Arthroscopy The Journal of Arthroscopic and Related Surgery

Publisher: Arthroscopy Association of North America; International Society of Arthroscopy, Knee Surgery, and Orthopaedic Sports Medicine, WB Saunders

Journal description

Nowhere is minimally invasive surgery explained better than in Arthroscopy, the leading peer-reviewed journal in the field. Every issue enables you to put into perspective the usefulness of the various emerging arthroscopic techniques. The advantages and disadvantages of these methods -- along with their applications in various situations -- are discussed in relation to their efficiency, efficacy and cost benefit. New in 2000 - paid subscribers to the journal also receive access to the journal's expanded website. New online features include full text of all articles, video clips, short reports, and Medline links to related articles.

Current impact factor: 3.19

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2015
2013 / 2014 Impact Factor 3.191
2012 Impact Factor 3.103
2011 Impact Factor 3.024
2010 Impact Factor 3.317
2009 Impact Factor 2.608
2008 Impact Factor 2.503
2007 Impact Factor 2.296
2006 Impact Factor 1.574
2005 Impact Factor 1.42
2004 Impact Factor 1.582
2003 Impact Factor 1.616
2002 Impact Factor 1.799
2001 Impact Factor 1.313
2000 Impact Factor 1.217
1999 Impact Factor 1.318
1998 Impact Factor 0.806
1997 Impact Factor 0.959
1996 Impact Factor 1.296
1995 Impact Factor 0.524

Impact factor over time

Impact factor
Year

Additional details

5-year impact 3.51
Cited half-life 7.20
Immediacy index 0.67
Eigenfactor 0.02
Article influence 1.10
Website Arthroscopy: The Journal of Arthroscopic & Related Surgery website
Other titles Online short reports., Arthroscopy (Online), Arthroscopy
ISSN 1526-3231
OCLC 42084448
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

WB Saunders

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • Pre-print allowed on any website or open access repository
    • Voluntary deposit by author of authors post-print allowed on institutions open scholarly website including Institutional Repository, without embargo, where there is not a policy or mandate
    • Deposit due to Funding Body, Institutional and Governmental policy or mandate only allowed where separate agreement between repository and the publisher exists.
    • Permitted deposit due to Funding Body, Institutional and Governmental policy or mandate, may be required to comply with embargo periods of 12 months to 48 months .
    • Set statement to accompany deposit
    • Published source must be acknowledged
    • Must link to journal home page or articles' DOI
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Articles in some journals can be made Open Access on payment of additional charge
    • NIH Authors articles will be submitted to PubMed Central after 12 months
    • Authors who are required to deposit in subject-based repositories may also use Sponsorship Option
    • 'WB Saunders' is an imprint of 'Elsevier'
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • Makoto Tanaka, Kenji Hayashida, Atsushi Kobayashi, Masaaki Kakiuchi
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    ABSTRACT: To report the retear rate and retear pattern after double-row arthroscopic rotator cuff repair (DR-ARCR) with the use of absorbable sutures as medial anchor sutures and to address the advantage of the use of absorbable sutures in medial-row anchors. Fifty-seven shoulders (22 male and 35 female patients; mean age, 66.1 years) with complete rotator cuff tears treated with DR-ARCR using absorbable mattress sutures as medial-row anchor sutures were included in the study. They included 35 medium, 17 large, and 5 massive tears. For the medial row, medial anchor sutures were replaced with absorbable mattress sutures. High-strength simple sutures were used for the lateral anchors. We evaluated retear patterns by magnetic resonance imaging examinations performed at 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year postoperatively. The clinical conditions of all patients preoperatively and 2 years postoperatively were assessed by the University of California, Los Angeles rating scale and the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons shoulder index. A complete retear of the tendon at the footprint was observed in 5 shoulders. Complete discontinuity at the middle of the tendon around the medial-row anchors with a footprint remnant was observed in 1 shoulder. A thinned repaired rotator cuff was observed in 2 shoulders because of a partial retear of the deep layer. The overall retear rate was 14%. From before to after surgery, the University of California, Los Angeles score significantly improved from 18.4 to 32.9 (P < .0001) and the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons index improved from 55.1 to 87.7 (P < .0001). No complications were observed. The retear rates after DR-ARCR with absorbable sutures as medial-row anchors were 8.8% for complete retears of the tendon at the footprint and 1.7% for complete discontinuity of tendon around the medial-row anchors. This procedure provided a low retear rate around the medial-row anchors. Level IV, therapeutic case series. Copyright © 2015 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Arthroscopy The Journal of Arthroscopic and Related Surgery 06/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.arthro.2015.04.094
  • Ji Hyun Ahn, Jong Dae Kim, Ho Won Kang
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    ABSTRACT: To compare maturation of reconstructed graft on second-look arthroscopy and clinical outcomes between 2 groups: the provisional anatomic (PA) group, with both the anteromedial (AM) and posterolateral (PL) femoral tunnels in their anatomic location, and the nonanatomic (NA) group, with either 1 of the 2 femoral tunnels beyond its anatomic location after double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. We enrolled 154 patients who underwent 3-dimensional computed tomography scanning and second-look arthroscopy after double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. All of the patients were divided into the PA and NA groups according to the femoral tunnel position determined by the quadrant method. Graft maturation was evaluated with 3 subsections, including integrity, tension, and synovial coverage with revascularization, on second-look arthroscopy. We also compared Lachman test, pivot-shift test, KT-2000 (MEDmetric, San Diego, CA), and International Knee Documentation Committee grades at the last follow-up. Of the 154 patients, 88 were classified as the PA group and 66 as the NA group by the quadrant method. A difference existed between groups for the AM tunnel position but not for the PL tunnel position. The PA group showed a higher graft maturation score (P < .001 for all comparisons) and better results according to the International Knee Documentation Committee knee rating, Lachman test, pivot-shift test, and KT-2000 assessment (P < .001 for all comparisons). The PA group with anatomic femoral tunnel placement showed a higher graft maturation score on second-look arthroscopy, along with better clinical outcomes, than the NA group. There was a significant difference in the AM femoral tunnel position but not in the PL tunnel position between the 2 groups. Level III, retrospective comparative study. Copyright © 2015 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Arthroscopy The Journal of Arthroscopic and Related Surgery 06/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.arthro.2015.04.098
  • Richard L Angelo, Robert A Pedowitz, Richard K N Ryu, Anthony G Gallagher
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    ABSTRACT: To determine if a dry shoulder model simulator coupled with previously validated performance metrics for an arthroscopic Bankart repair (ABR) would be a valid tool with the ability to discriminate between the performance of experienced and novice surgeons, and to establish a proficiency benchmark for an ABR using a model simulator. We compared an experienced group of arthroscopic shoulder surgeons (Arthroscopy Association of North America faculty) (n = 12) with a novice group (n = 7) (postgraduate year 4 or 5 orthopaedic residents). All surgeons were instructed to perform a diagnostic arthroscopy and a 3 suture anchor Bankart repair on a dry shoulder model. Each procedure was videotaped in its entirety and scored in blinded fashion independently by 2 trained reviewers. Scoring used previously validated metrics for an ABR and included steps, errors, and "sentinel" (more serious) errors. The inter-rater reliability among pairs of raters averaged 0.93. The experienced group made 63% fewer errors, committed 79% fewer sentinel errors, and performed the procedure in 42% less time than the novice group (all significant differences). The greatest difference in errors between the groups involved anchor preparation and insertion, suture delivery and management, and knot tying. The tool comprised by validated ABR metrics coupled with a dry shoulder model simulator is able to accurately distinguish between the performance of experienced and novice orthopaedic surgeons. A performance benchmark based on the mean performance of the experienced group includes completion of a 3 anchor Bankart repair, enacting no more than 4 total errors and 1 sentinel error. The combination of performance metrics and an arthroscopic shoulder model simulator can be used to improve the effectiveness of surgical skills training for an ABR. The methodology used may serve as a template for outcomes-based procedural skills training in general. Copyright © 2015 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Arthroscopy The Journal of Arthroscopic and Related Surgery 06/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.arthro.2015.04.092
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    ABSTRACT: To determine whether the addition of lateral extra-articular tenodesis (LET) to anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction provided greater control of rotational laxity and improved clinical outcomes compared with ACL reconstruction alone. Two independent reviewers searched 9 databases for randomized and nonrandomized clinical studies comparing ACL reconstruction plus LET versus ACL reconstruction alone in a human adult population. All years and 5 languages were included. Animal and cadaveric studies, revision or repair surgical techniques, and studies focused on biomechanical outcomes were excluded. Quality assessment of the included studies was performed with the Cochrane Collaboration tool. Outcomes of interest included the pivot-shift test, KT-1000/-2000 measurements (MEDmetric, San Diego, CA), and International Knee Documentation Committee scores. The literature search yielded 3,612 articles. After titles and abstracts were reviewed, 106 articles were selected for full-text review, of which 29 studies met the inclusion criteria (8 randomized and 21 nonrandomized studies). Of the 8 randomized studies, 3 concluded that the results were nonsignificant between treatment groups, 4 were in favor of the extra-articular tenodesis, and 1 was in favor of the ACL reconstruction alone. The Cochrane Collaboration tool showed an unclear to high risk of bias for most articles. A meta-analysis showed a statistically significant difference for the pivot-shift test (P = .002, I(2) = 34%) in favor of ACL reconstruction with LET. No difference was found between the groups for International Knee Documentation Committee scores (P = .75, I(2) = 19%) and KT-1000/-2000 measurements (P = .84, I(2) = 34%). Meta-analysis showed a statistically significant reduction in pivot shift in favor of the combined procedure. Studies lacked sufficient internal validity, sample size, methodologic consistency, and standardization of protocols and outcomes. Level III, systematic review of Level I, II, and III studies. Copyright © 2015 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Arthroscopy The Journal of Arthroscopic and Related Surgery 06/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.arthro.2015.04.089
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    ABSTRACT: To characterize the orientation of the normal supraspinatus central tendon and describe the displacement patterns of the central tendon in rotator cuff tears using a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based method. We performed a retrospective MRI and chart review of 183 patients with a rotator cuff tear (cuff tear group), 52 with a labral tear but no rotator cuff tear (labral tear group), and 74 with a normal shoulder (normal group). The orientation of the supraspinatus central tendon relative to the bicipital groove was evaluated based on axial MRI and was numerically represented by the shortest distance from the lateral extension line of the central tendon to the bicipital groove. Tear size, fatty degeneration, and involvement of the anterior supraspinatus were evaluated to identify the factors associated with orientation changes. The mean distance from the bicipital groove to the central tendon line was 0.7 mm and 1.3 mm in the normal group and labral tear group, respectively. Full-thickness cuff tears involving the anterior supraspinatus showed a significantly greater distance (17.7 mm) than those sparing the anterior supraspinatus (4.9 mm, P = .001). Fatty degeneration of the supraspinatus was significantly correlated with the distance (P = .006). Disruption of the anterior supraspinatus and fatty degeneration of the supraspinatus were independent predictors of posterior displacement. The supraspinatus central tendon has a constant orientation toward the bicipital groove in normal shoulders, and the central tendon is frequently displaced posteriorly in full-thickness rotator cuff tears involving the anterior leading edge of the supraspinatus. The degree of posterior displacement is proportional to tear size and severity of fatty degeneration of the supraspinatus muscle. A simple and quick assessment of the central tendon orientation on preoperative MRI can be a useful indicator of tear characteristics, potentially providing insight into the intraoperative repair strategy. Level IV, diagnostic case-control study. Copyright © 2015 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Arthroscopy The Journal of Arthroscopic and Related Surgery 06/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.arthro.2015.04.096
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    ABSTRACT: To report the clinical outcomes of arthroscopic excision for a symptomatic os trigonum initially viewing through the posteromedial ankle portal with the motorized instrument in the posterolateral portal. A retrospective review of a consecutive series of patients with symptomatic os trigonum failing nonoperative management and treated with arthroscopic excision was performed. Demographic data, clinical data, American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society (AOFAS) hindfoot scores, and Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation scores were obtained. Any complications and the time required to return to sports or full activities were recorded. Twenty-four patients with an arthroscopic excision of a symptomatic os trigonum were included. There were 13 male and 11 female patients. The average age was 36.7 ± 17 years. Twenty-one isolated os trigonum excisions and 3 excisions combined with other procedures were studied. At a mean follow-up of 26 months (range, 24 to 31 months), average preoperative AOFAS scores significantly improved from 55.3 to 92.3 postoperatively (P < .0001). The preoperative AOFAS function component improved from 17.1 to 33.8 (P < .0001). The mean postoperative Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation score was 90. Patients reported full activity at an average of 1.5 months with no limitations at an average of 7.8 months after surgery. The only complication was a posterior tibial nerve calcaneal branch neurapraxia. Arthroscopic excision in the prone position without traction of a symptomatic os trigonum viewing initially through the posteromedial portal with a high-speed burr in the posterolateral portal resulted in significantly improved AOFAS scores with a single transient neurapraxia in 24 patients. Patients returned to their normal daily activities without limitations at an average of 1.5 months. Level IV, therapeutic case series. Copyright © 2015 Arthroscopy Association of North America. All rights reserved.
    Arthroscopy The Journal of Arthroscopic and Related Surgery 06/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.arthro.2015.04.086
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate correlations between objective performances measured by a new online arthroscopic skills acquisition tool (ASAT, in which "shape match" with inverted controls requires lifting shapes and releasing them into their corresponding silhouettes) and a validated virtual reality (VR) shoulder arthroscopy simulator (Insight Arthro VR; GMV, Madrid, Spain). Forty-nine medical students familiarized themselves with 5 ASATs. They were then assessed using a sixth ASAT (shape match with inverted controls) and 4 VR tasks (operating room, visualize, locate and palpate, and pendulum) on the VR simulator. Correlations were assessed between 11 ASAT measures and 15 VR measures using Pearson correlation coefficients. Time taken and delta distance (actual distance minus minimum distance traveled) were the most frequent and correlated ASAT measures. Time taken correlated with the VR locate-and-palpate time (r = 0.596, P < .001), visualize time (r = 0.381, P = .007), and pendulum time (r = 0.646, P < .001), whereas delta distance correlated with the locate-and-palpate camera distance (r = 0.667, P < .001), instrument distance (r = 0.664, P < .001), visualize distance (r = 0.4, P = .004), pendulum camera distance (r = 0.538, P < .001), and instrument distance (r = 0.539, P < .001). There were significant correlations between performance measures on the ASAT and a validated arthroscopic VR simulator. Arthroscopic simulators are available but are limited by their high cost and availability. ASATs may overcome these limitations by using widely available Internet-based software and basic input devices. Copyright © 2015 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Arthroscopy The Journal of Arthroscopic and Related Surgery 06/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.arthro.2015.03.019
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the association of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries with the intercondylar notch angle and notch width in male patients. The secondary purpose was to evaluate the association of these injuries with other novel morphologic parameters. Male patients undergoing primary ACL reconstruction between 2010 and 2013 for injury through noncontact mechanisms with preoperative magnetic resonance imaging were compared with an age-matched control group of male patients (patients who underwent knee operations other than ACL reconstruction) regarding the following magnetic resonance imaging-assessed parameters: intercondylar notch angle, width, and depth; condylar width; medial/lateral condylar widths; medial/lateral posterior tibial plateau slopes; anterior sagittal tibial slope (corresponding to the level of the tibial ACL footprint); coronal tibial slope; and angle between the Blumensaat line and anterior tibial slope. In both the coronal and axial planes, patients with ACL injury had a significantly lower intercondylar notch angle (P < .001 and P = .008, respectively) than the control group, but there were no significant between-group differences for intercondylar notch width (P = .9 and P = .97, respectively). In the sagittal plane, patients with ACL injury had significantly higher medial (P < .001) and lateral (P = .02) posterior tibial slopes, a significantly lower anterior tibial slope (P = .01), and a significantly higher angle between the Blumensaat line and anterior tibial slope (P = .02) than the control group. Narrowing of the intercondylar notch may be associated with ACL injury in male patients. However, the intercondylar notch angle may be a better parameter to evaluate notch narrowing and its potential association with ACL injuries compared with the notch width. The association between the angle formed by the Blumensaat line and anterior tibial slope and ACL injuries in male patients needs more investigation. This study further suggests that increased posterior tibial slope may be associated with ACL injury in male patients. Level III, case-control study. Copyright © 2015 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Arthroscopy The Journal of Arthroscopic and Related Surgery 06/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.arthro.2015.04.088
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    ABSTRACT: Shoulder arthroscopy offers a safe, effective, and less invasive alternative to arthroplasty in patients under 60 years of age with glenohumeral arthritis. However, indications include joint space of greater than 2 mm. For patients who do not meet arthroscopic indications, total shoulder arthroplasty is more effective than hemiarthroplasty. Performance and publication bias may effect generalizability of these findings. Biologic treatment options seem on the horizon. Copyright © 2015 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Arthroscopy The Journal of Arthroscopic and Related Surgery 06/2015; 31(6):1167-8. DOI:10.1016/j.arthro.2015.04.076
  • Arthroscopy The Journal of Arthroscopic and Related Surgery 06/2015; 31(6):1027-8. DOI:10.1016/j.arthro.2015.04.003
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    ABSTRACT: Double-bundle ACL reconstruction results in statistically significant, but not clinically significant improvement in knee anteroposterior stability, and improved rotational stability, according to the pivot-shift test, which is subjective. However, double-bundle does not improve clinical outcomes, does not reduce graft failure rates, and is more complex, more expensive, takes longer, and is harder to revise. As a result, for now, we prefer single-bundle ACL reconstruction. Copyright © 2015 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Arthroscopy The Journal of Arthroscopic and Related Surgery 06/2015; 31(6):1197-8. DOI:10.1016/j.arthro.2015.04.078
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    ABSTRACT: Systematic review of the literature does not support operative treatment of primary patellar dislocation, as the results of nonoperative treatment are similar. However, surgery is indicated for recurrent patellar dislocation, and in the future, we anticipate that contemporary medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction outcomes for primary patellar dislocation will prove superior to nonoperative treatment. Copyright © 2015 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Arthroscopy The Journal of Arthroscopic and Related Surgery 06/2015; 31(6):1216. DOI:10.1016/j.arthro.2015.04.079
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    ABSTRACT: While radiographic and histologic data show features of hamstring tendon regeneration after harvest for ligament reconstruction, we remain skeptical that hamstring regeneration is clinically meaningful. We cannot recommend reharvest for revision surgery. Copyright © 2015 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Arthroscopy The Journal of Arthroscopic and Related Surgery 06/2015; 31(6):1184. DOI:10.1016/j.arthro.2015.04.075
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    ABSTRACT: Hip imaging studies suggest significant pathology in asymptomatic individuals. We use the term suggest, because if the patient is asymptomatic, perhaps reported findings should not be labeled pathologic. Hip imaging researchers may need to reconsider what represents an abnormal radiologic sign. And, while we introduce that knee and shoulder imaging is of greater diagnostic value, on reflection, we realize that knee and shoulder imaging researchers may also need to reconsider what represents abnormal. Copyright © 2015 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Arthroscopy The Journal of Arthroscopic and Related Surgery 06/2015; 31(6):1205-6. DOI:10.1016/j.arthro.2015.04.077
  • Arthroscopy The Journal of Arthroscopic and Related Surgery 06/2015; 31(6):1033-4. DOI:10.1016/j.arthro.2015.04.084
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    ABSTRACT: Stem cells are guided by scaffolds, induced by growth factors, and stimulated by biomechanical forces, with a goal of engineering clinically competent cartilage, meniscus, tendon, or ligament tissue. Translational research, to move us from the preclinical to the clinical phase, is today necessary. Copyright © 2015 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Arthroscopy The Journal of Arthroscopic and Related Surgery 05/2015; 31(5). DOI:10.1016/j.arthro.2015.02.038
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    ABSTRACT: Review of biologic enhancement of muscle and tendon healing reveals substantial clinical study of platelet rich plasma, but an inadequate basis for evidence-based treatment recommendations. In this context, the literature shows that augmentation of rotator cuff repair is not shown to be of benefit, while treatment of knee and ankle tendinopathy and plantar fasciitis shows positive results. Copyright © 2015 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Arthroscopy The Journal of Arthroscopic and Related Surgery 05/2015; 31(5). DOI:10.1016/j.arthro.2015.02.037
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    ABSTRACT: Preclinical ACL tissue engineering studies show promise using a combination of cells, scaffolds, growth factors, and "stimulation," such as ultrasound or shockwave therapy, but clinical application is in its infancy. Bioactive scaffolds may be weak at time zero. A solution could be to add to the combination of cells, scaffolds, growth factors, simulation, and a structural tie. Copyright © 2015 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Arthroscopy The Journal of Arthroscopic and Related Surgery 05/2015; 31(5). DOI:10.1016/j.arthro.2015.02.036
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    ABSTRACT: Current literature does not suggest that PRP treatment improves ACL clinical outcomes. However, PRP preparations are heterogeneous, and PRP clinical investigation is affected by an infinite number of confounding variables. In addition, PRP is but one type of biologic stimulant. PRP may have benefits for ACL surgery, but clinical evidence is in its infancy. Copyright © 2015 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Arthroscopy The Journal of Arthroscopic and Related Surgery 05/2015; 31(5). DOI:10.1016/j.arthro.2015.02.040
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    ABSTRACT: To compare the occurrence rate of hypotensive and bradycardic events (HBEs) during arthroscopic rotator cuff repair performed with interscalene brachial plexus block anesthesia in the sitting position in 2 groups of patients who underwent the procedure with norepinephrine or epinephrine added to the irrigation fluid. The secondary objective was to evaluate the efficacy of norepinephrine in comparison with epinephrine in controlling intraoperative bleeding and maintaining adequate visualization of the arthroscopic field of view during the procedure. We hypothesized that norepinephrine added to the irrigation fluid during shoulder arthroscopy in the sitting position would reduce the occurrence of HBEs, allowing optimal intraoperative bleeding control. One hundred twenty patients underwent an arthroscopic rotator cuff repair performed under peripheral anesthesia and in the beach-chair position. Patients were randomly divided into 2 groups of 60 cases each: Norepinephrine (0.66 mg/L) and epinephrine (0.33 mg/L) were added to irrigation bags in group N and group E, respectively. The primary outcome was the occurrence rate of HBEs during surgery. The secondary outcomes were timing of onset of HBEs, accompanying symptoms, and intraoperative bleeding that impaired arthroscopic visualization. The clarity of the visual field was rated postoperatively by the surgeon using a visual analog scale. Comparison between groups for all baseline variables and outcome measurements was performed with the χ(2) or Fisher exact test, as appropriate, for categorical variables and the Student t test or Mann-Whitney U test, as appropriate, for continuous variables. Significance was set at P < .05. One patient was excluded from group E because of block failure; therefore 119 patients were finally included in the study. Comparison between groups showed no significant differences in baseline characteristics. The occurrence rate of HBEs was significantly greater in group E (n = 15) than in group N (n = 5) (P = .02). No differences between groups were found in the average time of onset of HBEs, accompanying symptoms, and clarity of the visual field. Continuous administration of norepinephrine, 0.66 mg/L, diluted in irrigation fluid during arthroscopic rotator cuff repair with the patient in the beach-chair position reduces the incidence of HBEs and is as effective as epinephrine in controlling intraoperative bleeding and maintaining the visual clarity of the surgical field. Level I, randomized clinical study. Copyright © 2015 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Arthroscopy The Journal of Arthroscopic and Related Surgery 05/2015; 31(5). DOI:10.1016/j.arthro.2015.02.030