Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part C Environmental Carcinogenesis & Ecotoxicology Reviews (J Environ Sci Health C Environ Carcinog Ecotoxicol Rev )


Environmental Carcinogenesis & Ecotoxicology Reviews is a multidisciplinary journal for the rapid publication of integrative, critical reviews on timely and important subjects in various areas of environmental carcinogenesis. Among the subjects covered are risk assessment of chemical/physical agents and biological factors of environmental significance, basic research and methodology, theoretical modelling, host susceptibility and mechanistic studies, and protection of environment and ecosystems.

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    Journal of Environmental Science and Health - Part C: Environmental Carcinogenesis & Ecotoxicology Reviews website
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    Journal of environmental science and health., Journal of environmental science and health. Part C, Environmental carcinogenesis & ecotoxicology reviews, Environmental carcinogenesis & ecotoxicology reviews, Environmental carcinogenesis and ecotoxicology reviews
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    Document, Periodical, Internet resource
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    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publications in this journal

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    ABSTRACT: Green tea (Camellia sinensis; CS) strongly reverses/prevents arsenic-induced apoptotic hepatic degeneration/micronecrosis and mutagenic DNA damage in in vitro oxidant stress model and in rat as shown by comet assay and histoarchitecture (HE and PAS staining) results. Earlier, we demonstrated a link between carcinogenesis and impaired antioxidant system-associated mutagenic DNA damage in arsenic-exposed human. In this study, arsenic-induced (0.6 ppm/100 g body weight/day for 28 days) impairment of cytosolic superoxide-dismutase (SOD1), catalase, xanthine-oxidase, thiol, and urate activities/levels led to increase in tissue levels of damaging malondialdehyde, conjugated dienes, serum necrotic-marker lactate-dehydrogenase, and metabolic inflammatory-marker c-reactive protein suggesting dysregulation at the transcriptional/signal-transduction level. These are decisively restrained by CS-extract (≥10 mg/ml aqueous) with a restoration of DNA/tissue structure. The structural/functional impairment of dialyzed and centrifugally concentrated (6-8 kd cutoff) hepatic SOD1 via its important Cys modifications by H2O2/arsenite redox-stress and that protection by CS/2-mercaptoethanol are shown in in vitro/in situ studies paralleling the present Swiss-Model-generated rSOD1 structural data. Here, arsenite(3+) incubation (≥10(-8) μM + 10 mM H2O2, 2 hr) is shown for the first time with this low-concentration to initiate breakage in rat hepatic-DNA in vitro whereas, arsenite/H2O2/UV-radiation does not affect DNA separately. Arsenic initiates Fe and Cu ion-associated free-radical reaction cascade in vivo. Here, 10 μM of Cu(2+)/Fe(3+)/As(3+) +H2O2-induced in vitro DNA fragmentation is prevented by CS (≥1 mg/ml), greater than the prevention of ascorbate or tocopherol or DMSO or their combination. Moreover, CS incubation for various time with differentially and already degraded DNA resulted from pre-incubation in 10 μM As(3+)-H2O2 system markedly recovers broken DNA. Present results decisively suggest for the first time that CS and its mixed polyphenols have potent SOD1 protecting, diverse radical-scavenging and antimutagenic activities furthering to DNA protection/therapy in arsenic-induced tissue necrosis/apoptosis.
    Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part C Environmental Carcinogenesis & Ecotoxicology Reviews 10/2014; 32(4):338-61.
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    ABSTRACT: Cyanobacteria produce toxic metabolites known as cyanotoxins. These bioactive compounds can cause acute poisoning, and some of them may promote cancer through chronic exposure. Direct ingestion of and contact with contaminated water is one of the many exposure routes to cyanotoxins. The aim of this article was to review the incidence of 13 cancers during a 10-year period in Serbia and to assess whether there is a correlation between the cancer incidences and cyanobacterial bloom occurrence in reservoirs for drinking water supply. The types of cancers were chosen and subjected to epidemiological analyses utilizing previously published data. Based on the epidemiological and statistical analysis, the group of districts in which the incidences of cancers are significant, and may be considered as critical, include Nišavski, Toplički, and Šumadijski district. A significantly higher incidence of ten cancers was observed in the three critical districts as compared to the remaining 14 districts in Central Serbia. These elevated incidences of cancer include: brain cancer, heart, mediastinum and pleura cancer, ovary cancer, testicular cancer, gastric cancer, colorectal cancer, retroperitoneum and peritoneum cancer, leukemia, malignant melanoma of skin, and primary liver cancer. In addition, the mean incidence of five chosen cancers was the highest in the three critical regions, then in the rest of Central Serbia, while the lowest values were recorded in Vojvodina. Persistent and recurrent cyanobacterial blooms occur during summer months in reservoirs supplying water to waterworks in the three critical districts. People in Central Serbia mainly use surface water as water supply (but not all the water bodies are blooming) while in Vojvodina region (control region in this study) only groundwater is used. Among the 14 “noncritical” districts, reservoirs used for drinking water supply have been affected by recurrent cyanobacterial blooms in two districts (Rasinski and Zaječarski), but the waterworks in these districts have been performing ozonation for more than 30 years. We propose that the established statistical differences of cancer incidences in Serbia could be related to drinking water quality, which is affected by cyanobacterial blooms in drinking water reservoirs in certain districts. However, more detailed research is needed regarding cyanobacterial secondary metabolites as risk factors in tumor promotion and cancerogenesis in general.
    Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part C Environmental Carcinogenesis & Ecotoxicology Reviews 10/2014; 32(4):319-337.
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    ABSTRACT: Based on exposure frequency and intrinsic toxicity, lead (Pb) ranks one of the highest priority toxic materials. Continuous regulation of environmental Pb exposure has contributed to dramatically diminished exposure levels of Pb, for example, blood level of Pb. However, the safety level of Pb is not established, as low-level exposure to Pb still shows severe toxicity in high susceptible population and late onset of some diseases from early exposure. In the present study, we focused on food-borne Pb exposure and found broad variations in Pb exposure levels via food among countries. In addition, there are genetic or ethnical variations in Pb-targeted and protective genes. Moreover, various epigenetic alterations were induced by Pb poisoning. Therefore, we suggest a systemic approach including governmental (public) and individual prevention from Pb exposure with continuous biological monitoring and genetic or epigenetic consideration.
    Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part C Environmental Carcinogenesis & Ecotoxicology Reviews 04/2014; 32(2):159-85.
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    ABSTRACT: Due to possessing an extremely small size and a large surface area per unit of volume, nanomaterials have specific characteristic physical, chemical, photochemical, and biological properties that are very useful in many new applications. Nanoparticles' catalytic activity and intrinsic ability in generating or scavenging reactive oxygen species in general can be used to mimic the catalytic activity of natural enzymes. Many nanoparticles with enzyme-like activities have been found, potentially capable of being applied for commercial uses, such as in biosensors, pharmaceutical processes, and the food industry. To date, a variety of nanoparticles, especially those formed from noble metals, have been determined to possess oxidase-like, peroxidase-like, catalase-like, and/or superoxide dismutase-like activity. The ability of nanoparticles to mimic enzymatic activity, especially peroxidase mimics, can be used in a variety of applications, such as detection of glucose in biological samples and waste water treatment. To study the enzyme-like activity of nanoparticles, the electron spin resonance method represents a critically important and convenient analytical approach for zero-time detection of the reactive substrates and products as well as for mechanism determination.
    Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part C Environmental Carcinogenesis & Ecotoxicology Reviews 04/2014; 32(2):186-211.
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    ABSTRACT: Tobacco smoke plays a dominant role in the epidemiology of lung cancer, cancer at other sites, and a variety of other chronic diseases. It is the leading cause of death in developed countries, and the global burden of cancer is escalating in less developed regions. For a rational implementation of strategies exploitable for the prevention smoking-related diseases, it is crucial to elucidate both the mechanisms of action of cigarette smoke and the protective mechanisms of the host organism. The imperative primary prevention goal is to avoid any type of exposure to smoke. Epidemiological studies have shown that a decrease in the consumption of cigarettes can be successful in attenuating the epidemic of lung cancer in several countries. Chemoprevention by means of dietary and/or pharmacological agents provides a complementary strategy aimed at decreasing the risk of developing smoking-associated diseases in addicted current smokers, who are unable to quit smoking, and especially in involuntary smokers and ex-smokers. The availability of new animal models that are suitable to detect the carcinogenicity of cigarette smoke and to assess the underlying molecular mechanisms provides new tools for evaluating both safety and efficacy of putative chemopreventive agents.
    Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part C Environmental Carcinogenesis & Ecotoxicology Reviews 04/2014; 32(2):105-20.
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    ABSTRACT: There is a concern of an increased risk of bladder cancer associated with the use of thiazolidinediones, a class of oral glucose-lowering drugs commonly used in patients with type 2 diabetes with a mechanism of improving insulin resistance. Human studies on related issues are reviewed, followed by a discussion on potential concerns on the causal inference in current studies. Pioglitazone and rosiglitazone are discussed separately, and findings from different geographical regions are presented. Randomized controlled trials designed for primarily answering such a cancer link are lacking, and evidence from clinical trials with available data for evaluating the association may not be informative. Observational studies have been reported with the use of population-based administrative databases, single-hospital records, drug adverse event reporting system, and case series collection. Meta-analysis has also been performed by six different groups of investigators. These studies showed a signal of higher risk of bladder cancer associated with pioglitazone, especially at a higher cumulative dose or after prolonged exposure; however, a weaker signal or null association is observed with rosiglitazone. In addition, there are some concerns on the causal inference, which may be related to the use of secondary databases, biases in sampling, differential detection, and confounding by indications. Lack of full control of smoking and potential biases related to study designs and statistical approaches such as prevalent user bias and immortal time bias may be major limitations in some studies. Overlapping populations and opposing conclusions in studies using the same databases may be of concern and weaken the reported conclusions of the studies. Because randomized controlled trials are expensive and unethical in providing an answer to this cancer issue, observational studies are expected to be the main source in providing an answer in the future. Furthermore, international comparison studies using well-designed and uniform methodology to clarify the risk in specific sexes, ethnicities, and other subgroups and to evaluate the interaction with other environmental risk factors or medications will be helpful to identify patients at risk.
    Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part C Environmental Carcinogenesis & Ecotoxicology Reviews 01/2014; 32(1):1-45.
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    ABSTRACT: Regulatory agencies worldwide are committed to the objectives of the Strategic Approach to International Chemicals Management to ensure that by 2020 chemicals are used and produced in ways that lead to the minimization of significant adverse effects on human health and the environment. Under the Government of Canada's Chemicals Management Plan, the commitment to address a large number of substances, many with limited data, has highlighted the importance of pursuing alternative hazard assessment methodologies that are able to accommodate chemicals with varying toxicological information. One such method is (Quantitative) Structure Activity Relationships ((Q)SAR) models. The current investigation into the predictivity of 20 (Q)SAR tools designed to model bacterial reverse mutation in Salmonella typhimurium is one of the first of this magnitude to be carried out using an external validation set comprised mainly of industrial chemicals which represent a diverse group of aromatic and benzidine-based azo dyes and pigments. Overall, this study highlights the value in challenging the predictivity of existing models using a small but representative subset of data-rich chemicals. Furthermore, external validation revealed that only a handful of models satisfactorily predicted for the test chemical space. The exercise also provides insight into using the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (Q)SAR Toolbox as a read across tool.
    Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part C Environmental Carcinogenesis & Ecotoxicology Reviews 01/2014; 32(1):46-82.
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    ABSTRACT: Scientific opinion on the relationship between selenium and the risk of cancer has undergone radical change over the years, with selenium first viewed as a possible carcinogen in the 1940s then as a possible cancer preventive agent in the 1960s-2000s. More recently, randomized controlled trials have found no effect on cancer risk but suggest possible low-dose dermatologic and endocrine toxicity, and animal studies indicate both carcinogenic and cancer-preventive effects. A growing body of evidence from human and laboratory studies indicates dramatically different biological effects of the various inorganic and organic chemical forms of selenium, which may explain apparent inconsistencies across studies. These chemical form-specific effects also have important implications for exposure and health risk assessment. Overall, available epidemiologic evidence suggests no cancer preventive effect of increased selenium intake in healthy individuals and possible increased risk of other diseases and disorders.
    Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part C Environmental Carcinogenesis & Ecotoxicology Reviews 01/2013; 31(4):305-41.
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    ABSTRACT: Due to the lack of stable plutonium isotopes, and the high mobility as well as long half-life, plutonium is considered one of the most important radioelement in safety assessment of environmental radioactivity and nuclear waste management. A number of analytical methods have been developed over the past decades for determination of plutonium in environmental samples. The article discusses different analytical techniques and presents the results of plutonium isotopes determination by alpha spectrometry and accelerator mass spectrometry in environmental samples. The concentrations of plutonium isotopes in analyzed samples indicates its measurement is of great importance for environmental and safety assessment, especially in contaminated areas.
    Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part C Environmental Carcinogenesis & Ecotoxicology Reviews 01/2013; 31(2):145-169.
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    ABSTRACT: Nanoparticles (NPs) that are ∼100 nm in diameter can potentially cause toxicity in the central nervous system (CNS). Although NPs exhibit positive aspects, these molecules primarily exert negative or harmful effects. Thus, the beneficial and harmful effects should be compared. The prevalence of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, and some brain tumors, has increased. However, the major cause of these diseases remains unknown. NPs have been considered as one of the major potential causes of these diseases, penetrating the human body via different pathways. This review summarizes various pathways for NP-induced neurotoxicity, suggesting the development of strategies for nanoneuroprotection using in silico and biological methods. Studies of oxidative stress associated with gene expression analyses provide efficient information for understanding neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration associated with NPs. The brain is a sensitive and fragile organ, and evolution has developed mechanisms to protect it from injury; however, this protection also hinders the methods used for therapeutic purposes. Thus, brain and CNS-related diseases that are the cause of disability and disorder are the most difficult to treat. There are many obstacles to drug delivery in the CNS, such as the blood brain barrier and blood tumor barrier. Considering these barriers, we have reviewed the strategies available to map NPs using biological techniques. The surface adsorption energy of NPs is the basic force driving NP gathering, protein corona formation, and many other interactions of NPs within biological systems. These interactions can be described using an approach named the biological surface adsorption index. A quantitative structural activity relationship study helps to understand different protein-protein or protein-ligand interactions. Moreover, equilibrium between cerebrovascular permeability is required when a drug is transferred via the circulatory system for the therapy of neurodegenerative diseases. Various drug delivery approaches, such as chemical drug delivery and carrier-mediated drug delivery, have been established to avoid different barriers inhibiting CNS penetration by therapeutic substances. Developing an improved understanding of drug receptors and the sites of drug action, together with advances in medicinal chemistry, will make it possible to design drugs with greatly enhanced activity and selectivity; this may result in a significant increase in the therapeutic index.
    Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part C Environmental Carcinogenesis & Ecotoxicology Reviews 01/2013; 31(3):256-84.