Ambulatory Pediatrics (Ambul Pediatr )

Publisher: Ambulatory Pediatric Association, Elsevier


Ambulatory Pediatrics, the official journal of the Ambulatory Pediatric Association, is a peer-reviewed publication whose purpose is to strengthen the research and educational base of academic general pediatrics. The content areas of the journal reflect the interests of Association members and other health professionals who care for children. These areas include such diverse topics as pediatric education, emergency medicine, injury, abuse, behavioral pediatrics, holistic medicine, child health services and health policy, and the environment. The journal's particular emphases include an active forum for the presentation of pediatric educational research in diverse settings, involving medical students, residents, fellows, and practicing professionals. The journal also emphasizes important research relating to the quality of child health care, health care policy, and the organization of child health services. Ambulatory Pediatrics provides a forum for careful systematic reviews of primary care interventions and for the presentation of important methodologic papers to aid research in child health and education. As the official journal of the Ambulatory Pediatric Association, Ambulatory Pediatrics publishes policy statements, communications from the Board of Directors, and notices of important Committee and Special Interest Group projects.

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    Ambulatory Pediatrics website
  • Other titles
    Ambulatory pediatrics (Online), Ambulatory pediatrics
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    Document, Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

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    • Pre-print can not be deposited for The Lancet
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    ‚Äč green

Publications in this journal

  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to 1) assess sociodemographic and health characteristics associated with having a continuous source of care (CSOC) among young children and 2) determine the relationship between having a CSOC and use of parenting practices. We conducted a prospective, community-based survey of women receiving prenatal care at Philadelphia community health centers. We conducted surveys at the first prenatal visit and at a mean age +/- standard deviation of 3 +/-1, 11 +/- 1, and 24 +/- 2 months postpartum, obtaining information on sociodemographic and health characteristics, child's health care provider, and 6 parenting practices. Group differences were tested between those with and without a CSOC by using the chi-square test for categorical variables and the Student's t test for continuous variables. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to adjust for potential confounding variables. Our sample consisted of 894 mostly young, African American, single women and their children. In the adjusted analysis, mothers of children with a CSOC, when compared with those without a CSOC, were more likely to have a high school education or less, be born in the United States, have a postpartum checkup, have stable child health insurance, and initiate care for their child at a site other than a community-based health center. Use of parenting practices was similar for children with and without a CSOC. Maternal nativity, postpartum care, child health insurance, and initial site of infant care were associated with CSOC, but infant health characteristics were not. Use of parenting practices did not differ for those with and without a CSOC.
    Ambulatory Pediatrics 01/2008; 8(1):36-42.
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    ABSTRACT: Overweight children are at increased risk for many medical problems. Trauma is the leading etiology of childhood morbidity and mortality. No previous study has evaluated the association between overweight and acute ankle injuries in children. We hypothesized that being overweight is associated with an increased risk of ankle injury in children. We conducted a case-control study in an urban pediatric emergency department. Subjects aged 5 to 19 years were recruited from June 2005 through July 2006. Children with acute ankle trauma were enrolled as cases. A convenience sample of children with a chief complaint of fever, headache, or sore throat was enrolled as controls. Demographic information and anthropometric measurements were obtained. Age- and gender-specific body mass index percentiles (BMI-Ps) were calculated using pediatric norms. Multivariate unconditional logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between overweight and ankle injury, adjusting for demographic variables. Through medical records, we obtained demographic information and weight, but not height, of all cases that were not enrolled. This allowed us to conduct a sensitivity analysis in which we combined the enrolled and nonenrolled cases into a single case group and made increasingly more unlikely assumptions about the height percentiles of the nonenrolled cases. One hundred eighty cases and 180 controls were enrolled in the study. We observed a significant association between overweight and ankle injury (multivariate-adjusted odds ratio 3.26, 95% confidence interval, 1.86-5.72; P value for trend <.0001). Although this result may be an overestimate of the magnitude of the association due to a possible bias in the selection of cases, sensitivity analysis demonstrated the robustness of the statistical significance of the finding. Overweight children may be at increased risk of ankle injury.
    Ambulatory Pediatrics 01/2008; 8(1):66-9.
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the parent and youth versions of the 17-item Pediatric Symptom Checklist (PSC-17) for identifying children with symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Cross-sectional convenience samples of children aged 8 to 10 years treated at a primary care pediatrics practice in New York City were recruited. The PSC-17 and its 5-item internalizing subscale were used in both parent- and youth-completed formats. Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms were identified with the University of California, Los Angeles posttraumatic stress reaction index (UCLA RI), used as a structured interview with the child. One hundred fifty-six children enrolled in the study. Twenty-two percent of children met the UCLA RI cutoff for likely PTSD. The youth version of the PSC-17 and its 5-item internalizing subscale identified these children with sensitivities of 78% and 75% and specificities of 77% and 77%, respectively, relative to the UCLA RI. The parent version of the PSC-17 and the internalizing subscale had poorer sensitivities of 44% and 25% and similar specificities of 79% and 92%, respectively. Symptoms of PTSD can be identified using the youth self-report version of the PSC-17. A 5-item subscale of the PSC-17 also performed well and can readily be used in primary care settings.
    Ambulatory Pediatrics 01/2008; 8(1):32-5.
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    ABSTRACT: Health insurance coverage is important to help assure children appropriate access to medical care and preventive services. Insurance gaps could be particularly problematic for children with asthma, since appropriate preventive care for these children depends on frequent, consistent contacts with health care providers. The aim of this study was to determine the association between insurance gaps and access to care among a nationally representative sample of children with asthma. The National Survey of Children's Health provided parent-report data for 8097 children with asthma. We identified children with continuous public or continuous private insurance and defined 3 groups with gaps in insurance coverage: those currently insured who had a lapse in coverage during the prior 12 months (gained insurance), those currently uninsured who had been insured at some time during the prior 12 months (lost insurance), and those with no health insurance at all during the prior 12 months (full-year uninsured). Thirteen percent of children had coverage gaps (7% gained insurance, 4% lost insurance, and 2% were full-year uninsured). Many children with gaps in coverage had unmet needs for care (7.4%, 12.8%, and 15.1% among the gained insurance, lost insurance, and full-year uninsured groups, respectively). In multivariate models, we found significant associations between insurance gaps and every indicator of poor access to care among this population. Many children with asthma have unmet health care needs and poor access to consistent primary care, and lack of continuous health insurance coverage may play an important role. Efforts are needed to ensure uninterrupted coverage for these children.
    Ambulatory Pediatrics 01/2008; 8(1):43-9.
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    Ambulatory Pediatrics 01/2008; 8(1):1-3.
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    ABSTRACT: Childhood psychosocial problems have profound effects on development, functioning, and long-term mental health. The pediatrician is often the only health professional who regularly comes in contact with young children, and it is recommended that health care supervision should include care of behavioral and emotional issues. However, it is unknown whether pediatricians believe they should be responsible for this aspect of care. Our objective was to report the proportion of physicians who agree that pediatricians should be responsible for identifying, treating/managing, and referring a range of behavioral issues in their practices, and to examine the personal physician and practice characteristics associated with agreeing that pediatricians should be responsible for treating/managing 7 behavioral issues. The 59th Periodic Survey of members of the American Academy of Pediatrics was sent to a random sample of 1600 members. The data that are presented are based on the responses of 659 members in current practice and no longer in training who completed the attitude questions. More than 80% of respondents agreed that pediatricians should be responsible for identification, especially for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), eating disorders, child depression, child substance abuse, and behavior problems. In contrast, only 59% agreed that pediatricians were responsible for identifying learning problems. Seventy percent thought that pediatricians should treat/manage ADHD; but for other conditions, most thought that their responsibility should be to refer. Few factors were consistently associated with higher odds of agreement that pediatricians should be responsible for treating/managing these problems, except for not spending their professional time exclusively in general pediatrics. These data suggest that pediatricians think that they should identify patients for mental health issues, but less than one-third agreed that it is their responsibility to treat/manage such problems, except for children with ADHD. Those not working exclusively in general pediatrics were more likely to agree that pediatricians should be responsible for treating and managing children's mental health problems.
    Ambulatory Pediatrics 01/2008; 8(1):11-7.
  • Ambulatory Pediatrics 01/2008; 8(1):8-10.
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    ABSTRACT: Homelessness and hunger are associated with poor health care access among children. Housing instability and food insecurity represent milder and more prevalent forms of homelessness and hunger. The aim of this study was to determine the association between housing instability and food insecurity with children's health care access and acute health care utilization. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 12,746 children from low-income households included in the 2002 National Survey of America's Families (NSAF). In multivariate models controlling for important covariates, we measured the association between housing instability and food insecurity with 3 health care access measures: 1) no usual source of care, 2) postponed medical care, and 3) postponed medications. We also measured 3 health care utilization measures: 1) not receiving the recommended number of well-child care visits, 2) increased emergency department visits, and 3) hospitalizations. Our analysis showed that 29.5% of low-income children lived in households with housing instability and 39.0% with food insecurity. In multivariate logistic regression models, housing instability was independently associated with postponed medical care, postponed medications, and increased emergency department visits. Food insecurity was independently associated with no usual source of care, postponed medical care, postponed medications, and not receiving the recommended well-child care visits. Families that experience housing instability and food insecurity, without necessarily experiencing homelessness or hunger, have compromised ability to receive adequate health care for their children. Policy makers should consider improving programs that decrease housing instability and food insecurity, and clinicians should consider screening for housing instability and food insecurity so as to provide comprehensive care.
    Ambulatory Pediatrics 01/2008; 8(1):50-7.
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that pediatric residents would display similar levels of asthma interpersonal and communication skills in announced versus unannounced adolescent standardized patient (SP) encounters. We conducted a prospective repeat measures experimental study at a pediatric residency program at an inner-city children's hospital. A cohort of residents (N = 18) was subjected at random to 3 SP exercises: announced and being directly observed by faculty, announced and not observed by faculty, and unannounced and unobserved. Six adolescent SPs were trained to complete checklists that included items like asthma daytime and nighttime symptoms, exercise-induced symptoms, triggers, and asthma education. For the unannounced exercises, SPs were inserted into residents' regularly scheduled clinics. Standardized patients rated residents immediately following each exercise. Residents were rated by faculty following the observed encounter. Faculty rating validated SP ratings on the observed encounter. Differences in proportions of categorical variables were tested by chi-square analyses. Fifty-four resident-SP encounters were analyzed. Residents consistently displayed significantly lower levels of desired behaviors in interpersonal and communication skills in the unannounced SP encounters on 10 of 14 checklist items. For example, residents asked about exercise-induced symptoms 90% of the time in announced/observed encounters versus 95% in announced/unobserved encounters versus 72% in unannounced/unobserved encounters (P = .001). There were no significant differences in residents' behaviors in the announced SP exercises (whether observed or unobserved). In this study, residents demonstrated lower levels of asthma communication skills during unannounced SP exercises. By using unannounced SPs, we were able to assess residents' interpersonal and communication skills in real clinical settings.
    Ambulatory Pediatrics 11/2007; 7(6):445-8.
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    ABSTRACT: Reflection enables learners to analyze their experiences and capture the wisdom that lies within. Effective teaching requires reliable methods of assessment. Several methods of assessing reflective writing have been described; however, they often require significant training, and reliability has seldom been assessed. This study was designed to determine the interrater reliability of a method of assessing reflective writing by using a modified Bloom's Taxonomy. Twenty-one third-year medical students maintained reflective journals throughout their pediatric clerkship. A coding schema based on Bloom's Taxonomy was developed to assess the level of cognitive processing evident in the journals. Journals were independently assessed by 3 raters. Percent agreement, kappa statistics, and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC [2,1]) were used to assess interrater reliability. Three hundred eight entries from 21 journals were assessed. Percent agreement ranged from 78.2% to 100%. Kappa statistic for each level ranged from 0.57 +/- 0.04 to 0.73 +/- 0.04, and for the highest level of processing evident it ranged from 0.52 +/- .04 to 0.58 +/- 0.04. ICC (2,1) for each level of cognitive processing ranged from 0.62 (F = 6.20; P = .000) to 1.00, and for the highest level of cognitive processing evident, it was 0.79 (F = 12.42; P = .000). Substantial to almost perfect agreement was attained. Reflective journals allow learners to revisit their experiences for critical analysis and deeper learning. This study describes a reliable method, based on Bloom's Taxonomy, of determining whether learners have achieved higher order thinking through reflective journal writing. This method can provide a baseline for facilitating higher order processing, critical thinking, and reflective practice.
    Ambulatory Pediatrics 07/2007; 7(4):285-91.
  • Ambulatory Pediatrics 03/2007; 7(2):201-2.
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the impact of New York's State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) on health care for children with special health care needs (CSHCN). Little is known about the impact of health insurance on CSHCN. Parents of a stratified random sample of new enrollees onto New York's SCHIP were interviewed by telephone at enrollment (n = 2644) and 1 year later (n = 2290, 87% response). At baseline, the cohort of CSHCN was defined by means of the standardized CSHCN screener instrument. The impact of SCHIP was assessed for CSHCN and for subgroups of CSHCN stratified by prior insurance (uninsured or insured) or type of chronic condition (physical or mental/behavioral). Access (having a usual source of care [USC], unmet medical needs); and quality (continuity of care at the USC, parent rating of quality of care or worry about child) were measured. Bivariate and multivariate analyses compared measures 1 year before SCHIP versus the year during SCHIP. A total of 398 (17%) of 2290 children had special health care needs identified at baseline. Enrollment onto SCHIP was generally associated with improved access: unmet needs for prescription medications declined 3-fold for all subgroups (eg, 36% to 9% among the previously uninsured) and unmet needs for specialty care declined >4-fold among CSHCN who were previously insured (48% to 10%) or had mental/behavioral conditions (32% to 2%; all P < .05). Enrollment was associated with improved continuity with the USC, parent-reported quality of care, and worry, irrespective of prior insurance or type of chronic condition (P < .05). Enrollment onto New York's SCHIP improved medical care for CSHCN.
    Ambulatory Pediatrics 01/2007; 7(1):10-7.
  • Article: 88 Bikes.
    Ambulatory Pediatrics 01/2007; 7(4):269-70.
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    ABSTRACT: To explore the relationship(s) between USMLE, In-Training Exam, and American Board of Pediatrics (ABP) board-certifying exam scores within a Pediatric residency-training program. Data were abstracted from records of graduating residents from the Pediatric residency program at the University of Florida College of Medicine Jacksonville from 1999 to 2005. Seventy (70) residents were identified and their files reviewed for the following information: USMLE Step 1 and 2 scores, in-training exam results and eventual board scores as reported by the ABP. Correlation and regression analyses were performed and compared across all tests. The correlation coefficients between the three types of tests were all statistically significant. Using logistic regression, however, only USMLE Step 1 scores (compared to Step 2) had a statistically significant association with board performance. Interestingly, none of the three in-training exam scores had any additional impact on predicting board performance given one's USMLE Step 1 score. USMLE Step 1 scores greater than 220 were associated with nearly a 95 per cent passage rate on the board-certifying exam. The data suggests that performance on USMLE Step 1 is an important predictor of a resident's chances of passing the pediatric boards. This information, which is available when a resident initiates training, can be used to identify those at risk of not passing the boards. While Step 1 scores should not be used as a sole determinant in the recruiting process, individual learning plans can be developed and implemented early in training to maximize one's ability to pass the certifying exam.
    Ambulatory Pediatrics 01/2007; 7(2):192-5.
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    ABSTRACT: Hospitalizations for ambulatory care-sensitive (ACS) conditions have been considered a marker for access to timely and effective primary care, but there are few pediatric studies. Our purpose was to examine socioeconomic disparities in ACS and non-ACS admissions among birth cohorts in a universal health insurance setting. We examined ACS and all hospitalizations of children born from 1993 to 2000 in Toronto, Canada, by birth year, calendar year, and socioeconomic status (SES). SES was evaluated by using quintiles of mean neighborhood income from the 1996 Canadian census. Cohort, age, and temporal effects were described for all admissions, ACS admissions, and specific ACS conditions. Attributable risk by SES was calculated by using rates for the highest and lowest SES quintiles. Among 255,284 children born in Toronto during 1993-2001, ACS conditions were responsible for 28% of hospitalizations during the first 2 years of life and close to half of admissions during the third year. Low income was associated with 50% higher rates of ACS hospitalizations (relative risk [RR] = 1.50, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.43-1.58), including asthma (RR = 1.69, 95% CI 1.54-1.86) and bacterial pneumonia (RR = 1.59, 95% CI 1.40-1.81), the leading causes of admission. Socioeconomic disparities in ACS and all admissions occurred in every cohort, every calendar year, and every age group. The relationship between socioeconomic disadvantage and both ACS and all-cause hospitalization in children was large, consistent across many conditions, remained stable over time, and persisted up to 9 years of age. These effects occurred in a universal health insurance setting without direct financial barriers to physician or hospital care. The effect of SES on hospitalizations in children in our setting appears to be mediated by factors other than financial access to care.
    Ambulatory Pediatrics 01/2007; 7(3):258-62.
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    ABSTRACT: To determine whether electronic media exposure is associated with decreased parental reading and teaching activities in the homes of preschool children. A convenience sample presenting for well-child care to an urban hospital pediatric clinic was enrolled. Inclusion criteria were: child's age 3 to 5 years and not yet in kindergarten. Electronic media exposure (TV, movies/video, computer/video games) was assessed with a 24-hour recall diary and characterized on the basis of industry ratings. Reading aloud and teaching activities were assessed with the StimQ-Preschool READ and PIDA (Parental Involvement in Developmental Advance) subscales, respectively. A total of 77 families were assessed. Children were exposed to a mean (SD) of 200.8 (128.9) minutes per day of media, including 78.2 (63.7) minutes of educational young child-oriented, 62.0 (65.6) minutes of noneducational young child-oriented, 14.8 (41.4) minutes of school age/teen-oriented, and 29.2 (56.6) minutes of adult-oriented media, as well as to 16.6 (47.5) minutes of media of unknown type. A total of 79.2% watched 2 or more hours per day. Noneducational young child-oriented exposure was associated with fewer reading (semipartial correlation coefficient [SR] = -0.24, P = .02) and teaching (SR = -0.27, P = .01) activities; similar relationships were not found for other media categories. Children exposed to 2 or more hours of total electronic media per day had 1.6 (95% confidence interval, 0.4-2.9) fewer days per week of reading than children exposed to less than 2 hours (SR = -0.27, P = .01). This study found an association between increased exposure to noneducational young child-oriented media and decreased teaching and reading activities in the home. This association represents a mechanism by which media exposure could adversely affect development.
    Ambulatory Pediatrics 01/2007; 7(1):18-24.
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    ABSTRACT: There has been limited study of the association between media exposure and behavior in children younger than age 3 years. We sought to study this association in toddlers and determine whether the association varied depending on media content. We carried out a secondary analysis of a cohort of Latino mother-infant dyads followed from birth to 33 months. We assessed media exposure at 21 and 33 months with a 24-hour recall diary that included information about the duration and content of each program watched. Behavior was assessed at 33 months by the Child Behavior Checklist. This analysis included 99 dyads. Results from multiple logistic regression analyses indicated associations of child behavior outcomes with 21-month total media exposure and both 21-month and 33-month exposure to noneducational young child media such as cartoons, after adjusting for maternal education, country of origin, and depressive symptoms, participation in a parenting program, and difficult child temperament. Media exposure has most consistent associations with aggressive behavior and externalizing problems. Media exposure was associated with externalizing behavior in Latino toddlers, with the strongest association for media oriented toward young children but without educational content. This finding has importance for both parents of young children and pediatricians as they provide anticipatory guidance.
    Ambulatory Pediatrics 01/2007; 7(3):232-8.

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