The Journal of trauma (J Trauma Inj Infect Crit Care )

Publisher: American Association for the Surgery of Trauma; Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma; Trauma Association of Canada; Western Trauma Association

Description

The Journal of Trauma® Injury, Infection, and Critical Care provides a specific focus on traumatic injury, as well as a wide range of subjects within this general field. Emphasizing clinical applications, techniques, and new developments in trauma care, each issue presents practical information of immediate use to the physician caring for critically injured patients.

  • Impact factor
    2.35
  • 5-year impact
    2.94
  • Cited half-life
    8.50
  • Immediacy index
    0.37
  • Eigenfactor
    0.04
  • Article influence
    0.88
  • Website
    Journal of Trauma, Injury, Infection, and Critical Care, The website
  • Other titles
    Journal of trauma (Online), The journal of trauma, Journal of trauma: injury infection, and critical care
  • ISSN
    1529-8809
  • OCLC
    44001014
  • Material type
    Document, Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publications in this journal

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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Damage control (DC) has improved survival from severe abdominal and extremity injuries. The data on the surgical strategies and outcomes in patients managed with DC for severe thoracic injuries are scarce. METHODS: This is a retrospective review of patients treated with DC for thoracic/pulmonary complex trauma at two Level I trauma centers from 2006 to 2010. Subjects 14 years and older were included. Demographics, trauma characteristics, surgical techniques, and resuscitation strategies were reviewed. RESULTS: A total of 840 trauma thoracotomies were performed. DC thoracotomy (DCT) was performed in 31 patients (3.7%). Pulmonary trauma was found in 25 of them. The median age was 28 years (interquartile range [IQR], 20Y34 years), Revised Trauma Score (RTS) was 7.11 (IQR, 5.44Y7.55), and Injury Severity Score (ISS) was 26 (IQR, 25Y41). Nineteen patients had gunshot wounds, four had stab wounds, and two had blunt trauma. Pulmonary trauma was managed by pneumorrhaphy in 3, tractotomy in 12, wedge resection in 1, and packing as primary treatment in 8 patients. Clamping of the pulmonary hilum was used as a last resource in seven patients. Five patients returned to the intensive care unit with the pulmonary hilum occluded by a vascular clamp or an en masse ligature. These patients underwent a deferred resection within 16 hours to 90 hours after the initial DCT. Four of them survived. Bleeding from other intrathoracic sources was found in 20 patients: major vessels in nine, heart in three, and thoracic wall in nine. DCT mortality in pulmonary trauma was 6 (24%) of 25 because of coagulopathy, or persistent bleeding in 5 patients and multiorgan failure in 1 patient. CONCLUSION: This series describes our experience with DCT in severe lung trauma. We describe pulmonary hilum clamping and deferred lung resection as a viable surgical alternative for major pulmonary injuries and the use of packing as a definitive method for hemorrhage control. (J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2015;78: 45Y51. Copyright * 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.) LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:Epidemiologic study, level V. KEY WORDS: Thoracic injuries; lung injury; penetrating; damage control; deferred pneumonectomy.
    The Journal of trauma 01/2015; 78(1):45.
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    ABSTRACT: Weaning from mechanical ventilation; trauma; pulmonary contusion
    The Journal of trauma 01/2014; 76(1):249.
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Crush syndrome (CS) is characterized by ischemia/reperfusion-induced rhabdomyolysis and the subsequent onset of systemic inflammation. CS is associated with a high mortality, even when patients are treated with conventional therapy. We hypothesized that treatment of lethal CS rat model with dexamethasone (DEX) have therapeutic effects on the laboratory findings and clinical course and outcome. METHODS: To create a CS model, anesthetized rats were subjected to bilateral hind limb compression with rubber tourniquets for 5 hours and randomly divided into three groups as follows: saline-treated CS group, CS groups treated with low (0.1 mg/kg) and high doses (5.0 mg/kg) of DEX. Saline for the CS group or DEX for the DEX-treated CS groups was intravenously administered immediately before reperfusion. Under continuous monitoring and recording of arterial blood pressures, blood and tissue samples were collected for histologic and biochemical analysis at designated period before and after reperfusion. RESULTS: Ischemic compression of rat hind limbs reduced the nitrite content in the crushed muscle, and the subsequent reperfusion induced reactive oxygen species-mediated circulatory collapse and systemic inflammation, finally resulting in a mortality rate of 76% by 48 hours after reperfusion. A single injection of high-dose DEX immediately before reperfusion activated endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) by sequential phosphorylation through the nongenomic phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt-eNOS signaling pathway. DEX also exhibited anti-inflammatory effects by modulating proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory mediators, consequently suppressing myeloperoxidase activities and subsequent systemic inflammation, showing a complete recovery of the rats from lethal CS. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that high-dose DEX reduces systemic inflammation and contributes to the improved survival rate in a rat CS model.
    The Journal of trauma 05/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Proximal traumatic lower-extremity amputation has become the signature injury of the war in Afghanistan. Casualties present in extremis and often require immediate operative control of arterial inflow to prevent exsanguination. This study evaluated the use of this strategy and its complications. METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of case notes of UK service personnel, identified from the UK Joint Theatre Trauma Registry, who sustained traumatic lower-extremity amputation requiring suprainguinal vascular control, following improvised explosive device injury in Afghanistan, between July 2008 and December 2010. RESULTS: Fifty-one casualties were identified with a median Injury Severity Score (ISS) of 30. In 10 casualties, control was obtained via an extraperitoneal approach, and in 41, control was obtained via midline laparotomy and intraperitoneal (IP) approach. The most commonly controlled vessel in extraperitoneal control was the external iliac artery, and in IP control, the common iliac artery. Within the 41 patients who had IP control, 13 also required a therapeutic laparotomy, and 9 patients had bilateral injuries at the level of the proximal femur or higher. One patient, who had undergone IP control, experienced an injury to the common iliac vein, which was repaired. There were no other immediate complications recorded, and 39 casualties survived to discharge. CONCLUSION: This is the first study to characterize the methods of proximal control in high wartime lower-extremity amputees. Although some casualties will have abdominal injuries that necessitate laparotomy, the majority in our study did not; however, in the critically ill casualty, rapid proximal control is required. Novel methods of temporary hemorrhage control may reduce the need for, and burden of, cavity surgery.
    The Journal of trauma 01/2013; 75((2 Suppl 2)):S233-7.
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Hemorrhage following traumatic injury is a leading cause of military and civilian mortality. Noncompressible torso hemorrhage (NCTH) has been identified as particularly lethal, especially in the prehospital setting. METHODS: All patients sustaining NCTH between August 2002 and July 2012 were identified from the UK Joint Theatre Trauma Registry. NCTH was defined as injury to a named torso axial vessel, pulmonary injury, solid-organ injury (Grade 4 or greater injury to the liver, kidney, or spleen) or pelvic fracture with ring disruption. Patients with ongoing hemorrhage were identified using either a systolic blood pressure of less than 90 mm Hg or the need for immediate surgical hemorrhage control. Data on injury pattern and location as well as cause of death were analyzed using univariate and multivariate analyses. RESULTS: During 10 years, 296 patients were identified with NCTH, with a mortality of 85.5%. The majority of deaths occurred before hospital admission (n = 222, 75.0%). Of patients admitted to hospital, survivors (n = 43, 14.5%) had a higher median systolic blood pressure (108 [43] vs. 89 [46], p = 0.123) and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) (14 [12] vs. 3 [0], p < 0.001) compared with in-hospital deaths (n = 31, 10.5%). Hemorrhage was the more common cause of death (60.1%), followed by central nervous system disruption (30.8%), total body disruption (5.1%), and multiple-organ failure (4.0%). On multivariate analysis, major arterial and pulmonary hilar injury are most lethal with odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of 16.44 (5.50-49.11) and 9.61 (1.06-87.00), respectively. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that the majority of patients sustaining NCTH die before hospital admission, with exsanguination and central nervous system disruption contributing to the bulk cause of death. Major arterial and pulmonary hilar injuries are independent predictors of mortality.
    The Journal of trauma 01/2013; 75((2 Suppl 2)):S263-8.
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    ABSTRACT: Unintentional injuries are one of the leading causes of death in the United States. Many of these injuries are preventable, and unintentional firearm injuries, in particular, may be responsive to prevention efforts. We investigated the relationship between unintentional firearm death and urbanicity among adults. This study was a retrospective analysis of national death certificate data. Unintentional adult firearm deaths in the United States from 1999 to 2006 were identified using the Multiple Cause of Death Data files from the National Center for Health Statistics. Decedents were assigned to a county of death and classified along an urban-rural continuum defined by population density and proximity to metropolitan areas. Total unintentional firearm death rates by county were analyzed in adjusted analyses using negative binomial regression. A total of 4,595 unintentional firearm injury deaths of adults occurred in the United States during the study period (a mean of 574.4 per year). Adjusted rates of unintentional firearm death showed increases from urban to rural counties. Americans in the most rural counties were significantly more likely to die of unintentional firearm deaths than those in the most urban counties (relative rate, 2.16; 95% confidence interval, 1.44-3.21, p = 0.002). Rates of unintentional firearm death are significantly higher in rural counties than in urban counties. Prevention strategies should be tailored to account for both geographic location and manner of firearm injury. Epidemiologic study, level III.
    The Journal of trauma 09/2012; 73(4):1006-10.
  • The Journal of trauma 01/2012; 72(1):316-317.
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    ABSTRACT: An increasing number of minimal aortic injuries (MAIs) are being identified with modern computed tomography (CT) imaging techniques. The optimal management and natural history of these injuries are unknown. We have adopted a policy of selective multidisciplinary nonoperative management of MAI. This study examines our experience with these patients from July 2004 to June 2009. Retrospective chart review of all blunt trauma patients who underwent chest CT angiography to evaluate for blunt aortic injury (BAI) was undertaken. All patients deemed to have a MAI were managed nonoperatively, and those with a severe aortic injury underwent repair. Data collected included age, mechanism of injury, Injury Severity Score, type and location of aortic injury, intensive care unit length of stay (LOS), overall LOS, ventilator days, disposition, and mortality. In addition, all BAIs were graded according to the Presley Trauma Center CT Grading System of Aortic Injury. Forty-seven patients with BAI were identified. Thirty-two were classified as severe injuries, and 15 were considered MAI (32%). Nineteen underwent operative repair, 13 underwent endovascular stent graft repair, and 15 were managed nonoperatively. The average Injury Severity Score was 31 ± 10, and the average age was 44 ± 20 with no significant difference across treatment groups. There was no difference in overall or intensive care unit LOS. The nonoperative group had a shorter duration of ventilator days (1.1 vs. 4.28, p = 0.02). There were five deaths, none in the nonoperative group. None of these patients required subsequent intervention. All nonoperative patients had follow-up imaging at median of 4 days; on CT chest angiography, five injuries had resolved, eight had stable intimal flaps or pseudoaneurysm, and two had no detectable injury on subsequent aortogram. Almost one-third of our BAI were safely managed nonoperatively. Patients with MAI should be considered for selective nonoperative management in a multidisciplinary approach with close radiographic follow-up. We recommend that patients with MAIs should be considered for selective nonoperative management.
    The Journal of trauma 12/2011; 71(6):1519-23.
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    ABSTRACT: Trauma centers are more frequently evaluating patients who are receiving anticoagulant or prescription antiplatelet (ACAP) therapy at the time of injury. Because there are reports of delayed intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) after blunt trauma in this patient group, we evaluated patients receiving ACAP with a head computed tomography (CT) on admission (CT1) followed by a routine repeat head CT (CT2) in 6 hours. We hypothesized that among patients with no traumatic findings on CT1 and a normal or unchanged interval neurologic examination, the incidence of clinically significant delayed ICH would be zero. We retrospectively reviewed adult blunt trauma patients admitted to our Level I trauma center from January 2006 to August 2009 who were receiving preinjury ACAP therapy. We reviewed medications, mechanism of injury, head CT results, and outcomes. Demographic data, injury severity scores, international normalized ratio, and neurologic examinations were recorded. We determined the incidence of delayed ICH on CT2 for patients with a negative CT1. Five hundred patients qualified for the protocol. Of these, 424 patients (85%) had a negative CT1. Among these patients, mean age was 75 years; 210 (50%) were male. Fall from standing was the most common mechanism of injury found in 357 patients (84%). Warfarin alone was taken in 68%, clopidogrel alone in 24%, and other agents in 2%. Six percent of patients were taking two agents. Mean international normalized ratio for patients on warfarin was 2.5. Among patients with a negative CT1, CT2 was obtained in 362 patients (85%) and was negative in 358 patients (99%). Four patients (1%) with a negative CT1 had a positive (n = 3) or equivocal (n = 1) CT2. All the changes on CT2 were minor and had either resolved or stabilized on third head CT. Of the four patients with positive or equivocal CT2, none had a change in neurologic examination; however, two had symptoms that could be attributed to head injury. Three were discharged home and one died of cardiac disease unrelated to head trauma. The incidence of delayed ICH in our study was 1%. However, none of the delayed findings were clinically significant. Among patients on ACAP therapy with a negative CT1 and a normal or unchanged neurologic examination, a routine CT2 is unnecessary. We recommend a period of observation to recognize those patients with symptoms that could be due to delayed ICH.
    The Journal of trauma 12/2011; 71(6):1600-4.
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    ABSTRACT: Topical hemostatic agents have generated intense research interest in recent years, prompted in part by the demands of wartime medicine. Numerous animal studies demonstrate variable degrees of efficacy of a variety of agents; however, little clinical data are available in severely traumatized patients. This report describes 30 consecutive uses of the modified rapid deployment hemostat (MRDH) during combat operations in Operation Iraqi Freedom. In a prospective observational fashion, traumatized patients presenting to a combat support hospital or a forward surgical team with difficult to control hemorrhage (due to anatomy, limited resources, or tactical environment) had the MRDH applied to severely bleeding wounds. Basic demographics, wounding mechanism, wound characteristics, circumstances, and efficacy were recorded. Presence of a clinical coagulopathy was also noted. Thirty hemostatic bandages were applied to 19 patients with a wide variety of wounds. All but one application occurred in the operating room. The demographics were mean age 27 years (range, 9-55 years), 95% male, 68% penetrating or fragmentation, and four casualties had a clinical coagulopathy. Hemostasis was achieved following application of the hemostatic agent in 16 of 19 wounds. Rebleeding occurred upon removal in three cases. In all cases, the patient failed conventional interventions at hemostasis before the hemostat was applied. This is the single largest description of the clinical efficacy of the MRDH and the first description during combat operations. The MRDH bandage was an effective hemostat for temporarily controlling hemorrhage in difficult circumstances. Caution should be exercised when removing the dressing as rebleeding may occur.
    The Journal of trauma 12/2011; 71(6):1775-8.
  • The Journal of trauma 12/2011; 71(6):1925.
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    ABSTRACT: The surgical treatment for displaced humeral head fractures overlooks a broad variety of surgical techniques and implant systems. A standard operative procedure has not yet been established. In this article, we report our experience with a second-generation locking plate for the humeral head fracture that is applied in a standardized nine-step minimally invasive surgical technique (MIS). In a prospective study from May 2008 until November 2009, a cohort of 79 patients with 80 proximal humerus fractures were operated in a MIS procedure using a polyaxial locking plate. Follow-up examination at 6 weeks and 6 months postoperative included radiologic examinations and a clinical outcome analysis by the Constant Score, the Visual Analog Scale for pain, and the Daily Activity Score. The mean patient age was 65.5 years ± 19 years. According to the Neer classification, there were 18 (22.5%) two-part (Neer III), 48 (60%) three-part (Neer IV), and 14 (17.5%) four-part fractures (Neer IV/V). The operation time averaged 65.6 minutes ± 27 minutes. In 13 patients (16.3%), revision was necessary because of procedure-related complications. After 6 months, the Visual Analog Scale for pain was 2.7 ± 1.6 and the Daily Activity Score showed 19.6 ± 6 points. The average age-related Constant Score after 6 months was 67.5 ± 24 points. MIS surgery of displaced humeral head fractures can be performed in all types of humeral head fractures leading to low complication rates and good clinical outcome. A standardized stepwise procedure in fracture reduction and fixation is recommended to achieve reliable good results.
    The Journal of trauma 12/2011; 71(6):1737-44.
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    ABSTRACT: Inadequate antifactor Xa levels have been documented in critically ill patients given prophylactic enoxaparin and may result in increased risk of venous thromboembolic (VTE) events. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of dose adjustment of enoxaparin and associated incidence of VTE in acute burn patients. All acute burn patients who were treated with prophylactic enoxaparin on a burn/trauma intensive care unit were prospectively followed. Patients with subtherapeutic antifactor Xa levels had enoxaparin doses increased as per unit protocol with the goal of obtaining a therapeutic antifactor Xa level. Eighty-four acute burn patients who were treated with enoxaparin had at least one appropriately obtained antifactor Xa level between June 2009 and October 2010. Initial antifactor Xa levels in 64 patients (76.2%) were below 0.2 U/mL, resulting in increased enoxaparin dose. Fifteen patients never achieved the target antifactor Xa level before enoxaparin was discontinued. Median final enoxaparin dose required to achieve therapeutic antifactor Xa levels was 40 mg every 12 hours (range, 20-70 mg). Using linear regression, final enoxaparin dose correlated with burn size (%total body surface area) and weight. No episodes of hemorrhage, thrombocytopenia, or heparin sensitivity were documented. Two patients (2.4%) had VTE complications despite adequate prophylaxis. Frequent occurrence of low antifactor Xa levels observed in this study demonstrated the inadequacy of standard dosing of enoxaparin for VTE prophylaxis in many patients with acute burns. Enoxaparin dose adjustment was associated with a low incidence of VTE events and no bleeding complications.
    The Journal of trauma 12/2011; 71(6):1557-61.
  • The Journal of trauma 12/2011; 71(6):1923.
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    ABSTRACT: In the treatment of facial nerve paralysis after temporal bone trauma, it is important to appropriately determine whether nerve decompression surgery is indicated. The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of facial nerve decompression surgery according to fracture location and the ideal time for surgery after trauma by analyzing the therapeutic outcome of traumatic facial nerve paralysis. In total, 66 patients with facial nerve paralysis after temporal bone trauma who were treated at our institution between 1979 and 2009 were studied retrospectively. The patients were divided into five subgroups, according to the fracture location and the period of time between trauma and surgery. The number of patients who achieved complete recovery of House-Brackmann (H-B) grade 1 was 31 of 66 (47.0%). There was no difference in therapeutic outcomes among the subgroups classified by fracture location. The rate of good recovery to H-B grade 1 or 2 in patients undergoing decompression surgery within 2 weeks after trauma reached 92.9%, resulting in a significantly better outcome than that of patients undergoing later decompression surgery (p < 0.01). The results of this study demonstrated that the ideal time for decompression surgery for facial nerve paralysis after temporal bone fracture was the first 2 weeks after trauma in patients with severe, immediate-onset paralysis. Our study also showed that surgery should be performed within 2 months at the latest. These findings provide useful information for patients and help to determine the priority of treatment when concomitant disease exists.
    The Journal of trauma 12/2011; 71(6):1789-92; discussion 1792-3.