Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Part A, Molecular & integrative physiology

Publisher: Elsevier


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    Comparative biochemistry and physiology., Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Part A, Molecular & integrative physiology, Comparative biochemistry and physiology., Molecular and integrative physiology, Molecular & integrative physiology, Comp. biochem. physiol., CBP., Comparative biochemistry and physiology
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Publications in this journal

  • Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Part A, Molecular & integrative physiology 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: Populations undergo physiological adaptations in response to environmental stressors. Our five-year bio-monitoring study of the Bronx River Estuary demonstrates comparatively low dissolved oxygen concentrations in this urbanized watershed. Additionally, our current results establish altered hormonal levels, resulting from endocrine disruption, in Geukensia demissa (Atlantic ribbed mussel) from the Bronx River Estuary. No studies have yet investigated a correlation between low dissolved oxygen and endocrine disruption in field-collected bivalves. Testosterone, estradiol, and progesterone levels were collected from male and female mussels in the oxygen depleted Bronx River and well-oxygenated Greenwich Cove. Bronx River mussels exhibited higher testosterone levels and lower estradiol levels than Greenwich Cove mussels. The resulting abnormal hormonal ratio seems to indicate that environmental conditions in the Bronx River facilitate an allosteric inhibition of the cytochrome P450 aromatase enzyme, which aids conversion of testosterone to estradiol. Low progesterone levels suggest Bronx River mussels are experiencing a delay in sexual maturation, and morphometric data show a stalling of shell and tissue growth. To confirm that the mussels collected from both sites are the same species, the universal mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene was analyzed, through DNA barcoding. Minimal sequential heterogeneity confirmed the mussels are the same species. Such findings suggest intraspecific divergence in various endocrine processes, resulting from environmentally induced stress.
    Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Part A, Molecular & integrative physiology 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The impact of the chemical changes in the ocean waters due to the increasing atmospheric CO2 depends on the ability of an organism to control extracellular pH. Among sea urchins, this seems specific to the Euechinoidea, sea urchins except Cidaroidea. However, Cidaroidea survived two ocean acidification periods: the Permian-Trias and the Cretaceous-Tertiary crises. We investigated the response of these two sea urchin groups to reduced seawater pH with the tropical cidaroid Eucidaris tribuloides, the sympatric euechinoid Tripneustes ventricosus and the temperate euechinoid Paracentrotus lividus. Both euechinoids showed a compensation of the coelomic fluid pH due to increased buffer capacity at reduced seawater pH. This was linked to an increased concentration of DIC in the coelomic fluid and thus of bicarbonate ions (most probably originating from the surrounding seawater as isotopic signature of the carbon - δ(13)C - were similar). On the other hand, the cidaroid showed no changes within the coelomic fluid. Moreover, the δ(13)C of the coelomic fluid did not match that of the seawater and was not significantly different between the urchins from the different treatments. Feeding rate was not affected in any species. While euechinoids are able to regulate their extracellular acid-base balance, many questions are still unanswered on the costs of this capacity. On the contrary, cidaroids do not seem affected by a reduced seawater pH. Further investigations need to be undertaken to cover more species, physiological and metabolic parameters in order to determine if energy trade-offs occur and how this mechanism of compensation is distributed among sea urchins.
    Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Part A, Molecular & integrative physiology 04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We hypothesized that the analysis of mRNA level and activity of key enzymes in amino acid and carbohydrate metabolism in a feeding/fasting/refeeding setting could improve our understanding of how a carnivorous fish, like the European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax), responds to changes in dietary intake at the hepatic level. To this end cDNA fragments encoding genes for cytosolic and mitochondrial alanine aminotransferase (cALT; mALT), pyruvate kinase (PK), glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGDH) were cloned and sequenced. Measurement of mRNA levels through quantitative real-time PCR performed in livers of fasted seabass revealed a significant increase in cALT (8.5-fold induction) while promoting a drastic 45-fold down-regulation of PK in relation to the levels found in fed seabass. These observations were corroborated by enzyme activity meaning that during food deprivation an increase in the capacity of pyruvate generation happened via alanine to offset the reduction in pyruvate derived via glycolysis. After a 3-day refeeding period cALT returned to control levels while PK was not able to rebound. No alterations were detected in the expression levels of G6PDH while 6PGDH revealed to be more sensitive specially to fasting, as confirmed by a significant 5.7-fold decrease in mRNA levels with no recovery after refeeding. Our results indicate that in early stages of refeeding, the liver prioritized the restoration of systemic normoglycemia and replenishment of hepatic glycogen. In a later stage, once regular feeding is re-established, dietary fuel may then be channeled to glycolysis and de novo lipogenesis.
    Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Part A, Molecular & integrative physiology 04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Few studies have investigated adenosinergic regulation of the cardiovascular system in reptiles. The haemodynamic effect of a bolus intra-arterial adenosine injection (2.5uM kg(-1)) was investigated in nine anaesthetised red-eared sliders (Trachemys scripta). Adenosine caused a transient bradycardia, which was accompanied by systemic vasodilatation as evidenced by an increase in systemic flow and decrease in systemic pressure. Meanwhile, pulmonary flow fell significantly. Both the bradycardia and increase in systemic conductance were significantly attenuated by theophylline (4mgkg(-1)), demonstrating an involvement of P1 receptors. These results suggest adenosine is likely to play a significant role in reptile cardiovascular physiology. In turtles specifically, adenosinergic regulation may be particularly relevant during periods of apnoea.
    Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Part A, Molecular & integrative physiology 04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Winter acclimatization in small birds living in cold climates produces a winter phenotype characterized by upregulation of metabolic rates to meet enhanced thermoregulatory demands. We measured several key aspects of fuel storage, mobilization and transport in summer and winter to determine whether black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus), white-breasted nuthatches (Sitta carolinensis), and house sparrows (Passer domesticus) seasonally modulate these attributes to meet enhanced winter thermoregulatory demands. In addition, we exposed birds to thermoneutral (control) and severe cold exposure treatments to determine whether acute cold exposure influenced fuel storage, mobilization or transport. Carcass lipid mass and pectoralis intramuscular lipid did not vary significantly between seasons or temperature treatments for any of the study species. Muscle glycogen varied significantly seasonally only for chickadee supracoracoideus and leg muscles, and did not vary among warm or cold treatments for any species. Pectoralis fatty acid binding protein (FABPc) was significantly elevated in winter for chickadees and nuthatches, but not for sparrows. Plasma metabolites showed little consistent variation in response to season or acute cold exposure. Thus, fuel storage and mobilization do not appear to be major targets of adjustment associated with seasonal metabolic flexibility in these species, but modulation of intracellular lipid transport by FABPc may be an important contributor to seasonal phenotypes in some species of small birds.
    Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Part A, Molecular & integrative physiology 04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Heat shock proteins (HSP) are sensitive and readily produced under thermal stress in many fish species and thus serve as a useful stress bio-indicator. Two experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that King George whiting Sillaginodes punctata (KGW) approaching sexual maturity exhibit a decrease in HSP production and that exposure to high temperatures provokes HSP production in juvenile whiting. Both adult and juvenile whiting expressed significant increases in HSP69 in response to temperature shocks of 24, 26, 28 and 30 ºC. Juvenile whiting had significantly higher HSP69 than adults and expressed more HSP69 at 24 and 26 ºC. No mortalities were observed in juvenile fish at 30 ºC while 50% of adults suffered mortality at 30 ºC. Following exposure of juveniles to 24, 26 and 28 ºC, HSP69 was measured at 24, 96 and 168 h. HSP69 peaked at 96 h and returned to the 24 h level after 168 h exposure. This study indicates that juveniles can cope with high temperatures better than adults, which offers a partial explanation to fish movement patterns in nature where younger fish inhabit near shore waters and then migrate to deep water towards maturation. Further, this work implies that KGW growth and recruitment can be affected by increasing temperatures due to global warming.
    Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Part A, Molecular & integrative physiology 03/2014;