Journal of Manufacturing Processes (J Manuf Process )

Publisher: Elsevier

Description

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  • 5-year impact
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  • Cited half-life
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  • Website
    Journal of Manufacturing Processes website
  • Other titles
    Journal of manufacturing processes (Online), Manufacturing processes, JMP
  • ISSN
    1526-6125
  • OCLC
    44600690
  • Material type
    Document, Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Elsevier

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • Voluntary deposit by author of pre-print allowed on Institutions open scholarly website and pre-print servers
    • Voluntary deposit by author of authors post-print allowed on institutions open scholarly website including Institutional Repository
    • Deposit due to Funding Body, Institutional and Governmental mandate only allowed where separate agreement between repository and publisher exists
    • Set statement to accompany deposit
    • Published source must be acknowledged
    • Must link to journal home page or articles' DOI
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Articles in some journals can be made Open Access on payment of additional charge
    • NIH Authors articles will be submitted to PMC after 12 months
    • Authors who are required to deposit in subject repositories may also use Sponsorship Option
    • Pre-print can not be deposited for The Lancet
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The forming limit diagram (FLD) is a tool that is used by automotive engineers to assess and compare the formabilities of sheet metals. The FLD is experimentally determined by portraying the biaxial strain distribution in the plane of the sheet under proportional loading paths. However, experimental determination of the FLD is time consuming. With increasing interest in warm forming of aluminum sheets, the process for determining the forming limit diagram is further complicated and more cumbersome as the forming limits change with increasing temperatures. Accordingly, a process for predicting the FLD based on the material constitutive model is of interest. This paper presents a finite element based criterion for predicting the FLD under isothermal conditions. The paper provides experimental validation for the predicted results using select automotive 5xxx series aluminum alloys. The findings indicate that the developed criterion can adequately predict the forming limit for each strain path.
    Journal of Manufacturing Processes 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Effects of switching over from gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) to pulsed current gas tungsten arc welding (PCGTAW) on the quality of joints produced in Hastelloy C-276 material were investigated. Welding was carried out both by autogenous mode and using ERNiCrMo-3 filler wire. Microstructures of weld joints produced with and without current pulsing were studied using optical and scanning electron microscopy. Microsegregation occurring in GTAW and PCGTAW joints was investigated using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Strength and ductility of weld joints produced with and without pulsing were evaluated. The results show that pulsing results in refined microstructure, reduced microsegregation and improved strength of weld joints. Secondary phase(s) noticed in GTA weldments were found to be absent in PCGTA weldments. Autogenous PCGTA weldments were found to be the best in terms of: (i) freedom from microsegregation, (ii) strength and (iii) freedom from unwanted secondary phases.
    Journal of Manufacturing Processes 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Additive manufacturing is an emerging manufacturing technology that enables production of patient specific implants, today primarily out of titanium. For optimal functionality and proper integration between the titanium implant and the body tissues surface properties, such as surface oxide thickness is of particular importance, as it is primarily the surface of the material which interacts with the body. Hence, in this study the surface oxidation behavior of titanium parts manufactured by Electron Beam Melting (EBM®) is investigated using the surface sensitive techniques ToF-SIMS and AES. Oxide thicknesses comparable to those found on conventionally machined surfaces are found by both analysis techniques. However, a build height dependency is discovered for different locations of the EBM® manufactured parts due to the presence of trapped moisture in the machine and temperature gradients in the build.
    Journal of Manufacturing Processes 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The application of environmentally benign tribological systems becomes more and more important in cold forging operations. However, questions regarding the performance of these systems still oppose a widespread use in industry. Due to severe loads in cold forging, high tool temperatures of up to 200 °C may occur as a result of forming energy and friction in combination with a high output in a short range of time. The temperature at the tool–workpiece interface is even higher, though an exact identification proves to be difficult. Former investigations regarding the influence of the relative velocity indicated that the occurring temperatures are primarily responsible for the decrease of the friction. The paper at hand presents the results of a systematic investigation of the influence of the temperature at the tool–workpiece interface on the performance of environmentally benign tribological systems.
    Journal of Manufacturing Processes 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: This paper presents numerical and experimental investigations on laser melting of SS grade 316L powder on top of AISI 316L substrate using a pulsed Nd:YAG laser. The objectives of the present study are to understand the effect of process parameters such as laser power, scanning speed and beam size on geometry characteristics of the melt zone and ball formation. We formulated a moving heat source problem and obtained transient temperature solutions using commercial finite element solver. The geometry characteristics of the melt zone are evaluated from the temperature solutions and compared with experimental results. The effect of laser parameters on the geometry, morphology and homogeneity of single track realization was methodically analyzed by utilizing characterization tools such as laser particle size analyzer, macro and microscopic inspection, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The results presented in this paper are beneficial to realize homogenous layer formation in additive manufacturing processes involving powder melting by laser beam.
    Journal of Manufacturing Processes 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Attributes related to the dimensional quality of hot rolled steels are very important in commercial sectors that make direct use of this product, because delay or equipment damage can be avoided when forming in downstream operations. In this research, the steel sheet edge trimming process and its relationship with the defect known as broken edge is experimental and numerically studied. The type of material, horizontal clearance between knives and the energy spent during the cutting process are analyzed in detail. A metal-mechanical study is carried out for obtaining a microstructural hardness and flow stress characterization. Consequently, the edge trimming process is FEM simulated and its results in relation to knife penetration and shear stress lead to determining the energy spent during the cutting process. A mathematical model is determined under the consideration that minimum energy gives the optimum cutting conditions. The model proposes a reliable value for the horizontal clearance (Hc), between knives, taking as the principal factors: energy consumed during the edge trimming process, sheet thickness (Th), carbon content (C) and/or its ultimate tensile strength, expressed as: Hc = α + βTh − γC. A comparison of the recommended numerical results with the best practical conditions is carried out and a high coincidence is successfully found. This model is expected to be easily adopted as a tool where operators can adjust and control the parameters of process, and then, as a result, produce a sheet without edge trimming defects as well as a reduction in efficiency costs.
    Journal of Manufacturing Processes 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Splined mandrel flow forming (SMFF) process is prone to premature failure of the splined mandrels. Such a failure is thought to be related to the magnitude of the forming forces exerted on the mandrel by the forming rollers. The multi-parametric nature of SMFF processes requires the use of a multi-variable analysis technique (i.e. Taguchi method) in order to assess different process parameters. In the present study, we demonstrated that there is an optimal inclination angle for the rollers that minimizes the forming forces and, therefore, optimizes the service life of the splined mandrel.
    Journal of Manufacturing Processes 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) is currently being widely investigated because of its potential to produce ultra-fine grained microstructures in metals and alloys. Considerable research has been reported on finite element analysis (FEA) of this process, assuming 2D plane strain condition. The 2D models do not give details of strain distribution in the work-piece. Reports of all the researches are on effect of one-parameter-at-a-time. Combined effect of all geometric parameters is not reported. This paper aims in fulfilling the gap. In the present work 3D FEA of ECAP process was carried out for different combinations of channel angle, inner and outer corner radii. Results in terms of peak pressure, strain and strain inhomogeneity were obtained and analyzed by analysis of mean (ANOM). Main effects and interaction effect of all geometric parameters were quantified by analysis of variance (ANOVA). From the analysis it was found that the peak pressure is largely influenced by channel angle. To obtain desired strain the most important factors are channel angle and outer corner radius. Outer corner radius has the largest influence followed by channel angle on the strain inhomogeneity. There exists an optimum outer corner for which strain inhomogeneity is minimum, which depends on the channel angle. Inner corner alone has no influence on the strain inhomogeneity but its interaction with channel angle has some influence.
    Journal of Manufacturing Processes 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Micro-transfer printing technology is rapidly emerging as an effective pathway for large-scale heterogeneous materials integration. In its basic embodiment, micro-transfer printing is used to deterministically transfer and micro-assemble prefabricated structures/devices, referred to as “ink,” from a donor substrate to a receiving substrate using a viscoelastic elastomer stamp, usually made out of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Laser Micro Transfer Printing (LMTP) is a laser-driven non-contact variant of the process that makes it independent of the receiving substrate's properties, geometry, and preparation. In this paper, an opto-thermo-mechanical model is developed to understand how the laser beam energy is converted to thermally-induced strains around the ink-stamp interface to initiate the ink delamination process. The opto-thermo-mechanical model is developed based on decoupling the optical absorption physics from the thermo-mechanical model physics. An optical absorption model for the laser beam energy absorbed by the ink is first developed and verified experimentally to estimate the heating rates of the ink-stamp system, which in turn are used as an input for a couple thermo-mechanical Finite Element Analysis (FEA) model. Further, high speed camera recordings for LMTP delamination are used to calibrate the thermo-mechanical model and verify its predictions. Besides providing a fundamental understanding of the delamination mechanism and the LMTP process capabilities, the developed opto-thermo-mechanical model is useful in selecting process parameters (laser pulse duration, stand-off distance), estimating the ink-stamp temperature rise during the LMTP process, and quantifying and decomposing the stresses at the ink-stamp interface to its main sources (Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (CTE) mismatch and thermal gradient strains).
    Journal of Manufacturing Processes 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Present paper demonstrates the application of double disc magnetic abrasive finishing (DDMAF) process, on planar paramagnetic workpieces (copper alloy and stainless steel) of different mechanical properties like flow stress, hardness, shear modulus, etc. The copper alloy and stainless steel work pieces have been finished using DDMAF process. The experiments were performed based on a response surface methodology. The results obtained after finishing have been analyzed to determine the effect of different process parameters like working gap, rotational speed, percentage weight of abrasive, abrasive mesh size and feed rate for individual work material and to study various interaction effects that may significantly affect the finishing performance of the process. The outcomes of the analysis so obtained for the two different work materials have been critically compared to understand the effect of the considered process parameters based on mechanical properties. The scanning electron microscopy was also conducted on the work piece surface to understand the possible mechanism of material removal and the surface morphology produced.
    Journal of Manufacturing Processes 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: A coupled Monte Carlo simulation technique has been developed for hot rolling of advanced high strength steel (AHSS) to simulate the microstructure evolution during static recrystallization. The physically based dislocation evolution model has been formulated to study the deformation behaviour of austenite during hot rolling. The model envisages both hardening and softening regimes during deformation. The evolution of dislocation density as a function of strain has been predicted and the deformation stored energy has been calculated. The computed value of the stored energy of the system has been passed to the Monte Carlo model to construct the total energy Hamiltonian of the lattice system. Both the models have been seamlessly coupled to simulate the kinetics of recrystallization, recrystallized grain size and evolution of microstructure at different strains during forming. A continuum microstructure is mapped onto a two dimensional square lattice and high fidelity simulation has been carried out to characterize recrystallization behaviour. The Avrami exponent obtained from the kinetics of recrystallization predicted by coupled Monte Carlo model has been validated with the published literature. The recrystallized grain size and evolution of microstructure predicted by the coupled Monte Carlo model has been verified with the published data for a typical AHSS and found to be in very good agreement.
    Journal of Manufacturing Processes 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Creepage, a typical phenomenon in the hemming process, can be defined as undesired roll-in of the panel at the bending line. Creepage also reduces the final panel width and makes the hemming radius larger. In this study, experimental observations are reported, and a finite element model, based on the LS-DYNA® two dimensional plane strain solid formulation, is utilized to study the mechanics of how the hem flange bends and folds during the hemming process. A novel hemming process incorporating a counteraction force is proposed in order to prevent the creepage phenomenon during the hemming process. An experimental hemming tool was designed according to this concept, and optimization of the tooling geometry was carried out utilizing the finite element model. An experimental study was conducted to confirm that the new hemming process can prevent creep be employed to help retain a sharp radius during flanging operation.
    Journal of Manufacturing Processes 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Electrohydraulic forming (EHF) is a high energy rate forming process in which the strain rate in the sheet metal can vary from 5 × 102 to 105 s−1 depending on various factors. Several mechanisms have been reported to cause an improvement in formability in EHF such as material deformation mechanisms, inertial effects and the dynamic impact of the sheet against the die. EHF is a complex high speed forming process and experimental work alone is not sufficient to properly understand this process. To understand the variation of some influential variables in EHF, electrohydraulic die-forming (EHDF) and free-forming (EHFF) of DP590 dual phase steel were simulated in ABAQUS/Explicit by considering the fluid/structure interactions. Three-dimensional finite element simulations were conducted by modelling the water with Eulerian elements with a view to investigating the effect of released energy on the sheet deformation profile history, strain distribution, loading path and damage accumulation type. The Johnson–Cook constitutive material model was used to predict the sheet behaviour and the parameters in this model were calibrated based on experimental test results available for DP590 at various strain rates. The Johnson–Cook phenomenological damage model was also used to predict the ductile failure (damage accumulation) in both EHDF and EHFF. Predicted final strain values and damage accumulation type showed good agreement with the experimental observations.
    Journal of Manufacturing Processes 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Experiments were carried out at the National Institute of Standards and Technology, in collaboration with The Boeing Company, to obtain force and temperature data as a function of feed, speed, and fiber orientation angle (FOA), for validation of finite element simulations of composite machining. The outer diameter portions of disks of unidirectional carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) laminates were cut orthogonally. Tabs were machined into the outer diameter (OD) to cause cutting to begin at a FOA of 0° and end at a FOA of 90°. Cutting forces were measured using a dynamometer and the chip morphology was recorded using a high speed camera. It was observed that the variation of cutting force with FOA depended on the feed. For large feed, the cutting force increases with FOA until an angle of 90°, whereas for low feed the cutting force decreases beyond 65°. The chip morphology also changes with FOA and feed. Significant tool flank wear is noted even in these short duration experiments, which causes the thrust and cutting forces to increase significantly for FOA from 0° to 60°. For 65°–80° FOA, force signals change cyclically. A small spike in the cutting force seems to be correlated with fibers being pulled out in clumps, and is followed by lower forces in subsequent revolutions while the pitted surface is machined.
    Journal of Manufacturing Processes 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Tungsten inert gas-metal inert gas (TIG-MIG) hybrid welding process is an effective way to improve welding productivity and quality due to advantages of the two processes. Mathematical analysis is crucial to fundamentally understand this synergetic welding process. In this study, based on experimental visualization of arc behaviors, some assumptions are proposed to deduce adaptive plane and volumetric heat source models separately for each involved welding method first. The influence of torch angles on distribution of temperature and geometry of weld bead are calculated and compared with experimental results. It shows that this developed algorithm of heat source can be employed to accurately predict welding process whether the electrode gun is slanted backward or forward to the direction of welding. Then TIG-MIG hybrid welding process is simulated and analyzed without considering the attractive or repulsive force of two arcs. The characteristic of TIG-MIG welding process is discussed compared to single MIG. It lays the foundation for the further research on the interaction of the two arcs during TIG-MIG hybrid welding.
    Journal of Manufacturing Processes 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: This paper attempts to highlight emerging issues when joining dissimilar metal pairs by magnetic pulse welding. For this purpose, joint of Al/Cu and Al/Al welded with the same parameters are compared. Al/Cu combination involves a formation of an interfacial intermetallic phase whereas Al/Al joint is bonded by metal continuity at the interface. The intermetallic is found to be amorphous, nanoporous, and damaged by a multi-directional cracks. The formation of such features is respectively explained by a melting confined at the interface followed by high rate cooling, cavitation phenomenon and solidification shrinkage. Mechanical characterizations of the Al/Cu joint show brittle fracture at the interface with fragmentation of the [0] intermetallics (glass type rupture). The intermetallic defects such as pores and cracks strongly reduce the breaking load level when compared to the Al/Al case. On the other hand, the Al/Al joint shows ductile fracture with plastic deformation of the interface.
    Journal of Manufacturing Processes 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In the present study, a 2-D finite-element method (FEM) thermal-fluid-stress model has been developed and validated for the twin roll casting (TRC) of AZ31 magnesium alloy. The model was then used to quantify how the thermo-mechanical history experienced by the strip during TRC would change as the equipment was scaled up from a laboratory size (roll diameter = 355 mm) to a pilot scale (roll diameter = 600 mm) and to an industrial scale (roll diameter = 1150 mm) machine. The model predictions showed that the thermal history and solidification cooling rate experienced by the strip are not affected significantly by caster scale-up. However, the mechanical history experienced by the strip did change remarkably depending on the roll diameters. Casting with bigger rolls led to the development of higher stress levels at the strip surface. The roll separating force/mm width of strip was also predicted to increase significantly when the TRC was scaled to larger sizes. Using the model predicted results, the effect of both casting speed and roll diameter was integrated into an empirical equation to predict the exit temperature and the roll separating force for AZ31. Using this approach, a TRC process map was generated for AZ31 which included roll diameter and casting speed.
    Journal of Manufacturing Processes 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The majority of the research activities in the area of warm forming are concentrated on demonstrating or simulating the improved formability associated with forming lightweight materials such as aluminum alloys at elevated temperatures. However, the ability to design the proper thermal management system within the forming tool is a critical aspect to delivering this technology as a viable, stable production alternative to traditional stamping. This work begins to address the thermal stability issues of this process by examining the impact of process cycle time on the parting surface temperature response. Cycle times of 10, 15, 30, and 300 s were evaluated using a reciprocating surface and a self-heated experimental block of 1020 steel fitted with resistance cartridge heaters. The presented results indicate that cycle time does not significantly impact the steady-state temperature response at the parting surface for a well-insulated die that has proper thermal management. Parting surface experimental results were compared to values obtained numerically and through the use of the novel thermal finite element analysis software PASSAGE/Forming®.
    Journal of Manufacturing Processes 04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Modified 9Cr-1Mo (P91) steel is widely used in the construction of power plant components. In the present study, a comparative study on influence of activated flux tungsten inert gas (A-TIG), and gas tungsten arc (GTA) welding processes on the microstructure and the impact toughness of P91 steel welds was carried out. P91 steel welds require a minimum of 47 J during the hydrotesting of vessels as per the EN1557: 1997 specification. Toughness of P91 steel welds was found to be low in the as-weld condition. Hence post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) was carried out on weld with the objective of improving the toughness of weldments. Initially as per industrial practice, PWHT at 760 °C – 2 h was carried out in order to improve the toughness of welds. It has been found that after PWHT at 760 °C – 2 h, GTA weld (132 J) has higher toughness than the required toughness (47 J) as compared with A-TIG weld (20 J). The GTA weld has higher toughness due to enhanced tempering effects due to multipass welding, few microinclusion content and absence of δ-ferrite. The A-TIG weld requires prolonged PWHT (i.e. more than 2 h at 760 °C) than GTA weld to meet the required toughness of 47 J. This is due to harder martensite, few welding passes that introduces less tempering effects, presence of δ-ferrite (0.5%), and more alloy content. After PWHT at 760 °C – 3 h, the toughness of A-TIG weld was improved and higher than the required toughness of 47 J.
    Journal of Manufacturing Processes 04/2014;