Nucleosides Nucleotides &amp Nucleic Acids (Nucleos Nucleot Nucleic Acids )


This all-inclusive journal features research articles; short notices; and concise, critical reviews of related topics in the organic and medicinal chemistry and biochemistry of nucleosides and nucleotides. Presenting the latest original research papers with complete experimental details, Nucleosides & Nucleotides emphasizes the synthesis, biological activities, new and improved synthetic methods, and significant observations related to new compounds.

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    Nucleosides, nucleotides & nucleic acids (Online), Nucleosides, nucleotides & nucleic acids, Nucleosides, nucleotides and nucleic acids
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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Intermolecular excited-state proton transfer (ESPT) has been observed in several fluorescent nucleobase and/or nucleoside analogs. In the present work, some new examples of ESPT in this class of compounds are presented together with a brief recapitulation of the previously published data. The nucleobases, nucleosides, and their analogs contain many basic and acidic centers and therefore their ESPT behavior may be complex. To interpret the complex data, it is usually necessary to determine the microscopic pK* values for each (or most) of the possible ESPT centers. Typical approach to solve this problem is by analysis of the alkyl derivatives, in which the possibility of the ESPT is reduced. Of particular interest are examples of "phototautomerization via the cation," observed in several systems, which in the neutral media do not undergo ESPT. Protonation of the molecule in the ground state facilitates the two-step phototautomerism in several systems, including formycin A and 2-amino-8-azadenine. Fluorescence of the nucleobase and nucleoside analogs undergoing ESPT is usually solvent-, isotope-, and buffer-ion sensitive, and in some systems the ESPT can be promoted by environmental factors, e.g., the presence of buffer ions. This sensitivity to the microenvironment parameters makes the ESPT systems potentially useful for biological applications.
    Nucleosides Nucleotides &amp Nucleic Acids 09/2014; 33(9):626-644.
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    ABSTRACT: The preparation of a series of novel chromone-fused cytosine analogues, i.e., chromeno[2,3-d]pyrimidines has been carried out from substituted 2-amino-4-oxo-4H-chromene-3-carbonitriles with urea, thiourea, and guanidine under different reaction conditions. These chromone-fused cytosine analogues were evaluated for their in vitro activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv strain and different microbial pathogenic strains in cell culture for their structure-activity relationships, respectively. Among the synthesized compounds, 2d, 3a, and 4e showed better results against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. The compounds 2a, 2b, and 3a showed potential antibacterial activity against E. coli and P. aeruginosa, while the majority of compounds were found to be active against S. aureus as compared to ampicillin. The synthesized cytosine analogues having an imine (-C&dbnd;NH) have been less sensitive to the bacterial and fungal strains but have a more beneficial effect on Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv.
    Nucleosides Nucleotides &amp Nucleic Acids 01/2014; 33(2):80-91.
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    ABSTRACT: A series of quinoxaline azido reverse nucleosides 3a-c and their O-regioisomers 4a-c was prepared by reaction of quinoxaline 1a-c with 3-azido-3-deoxy-1,2-O-isopropylidene-5-p-toluenesulfonyl-D-ribofuranose (2) in the presence of sodium hydride. Structure modification of these interesting structures includes reduction and the subsequent acetylation reactions to give quinoxaline amino and acetyl amino reverse nucleosides and their O-regioisomers.
    Nucleosides Nucleotides &amp Nucleic Acids 01/2014; 33(3):129-40.
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    ABSTRACT: A series of purine 5'-deoxyphosphonate analogues were designed and synthesized to mimic naturally occurring purine monophosphate from 1,3-dihydroxyacetone as starting material. The discovery of threosyl phosphonate nucleoside (PMDTA, EC50 = 2.53 μM) as a potent anti-HIV agent has led to the synthesis and biological evaluation of 2',3'-modified 5'-deoxyversions of the threosyl phosphonate nucleosides. The synthesized 2'-fluoro-3'-hydroxymethyl 5'-deoxythreosyl phosphonic acid nucleoside analogues 14, 18, 23, and 27 were tested for anti-HIV activity as well as cytotoxicity. The adenine analogue 18 exhibits weak in vitro anti-HIV-1 activity (EC50 = 19.2 μM).
    Nucleosides Nucleotides &amp Nucleic Acids 01/2014; 33(2):92-109.
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    ABSTRACT: Hydroquinoline acyclonucleosides 2, 4, 6a,b, 8a,b, 9a,b, and their corresponding N-alkyl derivatives (10-12) were obtained by the reaction of 1a,b with acetoxybutylbromide, (2-acetoxyethoxy)methyl bromide, 3-chloropropanol, 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol, epichlorohydrin, propargyl/allyl bromides in the presence of K2CO3 in dry dimethylformamide (DMF). In a similar manner, reaction of 1a,b with glycosyl/galactosyl and lactosyl bromide afforded the corresponding N-nucloside derivatives 13a,b, 15a,b, and 17, respectively. Deacetylation of the N-nucleosides derivatives in the presence of Et3N/MeOH and few drops of water gave the deprotected derivatives 3, 5, 7a,b, 14a,b, 16a,b, and 18 in good yields, respectively. All the newly synthesized compounds are elucidated by infrared, (1)H, (13)C NMR and elemental analyses. Some of these compounds were screened for antimicrobial activities.
    Nucleosides Nucleotides &amp Nucleic Acids 01/2014; 33(3):111-28.
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    ABSTRACT: A small library of peptidyl adenosine antibiotic analogs was synthesized, under the Pilot Scale Library Program of the NIH Roadmap initiative, from 2',3'-O-isoproylideneadenosine-5'-carboxylic acid 2 in excellent yield. The coupling of the amino terminus of L-2-aminophenylbutyric methyl ester to a free 5'-carboxylic acid moiety of 2 followed by sodium hydroxide treatment led to carboxylic acid analog 4. Hydrolysis of this latter gave unprotected nucleoside analog 5. Intermediate 4 served as the precursor for the preparation of novel peptidyl adenosine analogs 6-18 in good yields and high purity through peptide coupling reactions to diverse amine derivatives. No marked anticancer and antimalaria activity was noted on preliminary cellular testing; however these analogs should be useful candidates for other types of biological activity.
    Nucleosides Nucleotides &amp Nucleic Acids 01/2014; 33(2):53-63.
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    ABSTRACT: The cDNA fragments of hnRNPA2/B1 were cloned from the giant panda and black bear using RT-PCR method, which were, respectively, 1029bp and 1026bp in length encoding 343 and 341 amino acids. Analysis indicated the cDNA cloned from the giant panda encoded variant B1 while the cDNA cloned from black bear encoded variant A2. Analyzing the hnRNPA2B1 peptide of the giant panda and black bear, 76 glycine residues and 86 glycine residues were, respectively, found, and moreover, most glycine are concentrated in the latter halves of the hnRNPA2B1 peptides. Functional sites prediction also showed many N-myristoylation sites existed in the glycine-rich domain, which is probably related to the role of telomere maintenance. From base bias and substitution analysis, we can conclude that the ORF of hnRNPA2/B1 biased G while hated C, and transition of the third site did not achieve the level of saturation. Orthology analysis indicated that both the nucleotide sequence and the deduced amino acid sequence showed high identity to other 26 hnRNPA2/B1 sequences from mammals and nonmammals reported. These sequences were used to construct phylogenetic trees employing the NJ method with 1000 bootstrap, and the obtained tree demonstrated similar topology with the classical systematics, which suggested the potential value of hnRNPA2/B1 in phylogenetic analysis. This report will be the first step to the study function of hnRNPA2/B1 in the giant panda and black bear, and will provide a scientific basis to disease surveillance, captive breeding, and conservation of the endangered species.
    Nucleosides Nucleotides &amp Nucleic Acids 01/2014; 33(1):18-30.
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    ABSTRACT: We report a new method for synthesis of capped RNA or 2'-OMe RNA that uses a N(2-)4,4'-dimethoxytrityl (DMT) group as a lipophilic purification handle to allow convenient isolation and purification of the capped RNA. The DMT group is easily removed under mild conditions without degradation of the cap. We have used this approach to prepare capped 10- and 20-mers. This method is compatible with the many condensation reactions that have been reported for preparation of capped RNA or cap analogues.
    Nucleosides Nucleotides &amp Nucleic Acids 01/2014; 33(1):40-52.
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    ABSTRACT: A series of 4-amino-5-((4-chlorophenyl)diazenyl)-6-(alkylamino)-1-methylpyrimidin-2-one deri- vatives 7-16 were prepared by nucleophilic displacement of 6-chloro-pyrimidine 6 by various amines. 4-Amino-5-((aryl-4-yl)diazenyl)-6-aryl-1-methylpyrimidin-2-one analogs 19-27, as well as 4-amino-5-((aryl-[1,1'-biphenyl]-4-yl)diazenyl)-6-aryl-1-methylpyrimidin-2-one 29-31 and 4-amino-6-aryl-1-methylpyrimidin-2-one 34-34, were synthesized via Suzuki cross-coupling reaction, using Pd(PPh3)4 as a catalyst and arylboronic acids as reagents. All compounds were evaluated for their antiviral activity against the replication of HIV-1 and HIV-2 in MT-4. Compounds 6, 16, 27, and 29 showed a 50% effective concentration of >2.15, >3.03, >2.29, and >1.63 μM, respectively, but no selectivity was observed (selectivity index < 1). Two of the newly synthesized pyrimidines 12 and 29 exhibited moderate kinesin Eg5 inhibition.
    Nucleosides Nucleotides &amp Nucleic Acids 01/2014; 33(3):141-61.
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    ABSTRACT: Atomic force microscopy (AFM) can dynamically detect the adhesion or affinity force between a sample surface and a cantilever. This feature could be used to analyze bio-molecular interactions between a DNA aptamer and a target molecule. In this study, the binding force between adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and the anti-ATP DNA aptamer DH25.42, based on structural changes was measured using AFM. In addition, the relationship between the cations in the binding buffer, and the affinity and structure formation of the DNA aptamer was also evaluated using AFM and circular dichroism (CD) spectrum analysis. As a result, the specific force between DH25.42 and ATP could be measured by AFM. Moreover, it was suggested that Mg(2+) in the binding buffer was critical to the binding function of DH25.42 to ATP.
    Nucleosides Nucleotides &amp Nucleic Acids 01/2014; 33(1):31-9.
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    ABSTRACT: The interaction of an anti-HIV drug, stavudine (STV) with calf thymus deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was investigated employing acridine orange (AO) as a fluorescence probe. Spectroscopic investigations revealed the intercalative mode of binding of STV to DNA. The analysis of fluorescence data indicated the presence of static quenching mechanism between STV and DNA. Thermodynamic parameters indicated the presence of van der Waals forces in addition to intercalative mode of binding. CD data revealed the partial B→A conformational transition of DNA upon intercalative mode of binding with STV.
    Nucleosides Nucleotides &amp Nucleic Acids 01/2013; 32(12):660-669.
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    ABSTRACT: Two series of novel 3-cyano-2-(2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-β-D-glucopyranosyloxo) pyridines and 3-cyano-2-(2,3,5-tri-O-acetyl-β-D-ribofuranosyloxy)-4-trifluromethyl-6-phenyl pyridine were synthesized using efficient microwave methods. The targeted compounds were obtained in high yields by reacting 2-(1H)-pyridone or its salt with activated sugars using SiO2 under solvent-free conditions. Ammonolysis of the resulted acetylated nucleosides produced 3-cyano-2-(β-D-glucopyranosyloxo)-pyridines and 3-cyano-2-(β-D-ribofuranosyloxy)-4-trifluoromethyl-6-phenyl pyridine. These new products were fully characterized using 1D and 2D NMR. These compounds were screened for their antibacterial activities against G(+) and G(-) bacteria and some found to exhibit better antibacterial activities than the control drug.
    Nucleosides Nucleotides &amp Nucleic Acids 01/2013; 32(9):493-509.
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    ABSTRACT: L-DNA is the mirror-image form of natural D-DNA. We demonstrate that one left-handed G-rich sequence can form an L-DNA intramolecular G-quadruplex. Further investigation revealed that a DNAzyme formed by an L-nucleotide G-quadruplex exhibited peroxidase catalytic efficiency. The enhancement of the color change of the oxygenation product ABTS(•-) caused by L-nucleotide G-quadruplex formation could be clearly observed with naked eyes. This research provides a new concept for the application of the L-DNA peroxidase DNAzyme complex in nuclease-containing biological systems.
    Nucleosides Nucleotides &amp Nucleic Acids 01/2013; 32(11):589-98.
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    ABSTRACT: 6-O-7-N-Bis(diphenylcarbamoyl)-2-N-phenoxyacetyl-5'-O-dimethoxytrityl-2'-O-{[(triisopropyl- silyl)oxy]methyl}-8-oxoguanosine-3'-yl-β-cyanoethyl-N,N-diisopropylphosphoramidite (5) was synt- hesized as a new phosphoramidite precursor unit for the synthesis of RNA. Compound 5 was successfully incorporated into the middle of the RNA sequences, and the synthesized RNAs were identified by MALDI-TOF mass measurements. Their properties were evaluated for formation of the RNA duplex and RNA/DNA heteroduplex. ORNs 1 and 4 containing 8-oxo-G can form base pairs with rC or dC in an anti conformation, while it can also interact with rA or dA in a syn conformation in the RNA duplex or RNA/DNA heteroduplex. The described synthetic method is therefore a useful procedure for the synthesis of ORN containing 8-oxo-G and contributes to the study of 8-oxo-G in RNA.
    Nucleosides Nucleotides &amp Nucleic Acids 01/2013; 32(3):124-36.
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    ABSTRACT: The electrochemical behavior of nucleobases has been studied in 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution at pH 7.4, using a bare graphite electrode. Guanine and adenine produced well-defined oxidation peaks at about +0.63 and +0.91 V at 100 mV/s, respectively. Nucleobases exhibit an irreversible and hybrid-controlled electrochemical process, including adsorption and diffusion. The nucleobase oxidation peaks shift due to the selective interactions of nucleobases with each other. The oxidation peaks for three different pyrimidine bases, uracil, cytosine, and thymine, can be clearly identified at +1.26, +1.41, and +1.32 V, respectively. These differences in the electrochemical behavior among nucleobases can be attributed to their different chemical structures.
    Nucleosides Nucleotides &amp Nucleic Acids 01/2013; 32(8):464-76.
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    ABSTRACT: Inherited mutation of the purine salvage enzyme, hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) gives rise to Lesch-Nyhan syndrome (LNS) or Lesch-Nyhan variants (LNVs). We report three novel independent mutations in the coding region of HPRT gene: exon 3: c.141delA, p.D47fs53X; exon 5: c.400G>A, p.E134K; exon 7: c.499A>G, p.R167G from three LNS affected male patients.
    Nucleosides Nucleotides &amp Nucleic Acids 01/2013; 32(3):155-60.
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    ABSTRACT: As part of a project to generate a library of nucleosides as potential antiviral agents, a small subset of novel acyclic phosphonic acid nucleosides was prepared. Practical synthetic routes are described for three targets, which were then tested against HIV, hepatitis C virus (HCV), and Dengue virus.
    Nucleosides Nucleotides &amp Nucleic Acids 01/2013; 32(9):477-492.

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