Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research (Alcohol Clin Exp Res )

Publisher: Research Society on Alcoholism (U.S.); National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence (U.S.); International Society for Biomedical Research on Alcoholism, Blackwell Publishing

Description

Founded by the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence, this journal gives readers direct access to the most significant and current findings on the nature and management of this serious health problem. Each month Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research brings health care professionals and researchers the latest clinical studies and research findings on alcoholism, alcohol-induced syndromes and organ damage. Pertinent current papers in the major categories of basic science, clinical research, and treatment methods are included in each issue.

Impact factor 3.31

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    Impact factor
  • 5-year impact
    3.62
  • Cited half-life
    8.20
  • Immediacy index
    0.64
  • Eigenfactor
    0.02
  • Article influence
    1.03
  • Website
    Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research website
  • Other titles
    Alcoholism (Baltimore, Md.: Online), Alcoholism, ACER
  • ISSN
    1530-0277
  • OCLC
    44003050
  • Material type
    Document, Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Blackwell Publishing

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    • 'Blackwell Publishing' is an imprint of 'Wiley'
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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Previous studies showed that poor sleep prospectively predicted alcohol-related problems and illicit drug use in adolescents and young adults (Wong and Brower, 2012; Wong et al., 2010). However, more work needs to be done to elucidate the nature of these problems. The purpose of this study was to examine whether sleep difficulties and hours of sleep prospectively predicted several serious substance-related problems, for example, binge drinking, driving under the influence of alcohol, and risky sexual behavior.Methods Study participants were 6,504 adolescents from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Data were collected from interviews and questionnaires. This study analyzed data from the first 3 waves of data (T1: 1994 to 1995; T2: 1996; T3: 2001 to 2002). In all analyses, we used sleep difficulties at a previous wave to predict substance-related problems at a subsequent wave, while controlling for substance-related problems at a previous wave.ResultsHolding T1 alcohol-related problems constant, sleep difficulties at T1 significantly predicted alcohol-related interpersonal problems, binge drinking, gotten drunk or very high on alcohol, driving under the influence of alcohol, getting into a sexual situation one later regretted due to drinking, ever using any illicit drugs, and drug-related problems at T2. T1 hours of sleep negatively predicted T2 alcohol-related interpersonal problems and binge drinking. The relationship between T2 sleep variables and T3 substance-related problems was consistent with previous waves, although the effect was weaker.Conclusions Sleep difficulties and hours of sleep are a significant predictor of a number of substance-related problems. It may be useful to educate adolescents about the importance of sleep, sleep hygiene, and the potential consequences of poor sleep on drinking and related behaviors.
    Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: Background Alcohol consumption is typically correlated with the alcohol use behaviors of one's peers. Previous research has suggested that this positive relationship could be due to social selection, social influence, or a combination of both processes. However, few studies have considered the role of shared genetic and environmental influences in conjunction with causal processes.Methods This study uses data from a sample of male twins (N = 1,790) who provided retrospective reports of their own alcohol consumption and their peers' alcohol-related behaviors, from adolescence into young adulthood (ages 12 to 25). Structural equation modeling was employed to compare 3 plausible models of genetic and environmental influences on the relationship between phenotypes over time.ResultsModel fitting indicated that one's own alcohol consumption and the alcohol use of one's peers are related through both genetic and shared environmental factors and through unique environmental causal influences. The relative magnitude of these factors, and their contribution to covariation, changed over time, with genetic factors becoming more meaningful later in development.Conclusions Peers' alcohol use behaviors and one's own alcohol consumption are related through a complex combination of genetic and environmental factors that act via correlated factors and the complementary causal mechanisms of social selection and influence. Understanding these processes can inform risk assessment as well as improve our ability to model the development of alcohol use.
    Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: Background The majority of Americans consume alcoholic beverages. Alcohol interacts negatively with numerous commonly prescribed medications. Yet, on a population level, little is known about use of alcohol-interactive (AI) prescription medications among drinkers. The purpose of our study was to determine the prevalence of AI prescription medication use among current drinkers in the U.S. population.Methods Data were from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999 to 2010); 26,657 adults aged ≥20 years had data on past year alcohol consumption and past month prescription medication use. Analyses were adjusted for covariates: age, race/ethnicity, education, marital status, and smoking. Statistical procedures accounted for survey stratification, clustering, and nonresponse. Analyses were weighted to be nationally representative.ResultsThe unadjusted total prevalence of AI medication use was 42.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] 41.5 to 44.0). Among current drinkers, adjusted prevalence was 41.5% (CI 40.3 to 42.7). Among participants aged ≥65 total prevalence of AI medication use was 78.6% (CI 77.3 to 79.9) and adjusted prevalence among current drinkers was 77.8% (CI 75.7 to 79.7). The AI medications most commonly used by current drinkers were cardiovascular agents, central nervous system agents, and metabolic agents.Conclusions Our results suggest that there could be substantial simultaneous exposure to alcohol and AI prescription medications in the U.S. population. Given the adverse health risks of combining alcohol with AI prescription medications, future efforts are needed to collect data to determine actual simultaneous prevalence.
    Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: Background Alcohol's effect on sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) power spectra during late adolescence is of interest given that this age group shows both dramatic increases in alcohol consumption and major sleep-related developmental changes in quantitative EEG measures. This study examined the effect of alcohol on sleep EEG power spectra in 18- to 21-year-old college students.Methods Participants were 24 (12 female) healthy 18- to 21-year-old social drinkers. Participants underwent 2 conditions: presleep alcohol and placebo, followed by standard polysomnography with comprehensive EEG recordings.ResultsAfter alcohol, mean breath alcohol concentration at lights-out was 0.084%. Interaction effects indicated simultaneous increases in frontal non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREM) delta (p = 0.031) and alpha (p = 0.005) power in the first sleep cycles following alcohol consumption which was most prominent at frontal scalp sites (p < 0.001). A decrease in sigma power (p = 0.001) was also observed after alcohol.Conclusions As hypothesized, alcohol increased slow wave sleep-related NREM delta power. However, there was a simultaneous increase in frontal alpha power. Results suggest that alcohol may exert an arousal influence which may compete with the sleep maintenance influence of increased delta activity. The phenomenon is similar to, or the same as, alpha-delta sleep which has been associated with the presence of disruptive stimuli during sleep. This may have negative implications for the impact of presleep alcohol consumption on sleep and consequent daytime functioning.
    Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: Rationale: Positively reinforcing properties of alcohol are in part mediated by activation of the ventral striatum (VS). Alcohol-induced release of endogenous opioids is thought to contribute to this response. Preclinical studies show that the opioid antagonist naltrexone (NTX) can block this cascade, but its ability to do so in treatment seeking alcoholics has not been examined. Objectives: To study the effects of NTX on alcohol-induced VS activation and on amygdala response to affective stimuli in treatment seeking alcohol dependent inpatients. Methods: Sixty-three treatment seeking alcoholics were randomized to receive NTX (50 mg) or placebo (PLC) daily. On day 7, participants underwent an alcohol cue reactivity session, and craving was measured using the Penn Alcohol Craving Scale. On day 9, participants received a saline infusion followed by an alcohol infusion and also viewed affective stimuli in an MR scanner. Results: Irrespective of medication treatment condition, the alcohol infusion did not activate the VS in the alcohol dependent patients. Unexpectedly, VS activation was greater in NTX treated patients than in the PLC group. NTX treated patients also reported increased craving in response to alcohol cue exposure, and increased subjective response to alcohol (‘high’ and ‘intoxicated’) compared to PLC subjects. No significant effects of alcohol infusion on brain response to affective stimuli were in the NTX or placebo groups. Conclusions: Unlike previous findings in social drinkers, a moderate level of intoxication did not activate the VS in treatment seeking alcoholics. This is likely to reflect tolerance to the positively reinforcing properties of alcohol in this clinical population. Our findings may help explain the efficacy of NTX to reduce heavy drinking, but not to maintain abstinence.
    Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: Background Despite evidence that prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) can lead to a wide range of impairments in cognitive, social, and emotional behaviors, drinking during pregnancy remains common. Although there is a general understanding that high levels of drinking during pregnancy are unsafe, conflicting evidence regarding the impact of low intake may account for the persistence of this behavior.Methods To investigate the effects of PAE on learning and executive control, we utilized a voluntary paradigm where pregnant mice had access to a saccharin-sweetened 10% alcohol solution for 4 hours, during the dark cycle, throughout gestation. Male and female offspring were tested as adults on a touch-screen discrimination and reversal task mediated by corticostriatal circuits.ResultsConsistent with previous findings, PAE did not lead to gross morphological, motor, or sensory alterations in offspring. Both PAE and saccharin control female mice were slower to acquire the discrimination than males, but PAE did not impair associative learning in either sex. During reversal, PAE led to a specific and significant impairment in the early phase, where cortical control is most required to flexibly alter choice behavior. PAE mice showed a significant increase in maladaptive perseverative responses but showed intact learning of the new association during late reversal.Conclusions Previously, data from clinical studies have suggested that executive control deficits may underlie cognitive, as well as social, problems seen in adolescents with documented PAE. These data demonstrate that even more moderate alcohol exposure during development can lead to impaired cognitive functioning well into adulthood.
    Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research 12/2014; 38(12).
  • Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research 12/2014; 38(12).
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    ABSTRACT: Data from C57BL/6J (B6) × DBA/2J (D2) F2 intercrosses (B6xD2 F2 ), standard and recombinant inbred strains, and heterogeneous stock mice indicate that a reciprocal (or inverse) genetic relationship exists between alcohol consumption and withdrawal severity. Furthermore, some genetic studies have detected reciprocal quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for these traits. We used a novel mouse model developed by simultaneous selection for both high alcohol consumption/low withdrawal and low alcohol consumption/high withdrawal and analyzed the gene expression and genome-wide genotypic differences. Randomly chosen third selected generation (S3 ) mice (N = 24/sex/line), bred from a B6xD2 F2 , were genotyped using the Mouse Universal Genotyping Array, which provided 2,760 informative markers. QTL analysis used a marker-by-marker strategy with the threshold for a significant log of the odds (LOD) set at 10. Gene expression in the ventral striatum was measured using the Illumina Mouse 8.2 array. Differential gene expression and the weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) were implemented. Significant QTLs for consumption/withdrawal were detected on chromosomes (Chr) 2, 4, 9, and 12. A suggestive QTL mapped to Chr 6. Some of the QTLs overlapped with known QTLs mapped for 1 of the traits individually. One thousand seven hundred and forty-five transcripts were detected as being differentially expressed between the lines; there was some overlap with known withdrawal genes (e.g., Mpdz) located within QTL regions. WGCNA revealed several modules of co-expressed genes showing significant effects in both differential expression and intramodular connectivity; a module richly annotated with kinase-related annotations was most affected. Marked effects of selection on expression and network structure were detected. QTLs overlapping with differentially expressed genes on Chr 2 (distal) and 4 suggest that these are cis-eQTLs (Chr 2: Kif3b, Kcnq2; Chr 4: Mpdz, Snapc3). Other QTLs identified were on Chr 2 (proximal), 9, and 12. Network results point to involvement of kinase-related mechanisms and outline the need for further efforts such as interrogation of noncoding RNAs. Copyright © 2015 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
    Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research 12/2014; 38(12):2915-24.
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    ABSTRACT: Background High levels of alcohol consumption during pregnancy are teratogenic to fetal development, yet less is known about the effects of low levels of consumption. Only a few studies have reported on the predictors and maternal characteristics associated with different alcohol consumption patterns prior to and following pregnancy recognition.Methods The All Our Babies longitudinal study in Alberta, Canada was used to analyze the association of maternal characteristics with binge drinking prior to pregnancy recognition and low to moderate levels after pregnancy recognition among 2,246 women who consumed alcohol 1 year prior to pregnancy. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were conducted.ResultsThirteen percent of women reported binge drinking prior to pregnancy recognition. Forty-six percent reported drinking after pregnancy recognition, almost all at low to moderate levels. Significant, independent predictors (odds ratio, 95% confidence interval) of binge drinking in early pregnancy included high school or less education (3.61, 1.81 to 7.19), some or completed university/college (2.23, 1.16 to 4.27), nulliparity (1.62, 1.19, 2.20), not trying to get pregnant (1.92, 1.37 to 2.69), smoked in the year prior to pregnancy (1.98, 1.43 to 2.73), binge drinking in the year prior to pregnancy (10.83, 6.71 to 17.46), and low dispositional optimism (1.73, 1.23 to 2.42). Independent predictors of low to moderate average levels of consumption after pregnancy recognition included not trying to get pregnant (1.91, 1.45 to 2.52), prepregnancy body mass index <25.0 kg/m2 (1.41, 1.61 to 1.72), smoking in the year before pregnancy (1.90, 1.43 to 2.53), and binge drinking in the year before pregnancy (2.62, 2.16 to 3.18).Conclusions Common risk factors for different alcohol consumption patterns are unintended pregnancy and substance use behaviors prior to pregnancy. Other risk factors were specific to the different patterns. Targeted strategies that address the needs of alcohol or nicotine using women and that can reduce the risk of unintended pregnancy may be beneficial.
    Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research 12/2014; 38(12).
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    ABSTRACT: Prenatal exposures to alcohol, cigarettes, and other drugs of abuse are associated with numerous adverse consequences for affected offspring, including increased risk for substance use and abuse. However, maternal substance use during pregnancy appears to occur more often in those with a family history of alcohol dependence. Utilizing a sample that is enriched for familial alcohol dependence and includes controls selected for virtual absence of familial alcohol dependence could provide important information on the relative contribution of familial risk and prenatal exposures to offspring substance use. A sample of multigenerational families specifically ascertained to be at either high or low risk for developing alcohol dependence (AD) provided biological offspring for a longitudinal prospective study. High-risk families were selected based on the presence of 2 alcohol-dependent sisters. Low-risk families were selected on the basis of minimal first and second-degree relatives with AD. High-risk (HR = 99) and Low-risk offspring (LR = 110) were assessed annually during childhood and biennially in young adulthood regarding their alcohol, drug, and cigarette use. At the first childhood visit, mothers were interviewed concerning their prenatal use of substances. High-risk mothers were more likely to use alcohol, cigarettes, and other drugs during pregnancy than low-risk control mothers, and to consume these substances in greater quantities. Across the sample, prenatal exposure to alcohol was associated with increased risk for both offspring cigarette use and substance use disorders (SUD), and prenatal cigarette exposure was associated with increased risk for offspring cigarette use. Controlling for risk status by examining patterns within the HR sample, prenatal cigarette exposure remained a specific predictor of offspring cigarette use, and prenatal alcohol exposure was specifically associated with increased risk for offspring SUD. Women with a family history of SUD are at increased risk for substance use during pregnancy. Both familial loading for alcohol dependence and prenatal exposure to alcohol or cigarettes are important risk factors in the development of offspring substance use. An inadequate assessment of family history may obscure important interactions between familial risk and prenatal exposures on offspring outcomes. Copyright © 2015 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
    Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research 12/2014; 38(12):2952-61.
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    ABSTRACT: Background Chronic ethanol (EtOH) administration to experimental animals induces hepatic oxidative stress and up-regulates mitochondrial biogenesis. The mechanisms by which chronic EtOH up-regulates mitochondrial biogenesis have not been fully explored. In this work, we hypothesized that oxidative stress is a factor that triggers mitochondrial biogenesis after chronic EtOH feeding. If our hypothesis is correct, co-administration of antioxidants should prevent up-regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis genes.Methods Rats were fed an EtOH-containing diet intragastrically by total enteral nutrition for 150 days, in the absence or presence of the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) at 1.7 g/kg/d; control rats were administered isocaloric diets where carbohydrates substituted for EtOH calories.ResultsEtOH administration significantly increased hepatic oxidative stress, evidenced as decreased liver total glutathione and reduced glutathione/glutathione disulfide ratio. These effects were inhibited by co-administration of EtOH and NAC. Chronic EtOH increased the expression of mitochondrial biogenesis genes including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma-coactivator-1 alpha and mitochondrial transcription factor A, and mitochondrial DNA; co-administration of EtOH and NAC prevented these effects. Chronic EtOH administration was associated with decreased mitochondrial mass, inactivation and depletion of mitochondrial complex I and complex IV, and increased hepatic mitochondrial oxidative damage, effects that were not prevented by NAC.Conclusions These results suggest that oxidative stress caused by chronic EtOH triggered the up-regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis genes in rat liver, because an antioxidant such as NAC prevented both effects. Because NAC did not prevent liver mitochondrial oxidative damage, extra-mitochondrial effects of reactive oxygen species may regulate mitochondrial biogenesis. In spite of the induction of hepatic mitochondrial biogenesis genes by chronic EtOH, mitochondrial mass and function decreased probably in association with mitochondrial oxidative damage. These results also predict that the effectiveness of NAC as an antioxidant therapy for chronic alcoholism will be limited by its limited antioxidant effects in mitochondria, and its inhibitory effect on mitochondrial biogenesis.
    Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research 12/2014; 38(12).
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    ABSTRACT: Background We examined whether the effects of topiramate and a single nucleotide polymorphism (rs2832407) in GRIK1, which encodes a kainate receptor subunit, persisted following a 12-week, placebo-controlled trial in 138 heavy drinkers with a treatment goal of reduced drinking. During treatment, topiramate 200 mg/d significantly reduced heavy drinking days and increased the frequency of abstinent days (Am J Psychiatry, 2014, 171:445). In the European-American (EA) subsample (n = 122), rs2832407 moderated the treatment effect on heavy drinking.Methods Patients were re-interviewed 3 and 6 months after the end of treatment. During treatment, we obtained 92.4% of drinking data, with 89.1 and 85.5% complete data at the 3- and 6-month follow-up visits, respectively. We examined 4 outcomes over time in the overall sample and the EA subsample: percent heavy drinking days (PHDD), percent days abstinent (PDA), serum γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGTP) concentration, and a measure of alcohol-related problems.ResultsIn the full sample, the lower PHDD and higher PDA seen with topiramate treatment were no longer significant during follow-up. Nonetheless, the topiramate-treated patients had lower alcohol-related problem scores during treatment and both follow-up periods. Further, in the EA subsample, the greater reduction in PHDD seen with topiramate treatment in rs2832407*C-allele homozygotes persisted throughout follow-up, with no significant effects in A-allele carriers. A reduction in GGTP concentration was consistent with the reduction in heavy drinking, but did not reach statistical significance.Conclusions There are persistent therapeutic effects of topiramate in heavy drinkers, principally in rs2832407*C-allele homozygotes.
    Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research 12/2014; 38(12).
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    ABSTRACT: Background Heavy drinking poses significant risks to the health and survival of individuals infected with HIV, particularly those coinfected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). However, little is known about patients’ perceptions of these risks, and whether these perceptions relate to their alcohol consumption.MethodsA sample of 254 heavily drinking HIV primary care patients (78% male; 94.5% minority; 31.8% with HCV) reported on their perceptions of the medical risks of drinking and on their alcohol consumption prior to participation in a drinking-reduction intervention trial.ResultsIn the HIV-infected sample as a whole, 62.9% reported that they had a medical problem made worse by drinking, and 64.3% reported restricting drinking to avoid future medical problems. Although patients coinfected with HIV/HCV reported greater efforts to restrict drinking to avoid future medical problems (adjusted odds ratio = 1.94), their reported drinking quantity and frequency did not differ from that of HIV mono-infected patients. Awareness of medical risk was not associated with drinking level. Effort to restrict drinking to avoid medical risk was associated with lower drinking quantity, frequency, and binge frequency (ps < 0.05), but the association with binge frequency was specific to patients without HCV.Conclusions Over one-third of HIV patients are unaware of the medical risks of drinking, and do not restrict use, suggesting the need for intervention in this group. Patients coinfected with HIV/HCV may report more effort to restrict drinking, but their reported drinking quantity and frequency suggest that they are actually drinking just as heavily as HIV mono-infected patients. Awareness of medical risk was unrelated to drinking, which suggests the need for interventions consisting of more than simple education. However, reported effort to restrict drinking did predict less drinking, suggesting the importance of patient commitment and initiative in change.
    Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research 12/2014; 38(12).
  • Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research 12/2014; 38(12).
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    ABSTRACT: We examined the effects of moderate prenatal alcohol exposure and/or prenatal stress exposure on (D1 R) binding in a non human primate model. The dopamine D1 R is involved in executive function, and it may play a role in cognitive behavioral deficits associated with prenatal alcohol and/or stress exposure. Little is known, however, about the effects of prenatal alcohol and/or stress exposure on the D1 R. We expected that prenatal insults would lead to alterations in D1 R binding in prefrontal cortex (PFC) and striatum in adulthood. Rhesus macaque females were randomly assigned to moderate alcohol exposure and/or mild prenatal stress as well as a control condition during pregnancy. Thirty-eight offspring were raised identically and studied as adults by noninvasive in vivo neuroimaging using positron emission tomography with the D1 antagonist radiotracer [(11) C]SCH 23390. Radiotracer binding in PFC and striatum was evaluated by 2 (alcohol) × 2 (stress) × 2 (sex) analysis of variance. In PFC, a significant alcohol × sex interaction was observed with prenatal alcohol exposure leading to increased [(11) C]SCH 23390 binding in male monkeys. No main effect of prenatal alcohol or prenatal stress exposure was observed. These results suggest that prenatal alcohol exposure results in long-term increases in prefrontal dopamine D1 R binding in males. This may help explain gender differences in the prevalence of neurodevelopmental disorders consequent to prenatal alcohol exposure. Copyright © 2015 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
    Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research 12/2014; 38(12):2934-43.
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    ABSTRACT: Background Lower-income populations are exposed to excess risks related to the presence of greater concentrations of alcohol outlets in their communities. Theory from economic geography suggests this is due to dynamic processes that shape urban retail markets (as outlets are attracted to areas of higher population density due to the increased demand but are excluded from higher-income areas due to land and structure rents). This mechanism may explain increased exposure to alcohol outlets for lower-income populations in rural areas. This study tests the hypothesis that the distribution of outlets between rural towns will reflect these market dynamics, such that outlets are concentrated in towns with (i) greater resident and temporary populations, (ii) with lower income, and (iii) which are adjacent to towns with higher income.Method Bayesian conditional autoregressive Poisson models examined counts of bars, restaurants, and off-premise outlets within 353 discrete towns of rural Victoria, Australia (mean population = 4,236.0, SD = 15,754.1). Independent variables were each town's total resident population, net changes to population (due to commuter flow, visitors, and the flow of local residents to other towns [spatial interaction]), and income for the local and adjacent towns.ResultsLower local income and increased income in adjacent towns were associated with more outlets of all types. Greater resident populations and greater net population due to commuters also predicted greater numbers of all outlets. Bars and restaurants were positively related to greater net population due to visitors and negatively related to spatial interaction.Conclusions The economic geographic processes that lead to greater concentrations of alcohol outlets in lower-income areas are common to all retail markets. Lower-income populations are exposed to increased risk associated with the presence of additional outlets that service demand from nonresidents. In rural areas, these processes appear to operate between discrete towns.
    Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research 12/2014;
  • Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research 12/2014; 38(12).
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    ABSTRACT: Background Alcohol-related blackouts (ARBs) are reported by ~50% of drinkers. While much is known about the prevalence of ARBs in young adults and their cross-sectional correlates, there are few prospective studies regarding their trajectories over time during mid-adolescence. This paper reports latent trajectory classes of ARBs between age 15 and 19, along with predictors of those patterns.Methods Latent class growth analysis (LCGA) was used to evaluate the pattern of occurrence of ARBs across 4 time points for 1,402 drinking adolescents from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Multinomial regression analyses evaluated age-15 demography, substance-related items, externalizing characteristics, and estimated peer substance use as predictors of latent class membership.ResultsARBs were reported at age 15 in 30% and at age 19 in 74% of these subjects. Four latent trajectory classes were identified: Class 1 (5.1%) reported no blackouts; for Class 2 (29.5%), ARBs rapidly increased with age; for Class 3 (44.9%), blackouts slowly increased; and for Class 4 (20.5%), ARBs were consistently reported. Using Class 2 (rapid increasers) as the reference, predictors of class membership included female sex, higher drinking quantities, smoking, externalizing characteristics, and estimated peer substance involvement (pseudo R2 = 0.22).ConclusionsARBs were common and repetitive in these young subjects, and predictors of their trajectories over time involved multiple domains representing diverse characteristics.
    Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research 12/2014;