Radiographics (RadioGraphics )

Publisher: Radiological Society of North America


The primary mission of RadioGraphics is to publish the best in peer-reviewed educational material, emphasizing that presented at the annual meeting of the RSNA, for radiologists, trainees, physicists, and other radiologic professionals.

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    RadioGraphics website
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    Radiographics (Online), Radiographics
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    Document, Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

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Radiological Society of North America

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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Recent improvements in Web and mobile technology, along with the widespread use of handheld devices in radiology education, provide unique opportunities for creating scalable, universally accessible, portable image-rich radiology case files. A cloud database and a Web-based application for radiologic images were developed to create a mobile case file with reasonable usability, download performance, and image quality for teaching purposes. A total of 75 radiology cases related to breast, thoracic, gastrointestinal, musculoskeletal, and neuroimaging subspecialties were included in the database. Breast imaging cases are the focus of this article, as they best demonstrate handheld display capabilities across a wide variety of modalities. This case subset also illustrates methods for adapting radiologic content to cloud platforms and mobile devices. Readers will gain practical knowledge about storage and retrieval of cloud-based imaging data, an awareness of techniques used to adapt scrollable and high-resolution imaging content for the Web, and an appreciation for optimizing images for handheld devices. The evaluation of this software demonstrates the feasibility of adapting images from most imaging modalities to mobile devices, even in cases of full-field digital mammograms, where high resolution is required to represent subtle pathologic features. The cloud platform allows cases to be added and modified in real time by using only a standard Web browser with no application-specific software. Challenges remain in developing efficient ways to generate, modify, and upload radiologic and supplementary teaching content to this cloud-based platform. Online supplemental material is available for this article . ©RSNA, 2014.
    Radiographics 04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: A complete fetal ultrasonographic (US) study includes assessment of the umbilical cord for possible abnormalities. Knowledge of the normal appearance of the umbilical cord is necessary for the radiologist to correctly diagnose pathologic conditions. Umbilical cord abnormalities can be related to cord coiling, length, and thickness; the placental insertion site; in utero distortion; vascular abnormalities; and primary tumors or masses. These conditions may be associated with other fetal anomalies and aneuploidies, and their discovery should prompt a thorough fetal US examination. Further workup and planning for a safe fetal delivery may include fetal echocardiography and karyotype analysis. Doppler US is a critical tool for assessment and diagnosis of vascular cord abnormalities. US also can be used for follow-up serial imaging evaluation of conditions that could result in fetal demise. Recent studies suggest that three- or four-dimensional Doppler US of the fetal umbilical cord and abdominal vasculature allows more accurate diagnosis of vascular abnormalities. Doppler US also is invaluable in assessment of fetal growth restriction since hemodynamic changes in the placenta or fetus would appear as a spectral pattern of increased resistance to forward flow in the fetal umbilical artery. Early detection of umbilical cord abnormalities and close follow-up can reduce the risk of morbidity and mortality and assist in decision making. ©RSNA, 2014.
    Radiographics 01/2014; 34(1):179-96.
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    ABSTRACT: Recent advances in treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC), such as new molecular therapies that use novel antiangiogenic agents, have led to revision of the most frequently used guideline to evaluate tumor response to therapy: Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST 1.1). Assessment of the response of metastatic RCC to therapy has traditionally been based on changes in target lesion size. However, the mechanism of action of newer antiangiogenic therapies is more cytostatic than cytotoxic, which leads to disease stabilization rather than to tumor regression. This change in tumor response makes RECIST 1.1-a system whose criteria are based exclusively on tumor size-inadequate to discriminate patients with early tumor progression from those with more progression-free disease and prolonged survival. New criteria such as changes in attenuation, morphology, and structure, as seen at contrast-enhanced multidetector computed tomography (CT), are being incorporated into new classifications used to assess response of metastatic RCC to antiangiogenic therapies. The new classifications provide better assessments of tumor response to the new therapies, but they have some limitations. The authors provide a practical review of these systems-the Choi, modified Choi, and Morphology, Attenuation, Size, and Structure (MASS) criteria-by explaining their differences and limitations that may influence the feasibility and reproducibility of these classifications. The authors review the use of multidetector CT in the detection of metastatic RCC and the different appearances and locations of these lesions. They also provide an overview of the new antiangiogenic therapies and their mechanisms of action and a brief introduction to functional imaging techniques. Functional imaging techniques, especially dynamic contrast-enhanced CT, seem promising for assessing response of metastatic RCC to treatment. Nonetheless, further studies are needed before functional imaging can be used in routine clinical practice. © RSNA, 2013.
    Radiographics 10/2013; 33(6):1691-1716.
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    ABSTRACT: The evolution of oncologic surgical technology has moved toward reducing patient morbidity and mortality without compromising oncologic resection or oncologic outcomes. The goals in treating head and neck cancer are to cure patients, as well as to provide quality of life by improving functional and social outcomes through organ-preservation therapies, which may include surgery, chemotherapy, and/or radiation therapy. Transoral robotic surgery (TORS) is an emerging technique that provides several benefits over existing treatment regimens and over open surgery for head and neck cancer, including reductions in operative times, blood loss, intensive care unit stays, and overall duration of patient hospitalization. Transoral robotic techniques allow wide-view, high-resolution, magnified three-dimensional optics for visualization of the mucosal surfaces of the head and neck through an endoscope, while avoiding the extensive external cervical incisions often required for open surgeries. Radiologists play an important role in the successful outcome of these procedures, both before and after TORS. Determining a cancer patient's surgical candidacy for TORS requires a thorough preoperative radiologic evaluation, coupled with clinical and intraoperative assessment. Radiologists must pay particular attention to important anatomic landmarks that are clinical blind spots for surgeons. Knowledge of the expected postoperative imaging appearances, so that they can be distinguished from recurrent disease and second primary tumors, is essential for all radiologists involved in the care of these patients.
    Radiographics 10/2013; 33(6):1759-1779.
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    ABSTRACT: Certain tumors of the head and neck use peripheral nerves as a direct conduit for tumor growth away from the primary site by a process known as perineural spread. Perineural spread is associated with decreased survival and a higher risk of local recurrence and metastasis. Radiologists play an important role in the assessment and management of head and neck cancer, and positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) with 2-[fluorine 18]fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) is part of the work-up and follow-up of many affected patients. Awareness of abnormal FDG uptake patterns within the head and neck is fundamental for diagnosing perineural spread. The cranial nerves most commonly affected by perineural spread are the trigeminal and facial nerves. Risk of perineural spread increases with a midface location of the tumor, male gender, increasing tumor size, recurrence after treatment, and poor histologic differentiation. Focal or linear increased FDG uptake along the V2 division of the trigeminal nerve or along the medial surface of the mandible, or asymmetric activity in the masticator space, foramen ovale, or Meckel cave should raise suspicion for perineural spread. If FDG PET/CT findings suggest perineural spread, the radiologist should look at available results of other imaging studies, especially magnetic resonance imaging, to confirm the diagnosis. Knowledge of common FDG PET/CT patterns of neoplastic involvement along the cranial nerves and potential diagnostic pitfalls is of the utmost importance for adequate staging and treatment planning. © RSNA, 2013.
    Radiographics 10/2013; 33(6):1717-1736.
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    ABSTRACT: The incidence of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) has increased over the past few decades and now accounts for over 20% of newly diagnosed cases of breast cancer. Although the detection of DCIS has increased with the advent of widespread mammography screening, it is essential to have a more accurate assessment of the extent of DCIS for successful breast conservation therapy. Recent studies evaluating the detection of DCIS with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging have used high spatial resolution techniques and have increasingly been performed to screen a high-risk population as well as to evaluate the extent of disease. This work has shown that MR imaging is the most sensitive modality currently available for identifying DCIS and is more accurate than mammography in evaluating the extent of DCIS. MR imaging is particularly sensitive for identifying high-grade and intermediate-grade DCIS. DCIS may have variable morphologic features on MR images, with non-mass enhancement morphology being the most common manifestation. Less commonly, DCIS may also manifest as a mass on MR images, in which case it is most likely to be irregular. The kinetics of DCIS are also variable, with fast uptake and a plateau curve reported as the most common kinetic pattern. Additional MR imaging tools such as diffusion-weighted imaging and quantitative kinetic analysis combined with the benefit of high field strength, such as 3 T, may increase the sensitivity and specificity of breast MR imaging in the detection of DCIS. © RSNA, 2013.
    Radiographics 10/2013; 33(6):1569-1588.
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    ABSTRACT: Neuroendocrine neoplasms are ubiquitous tumors found throughout the body, most commonly in the gastrointestinal tract followed by the thorax. Neuroendocrine cells occur normally in the bronchial and bronchiolar epithelium and may be solitary or may occur in clusters. Although neuroendocrine cell proliferations may be found in association with chronic lung disease, a broad range of neuroendocrine proliferations and neoplasms may occur and exhibit variable biologic behavior. Diffuse idiopathic neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia (DIPNECH) is a diffuse idiopathic form of neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia and is considered a preinvasive lesion that may give rise to carcinoid tumors. Patients with DIPNECH are typically older women who may be asymptomatic or may present with chronic respiratory symptoms. DIPNECH manifests as multifocal bilateral pulmonary micronodules on expiratory high-resolution computed tomographic (CT) images; the air trapping is secondary to constrictive bronchiolitis. Carcinoid tumors are low-grade malignant neoplasms that typically affect symptomatic children and young adults. Carcinoids manifest as well-defined pulmonary nodules or masses that are often closely related to central bronchi. They may exhibit intrinsic calcification and contrast material enhancement at CT, and patients with carcinoids may have postobstructive atelectasis and pneumonia. Although typical carcinoids are indolent neoplasms and patients have a good prognosis, atypical carcinoids are aggressive malignancies with a propensity for metastasis. Both are optimally treated with complete surgical excision. Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma and small cell lung cancer are highly aggressive neuroendocrine malignancies that usually affect elderly smokers. These tumors manifest with large peripheral or central pulmonary masses. Local invasion, intrathoracic lymphadenopathy, and distant metastases are frequent at presentation. As a result, affected patients may not be candidates for surgical resection, are often treated with chemotherapy with or without radiation, and have a poor prognosis. © RSNA, 2013.
    Radiographics 10/2013; 33(6):1631-1649.
  • Radiographics 10/2013; 33(6):1670-1.
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    ABSTRACT: Orbital neoplasms in adults may be categorized on the basis of location and histologic type. Imaging features of these lesions often reflect their tissue composition. Cavernous malformations (also known as cavernous hemangiomas), although not true neoplasms, are the most common benign adult orbital tumor. They typically appear as a well-circumscribed, ovoid intraconal mass on cross-sectional images. Lymphoma, which may be primary or secondary to systemic disease, is the most prevalent orbital neoplasm in older adults (≥60 years of age). Choroidal melanoma is the most common primary adult ocular malignancy. Melanin has intrinsic T1 and T2 shortening effects, classically manifesting with hyperintense signal on T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images and with hypointense signal on T2-weighted images. However, amelanotic or mildly pigmented lesions of melanoma do not demonstrate these characteristic MR imaging features. Breast cancer is the most common malignancy to metastasize to the orbit, followed by prostate cancer, melanoma, and lung cancer. In women with bilateral enophthalmos, metastatic scirrhous breast cancer should be considered in the differential diagnosis. Neoplasms that arise from the optic nerve or its sheath include glioma and meningioma. At imaging, gliomas often cause fusiform expansion of the optic nerve, in which the nerve itself cannot be delineated from the lesion. In contrast, meningiomas classically have a "tram-track" configuration, whereby the contrast-enhancing tumor is seen alongside the optic nerve. Neoplasms that derive from peripheral nerves include schwannoma and neurofibroma, the latter of which is associated with neurofibromatosis type 1. MR imaging is particularly valuable for evaluation of orbital neoplasms, as it provides critical anatomic information about ocular structures involved, perineural spread, and intracranial extension.
    Radiographics 10/2013; 33(6):1739-1758.
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    ABSTRACT: Fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is increasingly used in the initial staging, evaluation of treatment response, and surveillance of many malignancies. Uptake of FDG is substantially increased in most malignancies, compared with its uptake in normal tissues, and the finding of FDG avidity often leads to cancer detection earlier than abnormalities can be seen at anatomic imaging. However, FDG is not a cancer-specific agent, and FDG avidity can be seen in many benign processes. It can be particularly challenging to discriminate malignancy from benign FDG-avid changes caused by surgery and procedures, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. FDG-avid abnormalities caused by surgery and procedures include inflammation at sites of incision or dissection, inflammation from vascular compromise or surgical retraction, surgical transposition of structures with physiologic FDG avidity (such as ovaries or testes), and pleurodesis inflammation. Radiation therapy may induce FDG-avid pneumonitis, esophagitis, or hepatitis, as well as osteoradionecrosis or fractures. FDG-avid chemotherapy complications include pneumonitis, osteonecrosis, enterocolitis, and pancreatitis. Use of granulocyte colony stimulating factor for treatment of bone marrow suppression after chemotherapy induces temporary increases of FDG avidity in the bone marrow and spleen. Familiarity with common and unusual iatrogenic causes of FDG avidity that can confound interpretation of FDG PET/CT results will improve the accuracy of distinguishing treatment effects and complications from residual or recurrent malignancy at FDG PET/CT examinations.
    Radiographics 10/2013; 33(6):1817-1834.
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    ABSTRACT: Identifying the presence of axillary node and internal mammary node metastases in patients with invasive breast cancer is critical for determining prognosis and for deciding on appropriate treatment. Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is the definitive method to exclude axillary metastases. Patients with positive SLNB results generally undergo axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). The benefit of preoperative identification of axillary metastases is that it allows the surgeon to proceed directly to ALND and to avoid an unnecessary SLNB and the need for a second surgical procedure involving the axillary nodes. Knowledge of the important anatomic landmarks of the axilla is important in finding and accurately reporting suspicious lymph nodes. The pathologic features of nodal metastases illuminate the imaging appearances of these nodes, as depicted with all modalities. Ultrasonography (US) is the primary imaging modality for evaluating axillary nodes. Morphologic criteria, such as cortical thickening, hilar effacement, and nonhilar cortical blood flow, are more important than size criteria in the identification of metastases. US-guided lymph node sampling, especially with core biopsy, is invaluable in confirming the presence of a metastasis in a suspicious node. Core biopsy has been shown to be equal in safety to fine needle aspiration and has a significantly lower false-negative rate. Magnetic resonance imaging is also useful, with the added benefit of providing a global view of both axillae. Computed tomography and radionuclide imaging play a lesser role in imaging the axilla. Preoperative image-based identification and sampling of abnormal lymph nodes that have a high positive predictive value for metastases is an extremely important component in the management of patients with invasive breast cancer. © RSNA, 2013.
    Radiographics 10/2013; 33(6):1589-1612.
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    ABSTRACT: Hepatocellular carcinoma is a malignancy that predominantly occurs in the setting of cirrhosis. Its incidence is rising worldwide. Hepatocellular carcinoma differs from most malignancies because it is commonly diagnosed on the basis of imaging features alone, without histologic confirmation. The guidelines from the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD) are a leading statement for the diagnosis and staging of hepatocellular carcinoma, and they have recently been updated, incorporating several important changes. AASLD advocates the use of the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) staging system, which combines validated imaging and clinical predictors of survival to determine stage and which links staging with treatment options. Each stage of the BCLC system is outlined clearly, with emphasis on case examples. Focal liver lesions identified at ultrasonographic surveillance in patients with cirrhosis require further investigation. Lesions larger than 1 cm should be assessed with multiphasic computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Use of proper equipment and protocols is essential. Lesions larger than 1 cm can be diagnosed as hepatocellular carcinoma from a single study if the characteristic dynamic perfusion pattern of arterial hyperenhancement and venous or delayed phase washout is demonstrated. If the imaging characteristics of hepatocellular carcinoma are not met, the alternate modality should be performed. Biopsy should be used if neither modality is diagnostic of hepatocellular carcinoma. Once the diagnosis has been made, the cancer should be assigned a BCLC stage, which will help determine suitable treatment options. Radiologists require a systematic approach to diagnose and stage hepatocellular carcinoma with appropriate accuracy and precision. © RSNA, 2013.
    Radiographics 10/2013; 33(6):1653-1668.
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    ABSTRACT: Primary pericardial tumors are rare and may be classified as benign or malignant. The most common benign lesions are pericardial cysts and lipomas. Mesothelioma is the most common primary malignant pericardial neoplasm. Other malignant tumors include a wide variety of sarcomas, lymphoma, and primitive neuroectodermal tumor. When present, signs and symptoms are generally nonspecific. Patients often present with dyspnea, chest pain, palpitations, fever, or weight loss. Although the imaging approach usually begins with plain radiography of the chest or transthoracic echocardiography, the value of these imaging modalities is limited. Cross-sectional imaging, on the other hand, plays a key role in the evaluation of these lesions. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging allow further characterization and may, in some cases, provide diagnostic findings. Furthermore, the importance of cross-sectional imaging lies in assessing the exact location of the tumor in relation to neighboring structures. Both benign and malignant tumors may result in compression of vital mediastinal structures. Malignant lesions may also directly invade structures, such as the myocardium and great vessels, and result in metastatic disease. Imaging plays an important role in the detection, characterization, and staging of pericardial tumors; in their treatment planning; and in the posttreatment follow-up of affected patients. The prognosis of patients with benign tumors is good, even in the few cases in which surgical intervention is required. On the other hand, the length of survival for patients with malignant pericardial tumors is, in the majority of cases, dismal. © RSNA, 2013.
    Radiographics 10/2013; 33(6):1613-1630.
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    ABSTRACT: As survival rates continue to increase for patients with childhood and adult malignancies, imaging utilization in these patients will likely increase substantially. It is important to detect disease recurrence and to recognize the potential complications that occur after treatment with oncologic medications and therapeutic radiation. The most common cardiotoxic side effect of the anthracycline drug class is a dose-dependent decline in ejection fraction, which may result in dilated cardiomyopathy. Multiple-uptake gated acquisition (MUGA) scanning plays an important role in diagnosis of this subclinical cardiac dysfunction. Other less common cardiotoxic side effects of chemotherapeutic medications include arrhythmia, myocarditis, coronary artery disease, tamponade, pericarditis, and pericardial effusion. Radiation therapy can also lead to cardiotoxicity when the heart or pericardium is included in the radiation portal. Radiation-induced conditions include pericardial disease, coronary artery disease, valvular disease, and cardiomyopathy. Many of these side effects are asymptomatic until late in the course of the disease. With imaging, these pathologic conditions can often be diagnosed before symptom onset, which may allow early intervention. Radiologists should be familiar with the current knowledge and pathophysiology regarding cardiac complications related to chemotherapy and radiation therapy of malignant neoplasms and the appearances of treatment-related cardiotoxicity that can be found at radiography, nuclear medicine examinations, and cross-sectional imaging. Supplemental material available at © RSNA, 2013.
    Radiographics 10/2013; 33(6):1801-1815.
  • Radiographics 10/2013; 33(6):1531.
  • Radiographics 10/2013; 33(6):1738.
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    ABSTRACT: Intramural gastric masses arise in the wall of the stomach (generally within the submucosa or muscularis propria), often with intact overlying mucosa. These tumors are typically mesenchymal in origin and have overlapping radiologic appearances. A combination of features such as location, attenuation, enhancement, and growth pattern may suggest one diagnosis over another. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) account for the majority of intramural tumors and can vary widely in appearance, from small intraluminal lesions to exophytic masses that protrude into the peritoneal cavity, commonly with areas of hemorrhage or necrosis. A well-circumscribed mass measuring -70 to -120 HU is a lipoma. Leiomyomas usually manifest as low-attenuation masses at the gastric cardia. Homogeneous attenuation is a noteworthy characteristic of schwannomas, particularly for larger lesions that might otherwise be mistaken for GISTs. A hypervascular mass in the antrum is a common manifestation of glomus tumors. Hemangiomas are also hypervascular but often manifest in childhood. Inflammatory fibroid polyps usually arise as a polypoid mass in the antrum. Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors are infiltrative neoplasms with a propensity for local recurrence. Plexiform fibromyxomas are rare, usually antral tumors. Carcinoid tumors are epithelial in origin, but often submucosal in location, and therefore should be distinguished from other intramural lesions. Multiple carcinoid tumors are associated with hypergastrinemia, either in the setting of chronic atrophic gastritis or Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. Sporadic solitary carcinoid tumors not associated with hypergastrinemia have a higher rate of metastasis. Histopathologic analysis, including immunohistochemistry, is usually required for diagnosis of intramural masses. © RSNA, 2013.
    Radiographics 10/2013; 33(6):1673-1690.
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    ABSTRACT: Quantitative imaging is the analysis of retrieved numeric data from images with the goal of reducing subjective assessment. It is an increasingly important radiologic tool to assess treatment response in oncology patients. Quantification of response to therapy depends on the tumor type and method of treatment. Anatomic imaging biomarkers that quantify liver tumor response to cytotoxic therapy are based on temporal change in the size of the tumors. Anatomic biomarkers have been incorporated into the World Health Organization criteria and the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) versions 1.0 and 1.1. However, the development of novel therapies with different mechanisms of action, such as antiangiogenesis or radioembolization, has required new methods for measuring response to therapy. This need has led to development of tumor- or therapy-specific guidelines such as the Modified CT Response Evaluation (Choi) Criteria for gastrointestinal stromal tumors, the European Association for Study of the Liver (EASL) criteria, and modified RECIST for hepatocellular carcinoma, among many others. The authors review the current quantification criteria used in the evaluation of treatment response in liver tumors, summarizing their indications, advantages, and disadvantages, and discuss future directions with newer methods that have the potential for assessment of treatment response. Knowledge of these quantitative methods is important to facilitate pivotal communication between oncologists and radiologists about cancer treatment, with benefit ultimately accruing to the patient. © RSNA, 2013.
    Radiographics 10/2013; 33(6):1781-1800.
  • Radiographics 10/2013; 33(6):1668-70.

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