicology Reviews 04/2014; 32(2):186-211.
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    ABSTRACT: Regulatory agencies worldwide are committed to the objectives of the Strategic Approach to International Chemicals Management to ensure that by 2020 chemicals are used and produced in ways that lead to the minimization of significant adverse effects on human health and the environment. Under the Government of Canada's Chemicals Management Plan, the commitment to address a large number of substances, many with limited data, has highlighted the importance of pursuing alternative hazard assessment methodologies that are able to accommodate chemicals with varying toxicological information. One such method is (Quantitative) Structure Activity Relationships ((Q)SAR) models. The current investigation into the predictivity of 20 (Q)SAR tools designed to model bacterial reverse mutation in Salmonella typhimurium is one of the first of this magnitude to be carried out using an external validation set comprised mainly of industrial chemicals which represent a diverse group of aromatic and benzidine-based azo dyes and pigments. Overall, this study highlights the value in challenging the predictivity of existing models using a small but representative subset of data-rich chemicals. Furthermore, external validation revealed that only a handful of models satisfactorily predicted for the test chemical space. The exercise also provides insight into using the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (Q)SAR Toolbox as a read across tool.
    Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part C Environmental Carcinogenesis & Ecotoxicology Reviews 01/2014; 32(1):46-82.
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    ABSTRACT: There is a concern of an increased risk of bladder cancer associated with the use of thiazolidinediones, a class of oral glucose-lowering drugs commonly used in patients with type 2 diabetes with a mechanism of improving insulin resistance. Human studies on related issues are reviewed, followed by a discussion on potential concerns on the causal inference in current studies. Pioglitazone and rosiglitazone are discussed separately, and findings from different geographical regions are presented. Randomized controlled trials designed for primarily answering such a cancer link are lacking, and evidence from clinical trials with available data for evaluating the association may not be informative. Observational studies have been reported with the use of population-based administrative databases, single-hospital records, drug adverse event reporting system, and case series collection. Meta-analysis has also been performed by six different groups of investigators. These studies showed a signal of higher risk of bladder cancer associated with pioglitazone, especially at a higher cumulative dose or after prolonged exposure; however, a weaker signal or null association is observed with rosiglitazone. In addition, there are some concerns on the causal inference, which may be related to the use of secondary databases, biases in sampling, differential detection, and confounding by indications. Lack of full control of smoking and potential biases related to study designs and statistical approaches such as prevalent user bias and immortal time bias may be major limitations in some studies. Overlapping populations and opposing conclusions in studies using the same databases may be of concern and weaken the reported conclusions of the studies. Because randomized controlled trials are expensive and unethical in providing an answer to this cancer issue, observational studies are expected to be the main source in providing an answer in the future. Furthermore, international comparison studies using well-designed and uniform methodology to clarify the risk in specific sexes, ethnicities, and other subgroups and to evaluate the interaction with other environmental risk factors or medications will be helpful to identify patients at risk.
    Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part C Environmental Carcinogenesis & Ecotoxicology Reviews 01/2014; 32(1):1-45.
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    ABSTRACT: Nanoparticles (NPs) that are ∼100 nm in diameter can potentially cause toxicity in the central nervous system (CNS). Although NPs exhibit positive aspects, these molecules primarily exert negative or harmful effects. Thus, the beneficial and harmful effects should be compared. The prevalence of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, and some brain tumors, has increased. However, the major cause of these diseases remains unknown. NPs have been considered as one of the major potential causes of these diseases, penetrating the human body via different pathways. This review summarizes various pathways for NP-induced neurotoxicity, suggesting the development of strategies for nanoneuroprotection using in silico and biological methods. Studies of oxidative stress associated with gene expression analyses provide efficient information for understanding neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration associated with NPs. The brain is a sensitive and fragile organ, and evolution has developed mechanisms to protect it from injury; however, this protection also hinders the methods used for therapeutic purposes. Thus, brain and CNS-related diseases that are the cause of disability and disorder are the most difficult to treat. There are many obstacles to drug delivery in the CNS, such as the blood brain barrier and blood tumor barrier. Considering these barriers, we have reviewed the strategies available to map NPs using biological techniques. The surface adsorption energy of NPs is the basic force driving NP gathering, protein corona formation, and many other interactions of NPs within biological systems. These interactions can be described using an approach named the biological surface adsorption index. A quantitative structural activity relationship study helps to understand different protein-protein or protein-ligand interactions. Moreover, equilibrium between cerebrovascular permeability is required when a drug is transferred via the circulatory system for the therapy of neurodegenerative diseases. Various drug delivery approaches, such as chemical drug delivery and carrier-mediated drug delivery, have been established to avoid different barriers inhibiting CNS penetration by therapeutic substances. Developing an improved understanding of drug receptors and the sites of drug action, together with advances in medicinal chemistry, will make it possible to design drugs with greatly enhanced activity and selectivity; this may result in a significant increase in the therapeutic index.
    Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part C Environmental Carcinogenesis & Ecotoxicology Reviews 01/2013; 31(3):256-84.
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    ABSTRACT: Long-term rodent bioassays have played a central role in protecting human health from carcinogens; for ethical and practical reasons their use is decreasing whereas genotoxicity testing has taken a pivotal role. However, this strategy-as presently implemented-is not sensitive enough to detect all genotoxic carcinogens, and cannot detect nongenotoxic carcinogens. Among the alternative approaches under study there is the ToxCast/Tox21 project. Following a previous study from our laboratory, here we present a new, more extensive analysis of ToxCast Phase I results, indicating that at the present state-of-art this approach is not able to predict the carcinogenicity of chemicals. Possible reasons for this mediocre performance are discussed, and opinions on ways to tune up the project in the next phases are presented.
    Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part C Environmental Carcinogenesis & Ecotoxicology Reviews 01/2013; 31(3):201-12.
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    ABSTRACT: Scientific opinion on the relationship between selenium and the risk of cancer has undergone radical change over the years, with selenium first viewed as a possible carcinogen in the 1940s then as a possible cancer preventive agent in the 1960s-2000s. More recently, randomized controlled trials have found no effect on cancer risk but suggest possible low-dose dermatologic and endocrine toxicity, and animal studies indicate both carcinogenic and cancer-preventive effects. A growing body of evidence from human and laboratory studies indicates dramatically different biological effects of the various inorganic and organic chemical forms of selenium, which may explain apparent inconsistencies across studies. These chemical form-specific effects also have important implications for exposure and health risk assessment. Overall, available epidemiologic evidence suggests no cancer preventive effect of increased selenium intake in healthy individuals and possible increased risk of other diseases and disorders.
    Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part C Environmental Carcinogenesis & Ecotoxicology Reviews 01/2013; 31(4):305-41.
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    ABSTRACT: Melamine contamination in food has resulted in sickness and deaths of human infants, pets, and farm animals in the past decade. The majority of the victims suffered from acute kidney injury, nephrolithiasis, and urolithiasis. Since then, animal studies have revealed the possible target organs of the melamine toxicity and the extent of the adverse effects of the contaminant. State-of-the-art analytical methods have been developed to achieve the "zero tolerance" aim for such economically motivated adulteration. These studies provide in-depth understanding of the melamine toxicity and promising analytical methods, which can help us safeguard our dairy food source.
    Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part C Environmental Carcinogenesis & Ecotoxicology Reviews 01/2013; 31(4):342-86.
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    ABSTRACT: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are toxic and persistent chemicals produced between 1930s and 1980s primarily for insulating fluids in heavy-duty electrical equipment in power plants, industries, and large buildings. They persist in the environment and accumulate in plants and animals, and have been classified as probable carcinogens to humans. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of scientific literature on the relationship between PCB exposure and human cancer. Two cohorts of people highly exposed to PCBs through ingestion of contaminated rice oil and some cohorts of occupationally exposed workers failed to show a definite increase in total cancer mortality and provided inconsistent results regarding single cancers. Several cohort and case-control studies investigated the association between PCBs and specific cancers, showing an association between PCB serum levels and non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL), with a summary odds ratio of 1.5 (95% confidence interval: 1.1-1.7), but no consistent results for the other cancer sites and types. In conclusion, this review provides some evidence for the role of PCBs in the development of NHL, although the inconsistent results of studies performed on highly polluted people and occupationally exposed workers do not allow a firm conclusion to be drawn.
    Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part C Environmental Carcinogenesis & Ecotoxicology Reviews 01/2013; 31(2):99-144.
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    ABSTRACT: Today, the occurrence of harmful cyanobacterial blooms is a common phenomenon and a potential global health problem. Cyanobacteria can produce metabolites highly toxic to humans. More than 80% of reservoirs used for water supply in Central Serbia have bloomed over the past 80 years. A 10-year epidemiological study showed a significant increase in the incidence of primary liver cancer (PLC) in the regions where water from the blooming reservoirs was used for human consumption. At the same time, no correlation was found between the incidence of PLC and other risk factors, such as cirrhosis and hepatitis viruses. Given the strong association with PLC induction and various known possible mechanisms of carcinogenic action, it is highly possible that, cyanotoxins-acting as initiator and promoter-may be the major risk factor that acts synergistically with other risk factors to cause increased incidence of PLC. However, at present, it is still not certain whether cyanotoxins alone were sufficient to induce PLC. Therefore, additional assessment of the health risks that may arise from human exposure to cyanotoxins is advisable.
    Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part C Environmental Carcinogenesis & Ecotoxicology Reviews 01/2013; 31(3):181-200.
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    ABSTRACT: Due to the lack of stable plutonium isotopes, and the high mobility as well as long half-life, plutonium is considered one of the most important radioelement in safety assessment of environmental radioactivity and nuclear waste management. A number of analytical methods have been developed over the past decades for determination of plutonium in environmental samples. The article discusses different analytical techniques and presents the results of plutonium isotopes determination by alpha spectrometry and accelerator mass spectrometry in environmental samples. The concentrations of plutonium isotopes in analyzed samples indicates its measurement is of great importance for environmental and safety assessment, especially in contaminated areas.
    Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part C Environmental Carcinogenesis & Ecotoxicology Reviews 01/2013; 31(2):145-169.

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