Pain Management Nursing (PAIN MANAG NURS)

Publisher: American Society of Pain Management Nurses

Journal description

This exciting new journal offers a unique focus on the realm of pain management as it applies to nurses. Original and review articles from experts in the field offer key insight in the areas of clinical practice, advocacy, education, administration, and research. Additional features include practice guidelines and articles dealing with pharmacologic issues.

Current impact factor: 1.79

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2015
2013 / 2014 Impact Factor 1.787
2012 Impact Factor 1.696
2011 Impact Factor 1.145
2010 Impact Factor 1.039
2009 Impact Factor 1.306
2008 Impact Factor 1.537

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 1.49
Cited half-life 6.30
Immediacy index 0.14
Eigenfactor 0.00
Article influence 0.39
Website Pain Management Nursing website
Other titles Pain management nursing (Online), Pain management nursing
ISSN 1524-9042
OCLC 45496010
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Publications in this journal

  • Pain Management Nursing 02/2015; 16(1). DOI:10.1016/j.pmn.2014.12.001
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    ABSTRACT: Pediatric pain assessment is a significant issue yet the topic is understudied. Unique challenges, namely reporting biases, are present when assessing pain in children. The aim of this review of the literature is to increase awareness of biases when assessing pain in children, suggest changes in practice, and state priorities for future research. Five computerized databases were searched to identify original research pertaining to the use of drawn faces scales for pediatric pain assessment. Twelve studies met inclusion criteria. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines provided a framework for this review. Relevant articles were identified and data were extracted from the studies. Content analyses were then used to synthesize the findings. The age of a child being assessed contributed to biases in pain assessment. Drawn faces scales may provide inaccurate pain assessment results if a child has difficulty separating the feelings of pain and mood. Smiling faces on pain assessment scales may lead to overestimation of pain intensity. Nurses should consider biases when selecting and implementing a drawn faces pain assessment tool and when planning pain management interventions. An increase in the use of technology in pediatric pain assessment practices may provide opportunities to implement individualized pain assessment in practice. Further research is needed to determine the most reliable methods for pediatric pain assessment including the use of technology. Evidence would assist nurses in determining the best tool to assess each child based on cognitive abilities and developmental level.
    Pain Management Nursing 12/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.pmn.2014.03.004
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    ABSTRACT: Determining patient satisfaction with postoperative pain management is an important intervention to improve strategies for effective pain control. The aim of this study was to validate an English version of the 14-item Strategic and Clinical Quality Indicators in Postoperative Pain Management questionnaire in Turkish language. The study included 113 patients who underwent elective surgeries at a university hospital in Bursa, Turkey. The data were collected after translation procedures and final adjustments were done on the original instrument. For the total scale, Cronbach’s coefficient α was 0.81 and the main score obtained from the scale was 45.8 ± 10.8. Included were three subscales: nursing interventions, pain management, and environments. Of the patients, 40.7% reported more pain than expected in the postoperative period and their satisfaction with pain relief was 7.4 ± 2.5. This instrument is a reliable and valid instrument in Turkish language and can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of postoperative pain management.
    Pain Management Nursing 12/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.pmn.2014.01.003
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    ABSTRACT: Nonprofessional caregivers frequently experience barriers to using analgesics for pain in patients in home hospice settings, and patients in pain may suffer needlessly. For example, caregiver adherence to the administration of analgesics is lower for as-needed (PRN) regimens than for standard around-the-clock regimens. But little is known about the barriers caregivers experience and the effects of those barriers. Accordingly, we determined caregiver barriers to using analgesics to manage the pain of patients in the home hospice care setting, and how such barriers affected caregiver adherence and patient quality of life. To this end, we measured barriers, caregiver adherence to PRN analgesic regimens, and patient health outcomes (pain, depression, quality of life [QoL]). A 3-day longitudinal design was used. We recruited 46 hospice nonprofessional caregiver–patient dyads from a local community hospice agency. Barriers were measured with the Barrier Questionnaire II. Adherence to the PRN analgesic regimen was obtained with a 3-day pain and medication diary. Patient outcome measures included pain intensity, the Hospital Depression Scale, and the Brief Hospice Inventory for QoL. Barrier scores were moderate to low. Caregivers adhered to PRN analgesic regimens approximately 51% of the time. Higher caregiver adherence to PRN analgesic regimens was associated with lower patient pain intensity and higher patient QoL, but not, surprisingly, with barriers to pain management. Longitudinal studies are now needed to identify factors besides caregiver barriers that may unduly lower caregiver adherence to PRN analgesic regimens.
    Pain Management Nursing 11/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.pmn.2014.07.001
  • Pain Management Nursing 11/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.pmn.2014.10.001
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    ABSTRACT: Patients with advanced cancer often experience chronic postoperative pain and poor quality of life. The objective of this study was to determine if epidural self-controlled analgesia reduced the incidence of chronic pain and improved the quality of life when compared with intravenous self-controlled analgesia. A total of 50 patients diagnosed with advanced cancer who received analgesia treatment were randomly divided into two groups, epidural self-controlled analgesia group (EA group, n = 26) and intravenous self-controlled analgesia group (IA group, n = 24). Visual analog scale (VAS) and Karnofsky score were used to assess the pain and the quality of life, respectively. A multifunction monitor was used to continuously record the physical signs of patients after treatment. The physical signs, such as heart failure, respiration, pulse, blood pressure, and oxygen saturation, in the two groups were better after analgesia treatment. Meanwhile, the respiration and oxygen saturation in the EA group were significantly improved compared with that of the IA group (p < .05). The VAS in the EA group was significantly lower than that in the IA group (p < .05), and the Karnofsky score in the EA group was significantly higher than that in the IA group (p < .05). Moreover, patients treated with EA felt more satisfied and experienced fewer complications than those with IA (p < .05). The epidural self-controlled analgesia may greatly improve the quality of life and relieve the pain in patients with advanced cancer.
    Pain Management Nursing 11/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.pmn.2014.08.003
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    ABSTRACT: Inadequate assessment and management of pain among critical care patients can lead to ineffective care delivery and an increased length of stay. Nurses' lack of knowledge regarding appropriate assessment and treatment, as well as negative biases toward specific patient populations, can lead to poor pain control. Our aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of professionally directed small group discussions on critical care nurses' knowledge and biases related to pain management. A quasi-experiment was conducted at a 383-bed Magnet® redesignated hospital in the southeastern United States. Critical care nurses (N = 32) participated in the study. A modified Brockopp and Warden Pain Knowledge Questionnaire was administered before and after the small group sessions. These sessions were 45 minutes in length, consisted of two to six nurses per group, and focused on effective pain management strategies. Results indicated that mean knowledge scores differed significantly and in a positive direction after intervention [preintervention mean = 18.28, standard deviation = 2.33; postintervention mean = 22.16, standard deviation = 1.70; t(31) = −8.87, p < .001]. Post-bias scores (amount of time and energy nurses would spend attending to patients' pain) were significantly higher for 6 of 15 patient populations. The strongest bias against treating patients' pain was toward unconscious and mechanically ventilated individuals. After the implementation of professionally directed small group discussions with critical care nurses, knowledge levels related to pain management increased and biases toward specific patient populations decreased.
    Pain Management Nursing 11/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.pmn.2014.05.002
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    ABSTRACT: For hospital executives and clinicians to improve pain management, organizations must examine the current pain experience of in-patients beyond simply measuring patient satisfaction. The aim of this study was to quantify the prevalence of pain among adult in-patients and the degree of interference pain had on daily activities. A descriptive, cross-sectional study was undertaken in a 530 bed tertiary care, teaching hospital in central Canada. A convenience sample (N = 88) of adult medical-surgical patients completed the Short Form-Brief Pain Inventory survey. Pain prevalence was 70.4%. The mean pain severity score was 3.76 (standard deviation, SD = 2.88) and mean pain interference score on daily activities was 4.56 (SD = 3.93). The most frequently identified site of pain was the lower extremities (n = 15, 28%). Women had higher mean scores on pain “right now” compared to men (p < 0.05). The sample majority (n = 81) indicated hospital staff asked about the presence of pain. Seventy-nine percent (n = 57) reported hospital staff “always” did everything they could to help manage pain. Eighty-four percent (n = 61) selected “always” or “usually” to describe their ability to be involved in deciding pain treatments. The mean pain relief score from treatments was 61% (SD = 34.79). Significant positive correlations were found between pain intensity ratings and pain interference on all daily activities (p < 0.001). Pain prevalence remains high with a significant relationship between pain and activities of daily living. The study provides baseline data to direct future initiatives at improving pain management.
    Pain Management Nursing 11/2014; 16(1). DOI:10.1016/j.pmn.2014.05.007
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    ABSTRACT: Pain management for older adults in long-term care (LTC) has been recognized as a problem internationally. The purpose of this study was to explore the role of a clinical nurse specialist (CNS) and nurse practitioner (NP) as change champions during the implementation of an evidence-based pain protocol in LTC. In this exploratory, multiple-case design study, we collected data from two LTC homes in Ontario, Canada. Three data sources were used: participant observation of an NP and a CNS for 18 hours each over a 3-week period; CNS and NP diaries recording strategies, barriers, and facilitators to the implementation process; and interviews with members of the interdisciplinary team to explore perceptions about the NP and CNS role in implementing the pain protocol. Data were analyzed using thematic content analysis. The NP and CNS used a variety of effective strategies to promote pain management changes in practice including educational outreach with team members, reminders to nursing staff to highlight the pain protocol and educate about practice changes, chart audits and feedback to the nursing staff, interdisciplinary working group meetings, ad hoc meetings with nursing staff, and resident assessment using advanced skills. The CNS and NP are ideal champions to implement pain management protocols and likely other quality improvement initiatives.
    Pain Management Nursing 11/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.pmn.2014.04.002
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    ABSTRACT: Newborns are often subjected to invasive and painful medical procedures. This happens even more frequently when they require hospitalization. The aim of this paper was to evaluate pain in healthy newborns and in newborns with Down syndrome (DS). We performed a prospective cohort study in the neonatal service of the San Cecilio University Hospital in Granada (Spain) from January 2008 to September 2013. The universe of our study comprised a study group of 20 newborns with DS and a control group of 20 newborns without DS. All of the infants were hospitalized, and thus had to undergo painful medical procedures. The variables studied were basal recovery time (as reflected in crying and the normalization of biological constants), number of punctures, oxygen saturation, heartbeat, blood pressure, response to skin-to-skin contact, and gestational age. The evaluation was performed during blood extraction, vein canalization, and heel puncture. The significant differences in the basal recovery time between the two groups of newborns indicated that those with DS were slower to express pain, and when they did, their response was not as clearly defined as that of babies without DS. The oxygen saturation in babies with DS after the puncture was found to be significantly lower than that of the control group (p < .001). The results of this study revealed that babies with DS were not as quick to perceive pain after a puncture. However, when pain was finally perceived, it persisted for a longer time. This situation should be taken into account in the design of pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic therapies.
    Pain Management Nursing 11/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.pmn.2014.08.001
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of animal-assisted intervention as distraction for reducing children's pain and distress before, during, and after standard blood collection procedure. Fifty children (ages 4-11 years) undergoing venipuncture were randomly assigned to the experimental group (EG; n = 25) or to the control group (CG; n = 25). The blood collection procedure was carried on the children in the EG arm in the presence of a dog, whereas no dog was present when venipuncture was conducted on children in CG. In both cases, parents accompanied the child in the procedure room. Distress experienced by the child was measured with the Amended Observation Scale of Behavioral Distress, while perceived pain was measured with a visual analog scale or the Wong Baker Scale (Faces Scale); levels of cortisol in blood also were analyzed. Parental anxiety during the procedure was measured with State Trait Anxiety Inventory. Children assigned to the EG group reacted with less distress than children in the CG arm. Furthermore, cortisol levels were lower in the EG group compared with the CG group. There were no significant differences in pain ratings and in the level of parental anxiety. It appears that the presence of dogs during blood draw procedures reduces distress in children.
    Pain Management Nursing 11/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.pmn.2014.04.004
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    ABSTRACT: Despite available guidelines and efforts to improve pain management, pain remains prevalent in hospitals. The aim of this study was to explore whether pain management practices in a university hospital were in line with guidelines on acute, geriatric, and cancer pain. This was a descriptive, correlational, and point-prevalence study conducted at a university hospital with 282 adults, who were hospitalized for 24 hours and were alert and able to participate. Patient self-report data were collected with the American Pain Society questionnaire and pain management data were collected from medical records. Adequacy of treatment was measured with the Pain Management Index, calculated for prescribed and administered treatments. The mean age of participants was 68.9 years (SD = 17; range 18-100); 49% were women; and 72% were on medical services. Pain assessment was documented for 57% of patients, of those, 27% had pain severity documented with a standardized scale. Most patients (85%) were prescribed analgesics and multimodal therapy was prescribed for 60%. Prescribed treatment was adequate for 78% of patients, whereas 64% were administered adequate treatment. The odds of receiving adequate treatment were higher (odds ratio, 3.44; 95% confidence interval, 1.38-8.60) when pain severity was documented. Nonpharmacologic methods were used by 34% of patients. Although the majority of patients had an analgesic prescription, many did not receive adequate treatment. The use of pain severity scales was associated with the provision of more adequate pain treatment. To provide quality pain management, pain assessment needs to be improved and available treatments used to meet patient needs.
    Pain Management Nursing 11/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.pmn.2014.06.005
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    ABSTRACT: The World Health Organization and the International Association for Study of Pain cite the significance of pediatric pain as a significant global health issue. Developing countries may have increased needs compared with developed countries because of limited resources and lack of training. In Mongolia a paucity of data exist regarding nursing knowledge of pediatric pain management. The purpose of this project was to assess the current knowledge of pediatric pain and to assess the effectiveness of educational intervention on improving knowledge and attitudes of pediatric nurses working at a major children's hospital in Mongolia. Knowledge and attitudes of Mongolian nurses were evaluated before and after a 2-hour educational intervention. The translated Modified Mongolian Pediatric Nurses' Knowledge and Attitudes Survey Regarding Pain—Shriner’s Revision survey was used as a pre- and postintervention assessment instrument with local nurses at a pediatric hospital in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. One hundred sixty-seven nurses attended the conference, with 155 nurses completing the pre- and postsurveys. The mean score on the presurvey was 12.7 out of 35 (26.4% correct), whereas the mean score on the postsurvey score was 16.7 out of 35 (47.8% correct). A paired t test showed a significant statistical difference between scores (p < .0001). Pediatric nurses in Mongolia demonstrate insufficient knowledge of pediatric pain management. The educational intervention was effective in improving pediatric pain knowledge and attitudes in Mongolian nurses. It is recommended to establish similar educational endeavors with nurses around the world to improve pain knowledge and attitudes.
    Pain Management Nursing 10/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.pmn.2014.08.007
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    ABSTRACT: Pain is the most common reason for presentation to the emergency department (ED). On presentation patients expect rapid pain relief, yet this is often not met. Despite extensive improvements in analgesia medication there are still barriers to nurses' assessment, management, documentation, and reassessment of pain. The aim of this study is to identify barriers, enablers, and current nursing knowledge regarding pain management. Using an anonymous quantitative web-based survey, members of the College of Emergency Nurses New Zealand were invited to complete a questionnaire on pain assessment and management. The questionnaires were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Enablers to ED nurses' improved management of pain were the provision of nurse-initiated analgesic protocols and pain management champions. Common barriers perceived by the respondents were the responsibility of caring for acutely ill patients as well as a patient with pain. Similar barriers to previous research were identified and included lack of time, workload, reluctance of clinicians to prescribe analgesia, and the lack of nursing knowledge regarding opioid administration. Raising awareness that oligoanalgesia exists in the ED is essential. This research suggested that nurses would benefit from ongoing education on the usage of opioids. Nurses' attitude regarding patients' right to expect total pain relief as a consequence of treatment was also an issue. ED nurses, by virtue of their role, are in a unique position to be leaders in pain assessment and pain management.
    Pain Management Nursing 10/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.pmn.2014.08.015
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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed (1) to examine the feasibility of an auricular point acupressure (APA) research protocol in terms of recruitment and for the assessment and management of pain and (2) to examine the potential APA analgesic effects for cancer patients. This study was a repeated-measures one-group design. Participants were recruited from the cancer center follow-up clinic affiliated with a large university hospital in the northeastern United States. Participants included 50 patients aged 55-87 years with a diagnosis of cancer. Participants received 7 days of APA treatment for their pain. After appropriate acupoints were identified, vaccaria seeds were carefully taped onto each selected auricular point on each ear. The study recruitment and retention rates were 92% and 91%, respectively. Importantly, the study found preliminary evidence for the analgesic effects of APA for cancer pain management. For example, by the end of the 7-day study, APA reduced pain intensity more than 55% for “worst pain” and about 57% for “average pain” and “pain intensity.” Moreover, the use of pain medication was reduced during the APA treatment (e.g., 78% of patients [n = 39] took less pain medication than before the treatment). APA appears to be highly acceptable to patients with cancer-related pain. However, without a placebo control, we cannot draw conclusive evidence for the analgesic effect of APA for cancer patients. A sham group must be added to future studies to differentiate the true effects of APA from the possible psychological effects of the APA treatment.
    Pain Management Nursing 10/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.pmn.2014.08.005
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    ABSTRACT: Pain following cardiac intervention in children is a common, but complex phenomenon. Identifying and reporting pain is the responsibility of the nursing staff, who are the primary caregivers and spend the most time with the patients. Inadequately managed pain in children may lead to multiple short- and long-term adverse effects. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the knowledge and attitudes regarding postoperative pain in children among the nursing staff at B.M. Patel Cardiac Center, Karamsad, Anand, Gujarat, India. The study included 42 of the 45 nurses employed in the cardiac center. The nurses participating in the study were responsible for the care of the pediatric patients. A modified Knowledge and Attitudes Survey Regarding Pain and a sociodemographic questionnaire were administered after obtaining written informed consent. The study was approved by the institutional Human Research Ethics Committee. Mean (SD) experience in years of the nursing staff was 2.32 (1.69) years (range 1 month to 5 years). Of the nurses, 67% were posted in the cardiac surgical intensive care unit (ICU). The mean (SD) score for true/false questions was 11.48 (2.95; range 7,19). The average correct response rate of the true/false questions was 45.9%. Knowledge about pain was only affected by the ward in which the nurse was posted. In first (asymptomatic) and second (symptomatic) case scenarios, 78.6% and 59.5% underestimated pain, respectively. Knowledge and attitudes regarding pain and its management is poor among nurses. Targeted training sessions and repeated reinforcement sessions are essential for holistic patient care.
    Pain Management Nursing 10/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.pmn.2014.08.009
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    ABSTRACT: Self-care is an important aspect of managing a chronic disease. In sickle cell disease (SCD), home self-care contributes to individual pain management and thus pain crisis prevention. A better understanding of self-care can help health care providers equip patients with the resources and skills necessary to participate in their disease management. The aim of this study was to examine factors that influence self-care among young adults with SCD. A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted using secondary data analysis. Participants were recruited from two SCD clinics in the southeastern United States. The sample consisted of 103 young adults, ages 18 to 30 years, with SCD. Bivariate correlations and regression analyses were used to evaluate the relationships among SCD self-efficacy, social support, sociodemographics, self-care, and hospital visits for pain crises. Study participants were primarily women (61.2%), unemployed or disabled (68%), lived with family (73.8%), and had an annual average of three hospital visits for pain crises. Participants, on average, had 12 years of education, an annual household income of $35,724, and were 24 years old. Social support (p = .001), SCD self-efficacy (p = .002), and years of education (p = .043) were significantly related to self-care. Of the hypothesized variables, only income was significantly associated with hospital visits for pain crises (r = −0.219, p = .05). Individuals with SCD may benefit from self-care interventions that enhance social support, SCD self-efficacy, and access to education. To inform intervention development, further investigation is needed regarding daily self-care behaviors used by young adults with SCD.
    Pain Management Nursing 10/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.pmn.2014.07.003
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    ABSTRACT: Research evidence shows that perceived injustice is a context-based unfair treatment that has negative influence on health outcomes. We examined the contribution of patients' perceived injustice regarding interactions with health care providers to stress and pain in adults with sickle cell disease (SCD). This study was a cross-sectional correlational pilot study. Included in the study were adults with SCD who received their care from a university-affiliated comprehensive sickle cell clinic. Participants were 52 adults whose mean age was 34 ± 11 years (minimum [min] 20 years, maximum [max] 70 years). Most of the patients were African American (n = 48, 92%) and female (n = 41, 79%). Forty-eight patients (92%) reported having a high school diploma or higher. Participants completed the perceived injustice questionnaire, perceived stress questionnaire, and the PAINReportIt, which includes questions to measure pain and demographics. We analyzed the data using the linear regression analyses. Perceived injustice from doctors was a significant predictor of perceived stress (p < .001) and pain (p = .002). Perceived injustice from nurses also was a significant predictor of perceived stress (p < .001) and pain (p = .02). The procedural, distributive, and informational domains of perceived injustice attributed to both doctors and nurses consistently predicted patients' perceived stress, but only the procedural and distributive domains of perceived injustice consistently predicted patients' pain. Findings suggest that perceived injustice was negatively associated with stress and pain in adults with SCD and warrant further investigation in a larger sample.
    Pain Management Nursing 10/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.pmn.2014.08.004