Radiographics (RadioGraphics )

Publisher: Radiological Society of North America


The primary mission of RadioGraphics is to publish the best in peer-reviewed educational material, emphasizing that presented at the annual meeting of the RSNA, for radiologists, trainees, physicists, and other radiologic professionals.

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    RadioGraphics website
  • Other titles
    Radiographics (Online), Radiographics
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    Document, Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

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Radiological Society of North America

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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The frequency and importance of the evaluation of the posterior fossa have increased significantly over the past 20 years owing to advances in neuroimaging. Nowadays, conventional and advanced neuroimaging techniques allow detailed evaluation of the complex anatomic structures within the posterior fossa. A wide spectrum of congenital abnormalities has been demonstrated, including malformations (anomalies due to an alteration of the primary developmental program caused by a genetic defect) and disruptions (anomalies due to the breakdown of a structure that had a normal developmental potential). Familiarity with the spectrum of congenital posterior fossa anomalies and their well-defined diagnostic criteria is crucial for optimal therapy, an accurate prognosis, and correct genetic counseling. The authors discuss the spectrum of posterior fossa malformations and disruptions, with emphasis on neuroimaging findings (including diagnostic criteria), neurologic presentation, systemic involvement, prognosis, and risk of recurrence. (c)RSNA, 2015.
    Radiographics 01/2015; 35(1):200-220.
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    ABSTRACT: Although 3-T magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is well established in neuroradiology and musculoskeletal imaging, it is in the nascent stages in cardiovascular imaging applications, and there is limited literature on this topic. The primary advantage of 3 T over 1.5 T is a higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), which can be used as such or traded off to improve spatial or temporal resolution and decrease acquisition time. However, the actual gain in SNR is limited by other factors and modifications in sequences adapted for use at 3 T. Higher resonance frequencies result in improved spectral resolution, which is beneficial for fat suppression and spectroscopy. The higher T1 values of tissues at 3 T aid in myocardial tagging, angiography, and perfusion and delayed-enhancement sequences. However, there are substantial challenges with 3-T cardiac MR imaging, including higher magnetic field and radiofrequency inhomogeneities and susceptibility effects, which diminish image quality. Off-resonance artifacts are particularly challenging, especially with steady-state free precession sequences. These artifacts can be managed by using higher-order shimming, frequency scouts, or low repetition times. B1 inhomogeneities can be managed by using radiofrequency shimming, multitransmit coils, or adiabatic pulses. Chemical shifts are also increased at 3 T. The higher radiofrequency results in higher radiofrequency deposition power and a higher specific absorption rate. MR angiography, dynamic first-pass perfusion sequences, myocardial tagging, and MR spectroscopy are more effective at 3 T, whereas delayed-enhancement, flow quantification, and black-blood sequences are comparable at 1.5 T and 3 T. Knowledge of the relevant physics helps in identifying artifacts and modifying sequences to optimize image quality. Online supplemental material is available for this article. ©RSNA, 2014.
    Radiographics 10/2014; 34(6):1612-1635.
  • Radiographics 05/2014; 34(3):802-3.
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    ABSTRACT: The pregnant trauma patient presents an important and challenging encounter for the clinical team and radiologist. In this article, we present several key aspects of the imaging workup of pregnant trauma patients, beginning with a review of the modalities that are used in this setting. Ultrasonography plays an important role in initial evaluation of the fetus but a limited role in evaluation of maternal injuries. Given that conventional radiography and computed tomography are the "workhorse" modalities for evaluation of pregnant trauma patients, radiologists must pay particular attention to radiation dose concerns. Magnetic resonance imaging can be used after the initial evaluation and for follow-up imaging, and safety concerns related to its use in pregnant patients are addressed. At imaging interpretation, radiologists must contend not only with the typical spectrum of injuries that can be seen in any trauma patient but also with pregnancy-specific injuries, such as placental abruption and uterine rupture. Particularly unusual situations, such as a ruptured ectopic pregnancy in a trauma patient, are presented. Although pregnant trauma patients are infrequently encountered, familiarity with imaging findings of injuries in these patients is essential to providing the best care for the mother and fetus. © RSNA, 2014.
    Radiographics 05/2014; 34(3):748-63.
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    ABSTRACT: Although traumatic and iatrogenic bile leaks are rare, they have become more prevalent in recent years due to an increased propensity toward nonsurgical management of patients with liver trauma and an overall increase in the number of hepatobiliary surgeries being performed. Because clinical signs and symptoms of bile leaks are nonspecific and delay in the recognition of bile leaks is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates, imaging is crucial for establishing an early diagnosis and guiding the treatment algorithm. At computed tomography or ultrasonography, free or contained peri- or intrahepatic low-attenuation (low-density) fluid in the setting of recent trauma or hepatobiliary surgery should raise suspicion for a bile leak. Hepatobiliary scintigraphy and magnetic resonance (MR) cholangiopancreatography with hepatobiliary contrast agents can help detect active or contained bile leaks. MR cholangiopancreatography with hepatobiliary contrast agents has the added advantage of being able to help localize the bile leak, which in turn can help determine if endoscopic management is sufficient or if surgical management is warranted. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography may provide diagnostic confirmation and concurrent therapy when nonsurgical management is pursued. A multimodality imaging approach is helpful in diagnosing traumatic or iatrogenic biliary injuries, accurately localizing a bile leak, and determining appropriate treatment. ©RSNA, 2014.
    Radiographics 05/2014; 34(3):613-23.
  • Radiographics 05/2014; 34(3):847-8.
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    ABSTRACT: Bile duct strictures in adults are secondary to a wide spectrum of benign and malignant pathologic conditions. Benign causes of bile duct strictures include iatrogenic causes, acute or chronic pancreatitis, choledocholithiasis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, IgG4-related sclerosing cholangitis, liver transplantation, recurrent pyogenic cholangitis, Mirizzi syndrome, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome cholangiopathy, and sphincter of Oddi dysfunction. Malignant causes include cholangiocarcinoma, pancreatic adenocarcinoma, and periampullary carcinomas. Rare causes include biliary inflammatory pseudotumor, gallbladder carcinoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, metastases to bile ducts, and extrinsic bile duct compression secondary to periportal or peripancreatic lymphadenopathy. Contrast material-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with MR cholangiopancreatography is extremely helpful in the noninvasive evaluation of patients with obstructive jaundice, an obstructive pattern of liver function, or incidentally detected biliary duct dilatation. Some of these conditions may show characteristic findings at MR imaging-MR cholangiopancreatography that help in making a definitive diagnosis. Although endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography with tissue biopsy or surgery is needed for the definitive diagnosis of many of these strictures, certain MR imaging characteristics of the narrowed segment (eg, thickened wall, long-segment involvement, asymmetry, indistinct outer margin, luminal irregularity, hyperenhancement relative to the liver parenchyma) may favor a malignant cause. Awareness of the various causes of bile duct strictures in adults and familiarity with their appearances at MR imaging-MR cholangiopancreatography are important for accurate diagnosis and optimal patient management. ©RSNA, 2014.
    Radiographics 05/2014; 34(3):565-86.
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    ABSTRACT: Pediatric patients who are diagnosed with musculoskeletal tumors often require serial imaging both during and after treatment. Although many of the treatments used in adults overlap with those used in children and adolescents, the growing skeleton presents specific challenges that require a unique approach. Surgical treatment of benign osseous lesions typically requires only curettage and bone grafting, whereas that of osseous malignancies generally consists of wide excision and limb salvage, with either endoprosthetic or biologic reconstruction. Current conventional endoprostheses consist of modular components that allow intraoperative customization; however, if there is great potential for future growth, an expandable endoprosthesis may be required. Biologic reconstruction may consist of an allograft and/or autograft and, in some circumstances, can spare the growth plates in a child, thereby allowing normal growth. Expected posttreatment imaging findings in soft-tissue tumors may include muscle flaps and postoperative fluid collections. Medical treatment, including radiation therapy and chemotherapy, can have predictable imaging manifestations, including signal alterations in bone marrow, muscle, and subcutaneous fat. Finally, treatment complications may manifest with clinical symptoms and include infection or mechanical failure, although other complications such as local tumor recurrence may go clinically undetected until surveillance imaging. Familiarity with the expected posttreatment imaging findings in pediatric patients with musculoskeletal tumors can aid in the detection of complications. ©RSNA, 2014.
    Radiographics 05/2014; 34(3):724-40.
  • Radiographics 05/2014; 34(3):743-7.
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    ABSTRACT: Diffusion tensor (DT) imaging is an emerging magnetic resonance (MR) imaging technique for evaluating the microstructure of well-organized biologic tissues such as muscles and nerves. DT imaging provides information about tissue microstructure by producing three-dimensional maps of water molecule movements. The two main parameters of measurement at DT imaging, fractional anisotropy and the apparent diffusion coefficient, allow quantitation of architectural changes occurring in tissue. These parameters are modified in the presence of cervical spondylotic myelopathy, cervical spine trauma, carpal tunnel syndrome, lumbar nerve compression, peripheral nerve tumors, and muscle ischemia. Their alteration may be observed at DT imaging even when no abnormality is seen at conventional MR imaging, a fact that suggests that DT imaging allows the detection of abnormalities at an earlier stage of injury. Experimental studies in animals have shown that DT imaging consistently allows identification of pathophysiologic alterations in tissue that correlate with histologic findings. Tractographic images accurately depict both normal and abnormal diffusion in anatomic structures such as the thigh and pelvic muscles, cervical spine, and lumbar nerves. Patients with chronic diseases also may benefit from follow-up evaluation with DT imaging, although DT imaging sequences must be further adapted to improve the evaluation of specific anatomic regions by reducing artifacts, optimizing spatial resolution, and minimizing acquisition time. Given its proven potential for use in identifying abnormalities that are otherwise identifiable only with electrophysiologic and histopathologic studies, and with future technical improvements, DT imaging could soon become a standard method for early diagnosis, management, and follow-up of disease in the spine, muscles, and peripheral nerves. ©RSNA, 2014.
    Radiographics 05/2014; 34(3):E56-72.
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    ABSTRACT: The ampulla of Vater is an important anatomic landmark where the common bile duct and main pancreatic duct converge in the major duodenal papilla. Imaging evaluation of the ampulla and periampullary region poses a unique diagnostic challenge to radiologists because of the region's complex and variable anatomy and the variety of lesions that can occur. Lesions intrinsic to the ampulla and involved segment of the biliary tree can be neoplastic, inflammatory, or congenital. Neoplastic lesions include ampullary adenocarcinomas and adenomas, which often are difficult to differentiate, as well as pancreatic or duodenal adenocarcinomas, pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors, and cholangiocarcinomas. Ultrasonography (US), computed tomography, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, and MR cholangiopancreatography are commonly used to evaluate this region. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography or endoscopic US examination may be necessary for more definitive evaluation. Periampullary conditions in the duodenum that may secondarily involve the ampulla include neoplasms, duodenitis, duodenal diverticula, and Brunner's gland hyperplasia or hamartomas. Because these lesions can exhibit a wide overlap of imaging features and subtle or nonspecific imaging findings, diagnosis is made on the basis of patient age, clinical history, and imaging and laboratory findings. Given the complexity of imaging evaluation of the ampulla and periampullary region, it is essential for radiologists to understand the variety of lesions that can occur and recognize their imaging characteristics. ©RSNA, 2014.
    Radiographics 05/2014; 34(3):624-41.
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    ABSTRACT: Traumatic ocular injuries are a significant cause of blindness and visual deficits. In the setting of acute orbital trauma, urgent ophthalmologic evaluation and intervention are critical in preserving vision. However, in the acute trauma setting, clinical evaluation of the globe may be difficult in the presence of surrounding periorbital soft-tissue swelling and other associated injuries, and patient cooperation may be limited because of unresponsiveness, altered mentation, or sedation. Often, rapid access to imaging is part of the initial diagnostic evaluation, and radiologists may be the first to identify traumatic injuries of the globe. Because of this, radiologists should be familiar with normal orbital and globe anatomy at various imaging modalities and have a thorough understanding of the various patterns of ocular injury and their imaging appearances. Radiologists should also be familiar with the various mimics of ocular injury, including congenital and acquired conditions that may alter the shape of the globe, various types of ocular calcifications, and the different types of material used to treat retinal detachment. Such knowledge may help radiologists make accurate diagnoses, which facilitates prompt and appropriate patient care. ©RSNA, 2014.
    Radiographics 05/2014; 34(3):764-76.
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    ABSTRACT: Recent improvements in Web and mobile technology, along with the widespread use of handheld devices in radiology education, provide unique opportunities for creating scalable, universally accessible, portable image-rich radiology case files. A cloud database and a Web-based application for radiologic images were developed to create a mobile case file with reasonable usability, download performance, and image quality for teaching purposes. A total of 75 radiology cases related to breast, thoracic, gastrointestinal, musculoskeletal, and neuroimaging subspecialties were included in the database. Breast imaging cases are the focus of this article, as they best demonstrate handheld display capabilities across a wide variety of modalities. This case subset also illustrates methods for adapting radiologic content to cloud platforms and mobile devices. Readers will gain practical knowledge about storage and retrieval of cloud-based imaging data, an awareness of techniques used to adapt scrollable and high-resolution imaging content for the Web, and an appreciation for optimizing images for handheld devices. The evaluation of this software demonstrates the feasibility of adapting images from most imaging modalities to mobile devices, even in cases of full-field digital mammograms, where high resolution is required to represent subtle pathologic features. The cloud platform allows cases to be added and modified in real time by using only a standard Web browser with no application-specific software. Challenges remain in developing efficient ways to generate, modify, and upload radiologic and supplementary teaching content to this cloud-based platform. Online supplemental material is available for this article . ©RSNA, 2014.
    Radiographics 04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Focal spinal cord displacement can be caused by idiopathic spinal cord herniation (ISCH), in which the cord protrudes through a dural defect into the epidural space, causing cord displacement and tethering. ISCH is uncommon and often is misdiagnosed initially, which results in delayed management. ISCH can be mimicked by space-occupying cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-isointense intraspinal extramedullary lesions, such as epidermoid cysts or teratomas, intradural arachnoid cysts, epidural hematomas or abscesses, cystic nerve sheath tumors, synovial or Tarlov cysts, meningoceles, and pseudomeningoceles. Initial computed tomography (CT) and unenhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging studies may depict focal cord displacement and a widened CSF space but often are not sufficient to identify the underlying cause. High-resolution thin-section MR imaging can delineate the exact location of the dural defect and the protrusion of the herniated cord through this defect into the epidural space. At imaging, unimpeded CSF pulsation artifacts seen within a widened CSF space exclude a space-occupying lesion. A filling defect seen at conventional or CT myelography can help confirm a CSF-isointense space-occupying lesion; intravenous contrast agent administration can help exclude a rim-enhancing cystic extramedullary lesion. The clinical presentation usually is nonspecific, but symptom acuity, fever, and trauma can guide the imaging evaluation and help narrow the differential diagnosis. A multimodality imaging approach is essential to differentiate ISCH from space-occupying CSF-isointense intraspinal extramedullary lesions. © RSNA, 2014.
    Radiographics 03/2014; 34(2):313-29.
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    ABSTRACT: Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in women, exceeded only by lung cancer, and the 5-year survival rate is largely dependent on disease stage. The American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging system for breast cancer (7th edition) provides a tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) classification scheme for breast cancer that is important for determining prognosis and treatment. Ascertaining the correct stage of breast cancer can be challenging, and the importance of the radiologist's role has increased over the years. The radiologist should understand how breast cancer stage is assigned and should be familiar with the AJCC's TNM classification scheme. The authors review the AJCC's TNM staging system for breast cancer with emphasis on clinical and preoperative staging, the different imaging modalities used in staging, and the key information that should be conveyed to clinicians. Radiologic information that may alter stage, prognosis, or treatment includes tumor size; number of tumor lesions; total span of disease; regional nodal status (axillary levels I-III, internal mammary, supraclavicular); locoregional invasion (involvement of the pectoralis muscle, skin, nipple, or chest wall); and distant metastases to bone, lung, brain, and liver, among other anatomic structures. © RSNA, 2014.
    Radiographics 03/2014; 34(2):330-42.
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    ABSTRACT: The application of parallel magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is increasing as clinicians continue to strive for improved spatial and temporal resolution, benefits that arise from the use of fewer phase encodings during imaging. To reconstruct images, extra information is needed to map the spatial sensitivity of each coil element, which may be accomplished by acquiring a calibration image in one common implementation of parallel MR imaging. Although obtaining a quick calibration image is an efficient method for gathering this information, corruption of the image or disharmony with subsequent images may lead to errors in reconstruction. Although conventional MR imaging sequences may be employed with parallel MR imaging, the altered image reconstruction introduces several new artifacts and changes the appearance of conventional artifacts. The altered appearance of traditional artifacts may obscure the source of the problem, and, in some cases, the severity of artifacts associated with parallel MR imaging may be exacerbated, hindering image interpretation. Several artifacts arise in the context of parallel MR imaging, including both traditional artifacts and those associated with parallel MR imaging. © RSNA, 2014.
    Radiographics 03/2014; 34(2):532-48.
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    ABSTRACT: Digital tomosynthesis (DTS) of the chest is a technique whose basic components are similar to those of digital radiography, but that also provides some of the benefits of computed tomography (CT). The major advantages of DTS over conventional chest radiography are improved visibility of the pulmonary parenchyma and depiction of abnormalities such as pulmonary nodules. Calcifications, vessels, airways, and chest wall abnormalities are also much more readily visualized at DTS than at chest radiography. DTS could potentially be combined with chest radiography to follow up known nodules, confirm or rule out suspected nodules seen at radiography, or evaluate individuals who are at high risk for lung cancer or pulmonary metastases. DTS generates coronal "slices" through the chest whose resolution is superior to that of coronal reconstructed CT images, but it is limited by its suboptimal depth resolution and susceptibility to motion; consequently, potential pitfalls in recognizing lesions adjacent to the pleura, diaphragm, central vessels, and mediastinum can occur. However, the radiation dose and projected cost of chest DTS are lower than those of standard chest CT. Besides pulmonary nodule detection, specific applications of DTS that are under investigation include evaluation of pulmonary tuberculous and nontuberculous mycobacterial disease, cystic fibrosis, interstitial lung disease, and asbestos-related thoracic diseases. A basic understanding of chest DTS and of the emerging applications of this technique can prove useful to the radiologist. Online supplemental material is available for this article. ©RSNA, 2014.
    Radiographics 03/2014; 34(2):359-72.
  • Radiographics 03/2014; 34(2):294.
  • Radiographics 03/2014; 34(2):274.