Journal of Manufacturing Processes (J Manuf Process )

Publisher: Elsevier

Description

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  • 5-year impact
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  • Cited half-life
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  • Immediacy index
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  • Website
    Journal of Manufacturing Processes website
  • Other titles
    Journal of manufacturing processes (Online), Manufacturing processes, JMP
  • ISSN
    1526-6125
  • OCLC
    44600690
  • Material type
    Document, Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Elsevier

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • Voluntary deposit by author of pre-print allowed on Institutions open scholarly website and pre-print servers
    • Voluntary deposit by author of authors post-print allowed on institutions open scholarly website including Institutional Repository
    • Deposit due to Funding Body, Institutional and Governmental mandate only allowed where separate agreement between repository and publisher exists
    • Set statement to accompany deposit
    • Published source must be acknowledged
    • Must link to journal home page or articles' DOI
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Articles in some journals can be made Open Access on payment of additional charge
    • NIH Authors articles will be submitted to PMC after 12 months
    • Authors who are required to deposit in subject repositories may also use Sponsorship Option
    • Pre-print can not be deposited for The Lancet
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In tube hydroforming, the process chain can be very long as it may involve several pre-forming operations (e.g. bending, crushing, end forming, etc.) which are usually followed by an intermediate annealing stage. Conventional annealing is performed in batches and it is often perceived as a long, relatively expensive and non-environmentally friendly operation. For this reason, in this paper local intermediate heat treatment is proposed as a promising alternative solution, in order to reduce the throughput process time. The study has been carried out on a real tubular motorcycle part, by performing both experiments and numerical simulations, in order to verify whether local annealing can be an effective substitute of conventional global annealing. Several alternative ways of locally heat treating an Al6060 tube right before hydroforming have been investigated. The results demonstrate that a feasible solution can be found, with local heat treatment of relatively small portions of the tube.
    Journal of Manufacturing Processes 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Mechanical mixing can be used for initial dispersion and distribution of nanoparticle agglomerates in metal matrix nanocomposite (MMNC) fabrication. As vortex height increases, flow is enhanced as well as the risk of oxidate melt contamination. The goal of this study was to examine and predict vortex height using dimensional analysis while varying fluid and the angular speed of a pitched square-blade impeller. An equation proposed by Markopoulos et al. was verified for the present experimental conditions. The relevant dimensionless numbers were the Reynolds (Re), Froude (Fr) and Galilei (Ga) numbers. A modified Fr was defined (Fr*) including the shaft and blade angles of the impeller. Experiments allowed calculation of the dimensionless numbers. Two fluids, water and 50 vol% aqueous glycerine, were used. Angular clockwise speed varied from 200 to 900 rpm in 100 rpm increments. Vortex height was measured in lateral view digital images. Correlations of the dimensionless numbers yielded, first, a linear relationship of the product of dimensionless vortex height (H) and specific gravity (ρ*) with respect to Fr*. A polynomial relationship was found between H and ReFr* for each fluid. The polynomial coefficients, in turn, follow a power law behavior with respect to Ga. This allows a prediction of vortex height in other Newtonian fluids that satisfy the single-phase isothermal flow condition. Perhaps, molten aluminum used in MMNC fabrication, can be analyzed based on a simple, room temperature, low cost transparent fluid system. For the experimental conditions in this study, the equation proposed by Markopoulos et al. was valid. The predicting methodology was verified with experimental results using 25 vol% aqueous glycerine, resulting in an absolute percent error of 5.29%, comparable and lower than an error of 9.12% obtained by predicting vortex height with Markopoulos’ equation.
    Journal of Manufacturing Processes 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The majority of the research activities in the area of warm forming are concentrated on demonstrating or simulating the improved formability associated with forming lightweight materials such as aluminum alloys at elevated temperatures. However, the ability to design the proper thermal management system within the forming tool is a critical aspect to delivering this technology as a viable, stable production alternative to traditional stamping. This work begins to address the thermal stability issues of this process by examining the impact of process cycle time on the parting surface temperature response. Cycle times of 10, 15, 30, and 300 s were evaluated using a reciprocating surface and a self-heated experimental block of 1020 steel fitted with resistance cartridge heaters. The presented results indicate that cycle time does not significantly impact the steady-state temperature response at the parting surface for a well-insulated die that has proper thermal management. Parting surface experimental results were compared to values obtained numerically and through the use of the novel thermal finite element analysis software PASSAGE/Forming®.
    Journal of Manufacturing Processes 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The temperature distribution and residual stresses for a GTAW circumferential butt joint of AISI 304 stainless steel using numerical simulation have been evaluated. For evaluation of weld induced residual stresses, the analysis of heat source fitting was carried out with heat inputs ranging from 200 to 500 J/mm to arrive at optimal heat input for obtaining proper weld penetration and heat affected zone (HAZ). For this chosen heat input, the influence of different weld speeds and powers on the temperature distribution and the residual stresses is studied. The heat source analysis revealed the best choice of heat input as 300 J/mm. The residual stresses on the inner and outer surfaces, and along the radial direction were computed. Increase in temperature distribution as well as longitudinal and circumferential residual stresses was observed with the increase in weld speed and power. The validity of the results obtained from numerical simulation is demonstrated with full scale shop floor welding experiments.
    Journal of Manufacturing Processes 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Modified 9Cr-1Mo (P91) steel is widely used in the construction of power plant components. In the present study, a comparative study on influence of activated flux tungsten inert gas (A-TIG), and gas tungsten arc (GTA) welding processes on the microstructure and the impact toughness of P91 steel welds was carried out. P91 steel welds require a minimum of 47 J during the hydrotesting of vessels as per the EN1557: 1997 specification. Toughness of P91 steel welds was found to be low in the as-weld condition. Hence post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) was carried out on weld with the objective of improving the toughness of weldments. Initially as per industrial practice, PWHT at 760 °C – 2 h was carried out in order to improve the toughness of welds. It has been found that after PWHT at 760 °C – 2 h, GTA weld (132 J) has higher toughness than the required toughness (47 J) as compared with A-TIG weld (20 J). The GTA weld has higher toughness due to enhanced tempering effects due to multipass welding, few microinclusion content and absence of δ-ferrite. The A-TIG weld requires prolonged PWHT (i.e. more than 2 h at 760 °C) than GTA weld to meet the required toughness of 47 J. This is due to harder martensite, few welding passes that introduces less tempering effects, presence of δ-ferrite (0.5%), and more alloy content. After PWHT at 760 °C – 3 h, the toughness of A-TIG weld was improved and higher than the required toughness of 47 J.
    Journal of Manufacturing Processes 01/2014;
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This paper presents a novel 3D finite element model for the radial forging process with consideration of mandrel. As different with the previous works, the proposed model captures more accurately the features of the radial forging process. The proposed model is validated. With the proposed model, a comprehensive analysis of the deformation for the tube is presented. The contributions of the present work are: (1) a full 3D finite element model which captures more features of the radial forging process than the models in literature, (2) a proof that a full 3D finite element model is needed, (3) a proof of the effectiveness of the spring bar in stabilizing the contact between the hammer die and work-piece, and (4) the spindle speed has little effect on forging load. Finally, this model can be well used for the analysis and comprehensive understanding of the radial forging process and optimization of the process in future.
    Journal of Manufacturing Processes 01/2014;
  • Journal of Manufacturing Processes 01/2014;
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cladding is generally characterized by partial dilution of the substrate and hence formation of metallurgical bonding between the substrate and the deposits. Laser cladding is one of the most widely practiced surface engineering techniques. The present work mainly focuses on a novel development in surface engineering techniques in the form of microwave cladding. Clads of tungsten carbide (WC) based WC10Co2Ni powder on austenitic stainless steel were produced using microwave hybrid heating. Microwave clads were developed by exposing the preplaced, preheated powder for a duration of 120 s to microwave radiation at 2.45 GHz frequency and 900 W power in a home microwave system. Characterization of the clads was carried out in the form of microstructural and elemental composition studies. Investigations show crack-free interface revealing good metallurgical bond associated with partial dilution of the stainless steel substrate and full melting of WC particles. Typical X-ray diffraction results confirm presence of metallic carbides in the clad which is primarily responsible for significantly higher microhardness of the clad. Process mechanism has been discussed.
    Journal of Manufacturing Processes 01/2014;
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Flexural strength is one of the main criteria in evaluation of the mechanical properties of polymeric joints. The flexural strength of thermoplastics, such as high density polyethylene (HDPE) sheets, is influenced by friction stir welding parameters. The determination of the welding parameters plays an important role in the weld strength. In the present study, the response surface method (RSM) was used as a statistical design of experiment technique to set the optimal welding parameters. The designed tool was consisted of a rotating pin, a stationary shoulder (shoe) and a heating system inside shoe. Rotational speed of the pin, tool traverse speed and shoe temperature were considered as varying parameters. Obtained results show a significant relationship between considered properties and processing parameters through an analysis of variance (ANOVA) study and the response surface method. It was found that welding at a high level of rotational speed and a lower level of tool travel speed increases weld flexural strength by reducing size of defects.
    Journal of Manufacturing Processes 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Micro and multiscale sheet metal forming processes represent new and attractive solutions to many manufacturing problems. However, evaluating the strains in these products is a difficult endeavor. Larger organizations are utilizing commercially available microscale digital image correlation systems to measure the strains in microscale parts or on macroscale parts with critical microscale features. The cost of these strain measurement systems is preventing smaller research and development organizations from entering this challenging area or they are forgoing the ability to determine strains. The present paper describes the development of a method for creating microscale grids and measuring strains on microscale parts or microscale locations on larger parts. The method developed was able to measure true strains up to 0.618 for square grids that are 127 μm measured from center-to-center. Microscale strains resulting from sheet bulge hydroforming experiments using 11 mm, 5 mm, and 1 mm diameter dies were evaluated and material properties of the sheet metal were estimated based upon the strains measured in conjunction with FEA simulations and compared to analytical solutions and microscale tension tests. The material properties determined using the strains and FEM approach were consistent with the other methods.
    Journal of Manufacturing Processes 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The reported investigation is related to laser beam braze-welding technology for dissimilar aluminum–copper interconnects for Li-ion battery assembly. The correlation between the brittle and high-resistivity intermetallic compounds and the electrical contact resistance showed that a thin intermetallic layer is highly desirable. It was proved that highest shear strength and lowest contact resistance can be achieved within the same parameter set which is of particular interest to battery electrical vehicle applications requiring both high mechanical reliability and electrical performance. A study on the weld seam layout further showed that two parallel weld seams with optimized spacing and overlap design provide lowest contact resistance.
    Journal of Manufacturing Processes 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: This article introduces the basic principles of plasma arc welding (PAW) and provides a survey of the latest research and applications in the field. The PAW process is compared to gas tungsten arc welding, its process characteristics are listed, the classification is made, and two modes of operation in PAW, i.e., melt-in and keyhole, are explained. The keyhole mechanism and its influencing factors are introduced. The sensing and control methodologies of the PAW process are reviewed. The coupled behaviors of weld pool and keyhole, the heat transfer and fluid flow as well as three-dimensional modeling and simulation in PAW are discussed. Finally, a novel PAW process variant, the controlled pulse keyholing process and the corresponding experimental system are introduced.
    Journal of Manufacturing Processes 01/2014; 16(1):74–85.
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A pulsed, laser process has been developed to reduce the permanent strength of photo-activated adhesive joints prior to work-piece de-bonding. The objective of this investigation was to gain insight into the relationships between carbon black content of the adhesive, laser delivery mode, heat transfer, and adhesive degradation. To do so, a variety of experiments were performed to characterize process sensitivity, radiation absorption within the adhesive joint, and thermal decomposition of the adhesive. In addition, heat transfer analysis was conducted to predict adhesive temperatures during the process. The results of this investigation indicate that the strength diminishment of an adhesive joint occurs after it has absorbed a train of high power pulses in rapid succession. The vast majority of strength diminishment occurs over a very narrow time window and is highly correlated to the rapid emission of gray smoke/vapor from the adhesive joint. For this to occur, the adhesive must contain carbon black. It is also highly correlated to a rapid increase in temperatures throughout the adhesive matrix. Laser pulse parameters that do not lead to this rapid increase, will not initiate adhesive degradation. The inclusion of carbon black into the adhesive promotes heat absorption and increased temperatures in the adhesive joint. These temperatures are large enough to enable adhesive decomposition. But the time span over which this happens is too small for significant damage to occur. It is currently hypothesized that high temperatures local to the carbon black particles may be the source of adhesive degradation.
    Journal of Manufacturing Processes 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The 2205 duplex stainless steel (DSS) is of both good properties austenitic steel and ferritic steel, which applies to the shipbuilding industry usually. In this paper, the OM, XRD and microhardness test methods are used to analyze the variation of submerged arc welded (SAW) joints with and without post weld heat treatment (PWHT). The research results show that the σ phase disappear in the fusion edge zone near heat affect zone (HAZ) and an increase in the welded center zone during the follow-up PWHT, while the amount of γ phase is decreased in the welded center zone with PWHT. A segregation distribution of some second phases is also found in the welded center zone after PWHT. There have two pick values of microhardness arise in the fusion edge zone and the welded center zone separately without PWHT. However, a maximum value of microhardness at the fusion edge zone near HAZ is disappeared and the other is still held at the welded center zone during PWHT. It can be attributed to the changes of second phases, element diffusions and particle segregation during PWHT. A developing mechanism is issued to demonstrate the second phases transferring of the 2205 DSS SAW joints by PWHT.
    Journal of Manufacturing Processes 01/2014; 16(1):144–148.
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This paper presents a comprehensive survey of welding processes used to deposit wear resistant overlays. It is based on both literature review and research work performed at the Canadian Centre for Welding and Joining. The focus is on the two most popular material systems used for wear resistant overlays: nickel-base with the addition of tungsten carbide particles, and iron-base in which chromium carbides of the form M7C3 nucleate during solidification. The processes surveyed in detail are plasma transfer arc welding, submerged arc welding, laser beam welding, gas metal arc welding-related processes using tubular wires, oxy-acetylene flame brazing, and the still-experimental applications of friction stir processing. Cost and market are key factors influencing technical decisions on wear protection overlays, but the information is scarce and often tightly guarded. An informal survey from our industrial partners is included.
    Journal of Manufacturing Processes 01/2014; 16(1):4–25.
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    ABSTRACT: Welding is a fabrication process to join two different materials. Among the many welding processes, the arc and laser welding processes are the most widely used. Great effort is required to understand the physical phenomena of arc and laser welding due to the complex behaviors which include liquid phase, solid phase and, gas phase. So it is necessary to conduct numerical simulation to understand the detailed procedures of welding. This paper will present the various numerical simulation methods of the arc welding processes such as arc plasma, gas tungsten arc welding, gas metal arc welding, laser welding, and laser–arc hybrid welding. These simulations are conducted by the finite element method, finite differential method and volume of fluid method to describe and analyze the various welding processes.
    Journal of Manufacturing Processes 01/2014; 16(1):26–55.
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This article provides an introduction to the basic principles of friction stir welding (FSW) as well as a survey of the latest research and applications in the field. The basic principles covered include terminology, material flow, joint configurations, tool design, materials, and defects. Material flow is discussed from both an experimental and a modeling perspective. Process variants are discussed as well, which include self-reacting (SR-FSW), stationary shoulder, friction stir processing (FSP), friction stir spot welding (FSSW), assisted FSW, and pulsed FSW. Multiple aspects of robotic friction stir welding are covered, including sensing, control, and joint tracking. Methods of evaluating weld quality are surveyed as well. The latest applications are discussed, with an emphasis on recent advances in aerospace, automotive, and ship building. Finally, the direction of future research and potential applications are examined.
    Journal of Manufacturing Processes 01/2014; 16(1):56–73.
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Present investigation is to study the “Effect of Activating Fluxes on Mechanical and Metallurgical Properties of Dissimilar Activated Flux-Tungsten Inert Gas Welds”. Effect of current, welding speed, joint gap and electrode diameter on weld bead dimensions on 6 mm thick dissimilar weld between carbon steel to stainless steel, was studied under Activated Flux-Tungsten Inert Gas Welding process. During this investigation three different types of oxide powders were used-TiO2, ZnO and MnO2. After welding samples were subject to mechanical testing, in addition to characterization via micro hardness and microstructures of Normal Tungsten Inert Gas Welds and Activated Flux-Tungsten Inert Gas Welds. Activating fluxes TiO2 and ZnO are effective fluxes for Activated Flux-Tungsten Inert Gas Welding of dissimilar weld between CS to SS. Highest depth/width (D/W) ratio reported under TiO2 and ZnO fluxes compare to Normal-Tungsten Inert Gas Welds. Lowest angular distortion was observed under TiO2 flux compare to Normal-Tungsten Inert Gas Welds. Mechanical properties, Joint Efficiency of Activated Flux-Tungsten Inert Gas Welds are higher than normal-Normal Tungsten Inert Gas Welds. Tensile Test specimens of both the processes failed from the parent metal (carbon steel side). Carbon migration from CS to SS, had occurred which led to failure of weld joints from CS side.
    Journal of Manufacturing Processes 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: To achieve high precision and high productivity in machining sculptured surfaces, a new architecture for a five-axis CNC interpolator for machining ruled surfaces was developed and demonstrated on a milling machine. The objective of the five-axis interpolator is to continuously maintain the milling cutter axis in parallel with the straight lines of the ruled surface. The cutter position and orientation are calculated at each sampling period of the interpolator, and corresponding axial position commands are generated by an inverse kinematics algorithm. This real-time approach produces precise surfaces and requires substantially less machining time compared to the conventional off-line approach. Two new g-codes are also given in this paper for the new interpolator to produce part surfaces in CNC milling machines.
    Journal of Manufacturing Processes 07/2013; 2(1):25–35.
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    ABSTRACT: Reconfigurable discrete die tooling is attractive for reducing the lead time, initial costs, and recurring costs associated with stretch forming of sheet metal parts such as aircraft body panels and wing skins as well as automotive and marine components. Current tooling for the stretch forming process requires substantial lead time for fabrication and is inflexible and expensive. To develop discrete die tooling for stretch forming, three different discrete die designs have been proposed, and small-scale prototypes of each have been built. In this paper, the three designs are compared to each other in terms of performance criteria, including pin positioning accuracy and repeatability, setting speed, suitability for a production environment, fabrication costs, manufacturability and maintainability, and maximum forming load capacity. The advantages and disadvantages of each design are also discussed.
    Journal of Manufacturing Processes 07/2013; 2(4):247–257.

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